S05E04-句读《中国哲学的故事》---All-embracing Love

All-embracing Love 

兼爱

Mo Tzu makes no criticism of the Confucianists' central idea of yen (human— heartedness) and yi (righteousness); in the Mo-tzu, indeed, he speaks often of these two qualities and of the man of jen and man of yi. 

墨子并没有批判儒家的核心价值观仁、义;事实上,在《墨子》中,他经常提到仁、义。

What he means by these terms, however, differs somewhat from the concept of them held by the Confucianists. 

但墨子所说的仁、义的意思跟儒家的仁、义是不同的。

For Mo Tzu, jen and yi signify an all-embracing love, and the man of jen and man of yi are persons who practice this all-embracing love. 

根据墨子的观点,仁、义指兼爱,仁义之人是那些实行兼爱的人。

This concept is a central one in Mo Tzu's philosophy, and represents a logical extension of the professional ethics of the class of hsieh (knights-errant) from which Mo Tzu sprang. 

兼爱是墨家哲学的中心理念,墨子出身游侠,兼爱正是游侠职业道德的逻辑延伸。

This ethics was, namely, that within their group the hsieh enjoy equally and suffer equally. (This was a common saying of the hsieh of later times.) 

也就是说,在他们团体内,这种道德就是“有福同享有难同当。”(这是后来的侠客常说的话)

Taking this group concept as a basis, Mo Tzu tried to broaden it by preaching the doctrine that everyone in the world should love everyone else equally and without discrimination. 

以这种团体的概念为基础,墨子极力扩大它,采用的方法是宣扬兼爱,天下的每个人都应该同等的无差别的爱别人。


In the Mo-tzu, there are three chapters devoted to the subject of all-embracing love. 

在《墨子》中,有三篇专讲兼爱。

In them, Mo Tzu first makes a distinction between what he calls the principles of "discrimination' and ' all-embracingness." 

墨子首先把“区别”和“兼爱”区分出来。

The man who holds to the principle of discrimination says: It is absurd for me to care for friends as much as I would for myself, and to look after their parents as I would my own. 

坚持“别”的人说:“吾岂能为吾友之身若为吾身,为吾友之亲若为吾亲”,

As a result, such a man does not do very much for his friends. 

所以这样的人不会为他朋友做太多的。

But the man who holds to the principle of all —embracingness says, on the contrary: I must care for my friends as much as I do for myself, and for their parents as I would my own. 

但坚持“兼爱”的人说:“必为其友之身若为其身,为其友之亲若为其亲”。

As a result, he does everything he can for his friends. 

所以这样的人会为朋友做他能做的一切。

Having made this distinction, Mo Tzu then asks the question: Which of these two principles is the right one? 

做出这样的区别后,墨子问:兼爱与别哪个对呢?


Mo Tzu thereupon uses his "tests of judgment" to determine the right and wrong of these principles. 

墨子用他的“三表”理论来判别兼与别的是非。

According to him, every principle must be examined by three tests, namely: Its basis, its verifiability, and its applicability. 

所谓“三表”,即“有本之者,有原之者,有用之者。”

A sound and right principle should be based on the Will of Heaven and of the spirits and on the deeds of the ancient sage-kings.

“于其本之也,考之天鬼之志、圣王之事。”

" Then "it is to be verified by the senses of hearing and sight of the common people.

“于何原之?下原察百姓耳目之实。”

" And finally, "it is to be applied by adopting it in government and observing whether it is beneficial to the country and the people." (Mo-tzu, ch. 35.) 

“于何用之?发以为刑政,观其中国家百姓人民之利。”

Of these three tests, the last is the most important. 

三表之中,最后一表最重要。

“Being beneficial to the country and the people” is the standard by which Mo Tzu determines all values. 

“中国家百姓人民之利”是墨子判别一切价值的标准。


This same standard is the chief one used by Mo Tzu to prove the desirability of all-embracing love. 

这也是墨子用以证明兼爱可取的主要标准。

In the third of three chapters, all of which are titled "All-embracing Love, he argues: 

《兼爱下》中,墨子辩论到:


"The task of the human-hearted man is to procure benefits for the world and to eliminate its calamities. 

"仁人之事者,必务求兴天下之利,除天下之害。

Now among all the current calamities of the world, which are the greatest? 

然当今之时,天下之害孰为大?

