S05E04-句读《中国哲学的故事》---All-embracing Love

All-embracing Love 


Mo Tzu makes no criticism of the Confucianists' central idea of yen (human— heartedness) and yi (righteousness); in the Mo-tzu, indeed, he speaks often of these two qualities and of the man of jen and man of yi. 


What he means by these terms, however, differs somewhat from the concept of them held by the Confucianists. 


For Mo Tzu, jen and yi signify an all-embracing love, and the man of jen and man of yi are persons who practice this all-embracing love. 


This concept is a central one in Mo Tzu's philosophy, and represents a logical extension of the professional ethics of the class of hsieh (knights-errant) from which Mo Tzu sprang. 


This ethics was, namely, that within their group the hsieh enjoy equally and suffer equally. (This was a common saying of the hsieh of later times.) 


Taking this group concept as a basis, Mo Tzu tried to broaden it by preaching the doctrine that everyone in the world should love everyone else equally and without discrimination. 


In the Mo-tzu, there are three chapters devoted to the subject of all-embracing love. 


In them, Mo Tzu first makes a distinction between what he calls the principles of "discrimination' and ' all-embracingness." 


The man who holds to the principle of discrimination says: It is absurd for me to care for friends as much as I would for myself, and to look after their parents as I would my own. 


As a result, such a man does not do very much for his friends. 


But the man who holds to the principle of all —embracingness says, on the contrary: I must care for my friends as much as I do for myself, and for their parents as I would my own. 


As a result, he does everything he can for his friends. 


Having made this distinction, Mo Tzu then asks the question: Which of these two principles is the right one? 


Mo Tzu thereupon uses his "tests of judgment" to determine the right and wrong of these principles. 


According to him, every principle must be examined by three tests, namely: Its basis, its verifiability, and its applicability. 


A sound and right principle should be based on the Will of Heaven and of the spirits and on the deeds of the ancient sage-kings.


" Then "it is to be verified by the senses of hearing and sight of the common people.


" And finally, "it is to be applied by adopting it in government and observing whether it is beneficial to the country and the people." (Mo-tzu, ch. 35.) 


Of these three tests, the last is the most important. 


“Being beneficial to the country and the people” is the standard by which Mo Tzu determines all values. 


This same standard is the chief one used by Mo Tzu to prove the desirability of all-embracing love. 


In the third of three chapters, all of which are titled "All-embracing Love, he argues: 


"The task of the human-hearted man is to procure benefits for the world and to eliminate its calamities. 


Now among all the current calamities of the world, which are the greatest? 


I say that attacks on small states by large ones, disturbances of small houses by large ones, oppression of the weak by the strong, misuse of the few by the many, deception of the simple by the cunning, and disdain toward the humble by the honored: these are the misfortunes of the world....


When we come to think about the causes of all these calamities, how have they arisen? 


Have they arisen out of love of others and benefiting others? 


We must reply that it is not so. 


Rather we should say that they have arisen out of hate of others and injuring others. 


If we classify those in the world who hate others and injure others, shall we call them 'discriminating' or 'all-embracing'? 


We must say that they are 'discriminating.' 


So, then, is not mutual discrimination the cause of the major calamities of the world? 

Therefore the principle of discrimination is wrong. 


"Whoever criticizes others must have something to substitute for what he criticizes. 


Therefore I say: Substitute all-embracingness for discrimination. 


What is the reason why all-embracingness can be substituted for discrimination? 


The answer is that when everyone regards the states of others as he regards his own, who will attack these other states? 


Others will be regarded like the self. 


When everyone regards the cities of others as he regards his own, who will seize these other cities? 


Others will be regarded like the self. 


When everyone regards the houses of others as he regards his own, who will disturb these other houses? 


Others will be regarded like the self. 


"Now, when states and cities do not attack and seize one another, and when clans and individuals do not disturb and harm one another, is this a calamity or a benefit to the world? 


We must say it is a benefit. 


When we come to consider the origin of the various benefits, how have they arisen? 


Have they arisen out of hate of others and injuring others? 


We must say not so. 


We should say that they have arisen out of love of others and benefiting others. 


If we classify those in the world who love others and benefit others, shall we call them 'discriminating or 'all-embracing ? 


We must say that they are 'all-embracing.' 


Then is it not the case that 'mutual all-embracingness is the cause of the major benefit of the world? 


Therefore I say that the principle of all-embracingness is right.” (Mo—tzu, ch. 16.) 


Thus, using a utilitarianistic argument, Mo Tzu proves the principle of all-embracing love to be absolutely right. 


The human-hearted man whose task it is to procure benefits for the world and eliminate its calamities, must establish all-embracing love as the standard of action both for himself and for all others in the world. 


When everyone in the world acts according to this standard, "then attentive ears and keen eyes will respond to serve one another, limbs will be strengthened to work for one another, and those who know the proper principle will untiringly instruct others. 


Thus the aged and widowers will have support and nourishment with which to round out their old age, and the young and weak and orphans will have a place of support in which to grow up. 


When all-embracing love is adopted as the standard, such are the consequent benefits." (Ibid)


This, then, is Mo Tzu's ideal world, which can be created only through the practice of all-embracing love.