I say that attacks on small states by large ones, disturbances of small houses by large ones, oppression of the weak by the strong, misuse of the few by the many, deception of the simple by the cunning, and disdain toward the humble by the honored: these are the misfortunes of the world....

曰:大国之攻小国也,大家之乱小家也,强之劫弱,众之暴寡,诈之谋愚,贵之傲贱:此天下之害也。。。。

When we come to think about the causes of all these calamities, how have they arisen? 

故尝本原若众害之所自生,此胡自生?

Have they arisen out of love of others and benefiting others? 

此自爱人、利人生与?

We must reply that it is not so. 

即必曰:非然也。

Rather we should say that they have arisen out of hate of others and injuring others. 

必曰:从恶人、贱人生。

If we classify those in the world who hate others and injure others, shall we call them 'discriminating' or 'all-embracing'? 

分名乎天下恶人而贱人者,兼与?别与?

We must say that they are 'discriminating.' 

即必曰:别也。

So, then, is not mutual discrimination the cause of the major calamities of the world? 

Therefore the principle of discrimination is wrong. 

然即之交别者,过生天下之大害者与?是故非别也。


"Whoever criticizes others must have something to substitute for what he criticizes. 

非人者必有以易之。

Therefore I say: Substitute all-embracingness for discrimination. 

是故子墨子曰:兼以易别。

What is the reason why all-embracingness can be substituted for discrimination? 

然即兼之可以易别之故何也?

The answer is that when everyone regards the states of others as he regards his own, who will attack these other states? 

曰:藉为人之国,若为其国,夫谁独举其国以攻人之国者哉?

Others will be regarded like the self. 

为彼者犹为己也。

When everyone regards the cities of others as he regards his own, who will seize these other cities? 

为人之都,若为其都,夫谁独举其都以伐人之都者哉?

Others will be regarded like the self. 

为彼犹为己也。

When everyone regards the houses of others as he regards his own, who will disturb these other houses? 

为人之家,若为其家,夫谁独学其家以乱人之家者哉?

Others will be regarded like the self. 

为彼犹为己也。


"Now, when states and cities do not attack and seize one another, and when clans and individuals do not disturb and harm one another, is this a calamity or a benefit to the world? 

然即国都不相攻伐,人家不相乱贼,此天下之害与?天下之利与?

We must say it is a benefit. 

即必曰:天下之利也。

When we come to consider the origin of the various benefits, how have they arisen? 

故尝本原若众利之所自生,此胡自生?

Have they arisen out of hate of others and injuring others? 

此自恶人、贼人生与?

We must say not so. 

即必曰:非然也。

We should say that they have arisen out of love of others and benefiting others. 

必曰:从爱人、利人生。

If we classify those in the world who love others and benefit others, shall we call them 'discriminating or 'all-embracing ? 

分名乎天下爱人而利人者,别与?兼与?

We must say that they are 'all-embracing.' 

即必曰:兼也。

Then is it not the case that 'mutual all-embracingness is the cause of the major benefit of the world? 

然即之交兼者,果生天下之大利者与?

Therefore I say that the principle of all-embracingness is right.” (Mo—tzu, ch. 16.) 

是故子墨子曰:兼是也。"


Thus, using a utilitarianistic argument, Mo Tzu proves the principle of all-embracing love to be absolutely right. 

墨子利用功利主义的辩论法,证明兼爱是绝对正确的。

The human-hearted man whose task it is to procure benefits for the world and eliminate its calamities, must establish all-embracing love as the standard of action both for himself and for all others in the world. 

仁人的任务是为天下兴利除害,他就应当以兼爱作为他自己以及天下所有人的行为准则,这叫做以“兼”为“正”。

When everyone in the world acts according to this standard, "then attentive ears and keen eyes will respond to serve one another, limbs will be strengthened to work for one another, and those who know the proper principle will untiringly instruct others. 

“以兼为正,是以聪耳明目,相与视听乎;是以股肱必强,相为动宰乎。

Thus the aged and widowers will have support and nourishment with which to round out their old age, and the young and weak and orphans will have a place of support in which to grow up. 

而有道肄相教诲,是以老而无妻子者,有所侍养以终其寿;幼弱孤童之无父母者,有所放依以长其身。

When all-embracing love is adopted as the standard, such are the consequent benefits." (Ibid)

今唯毋以兼为正,即若其利也。”

This, then, is Mo Tzu's ideal world, which can be created only through the practice of all-embracing love.

这也就是墨子的理想世界,该理想世界只能通过实行兼爱创造出来。

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