would rather that somebody did…“宁愿……;更愿意……”(表示现在或将来的愿望)
would rather that somebody had done…“宁愿……;更愿意……”(表示过去的愿望)
I’d rather you posted the letter right now. 我想让你现在去寄信。
I’d rather you were not a celebrated actor. In that case, we could spend more time together.
I’d rather that I hadn’t seen her yesterday. 我情愿昨天没有看到她。
as if/though+主语+did/had done…好像……(表示现在或将来的情况用过去时;表示过去的情况用过去完成时)[参考句型4]
Our head teacher treats us as if we were her own children, so all the students in our class think highly of her.
Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. Alan谈起罗马来就好像他去过那里似的。
“wish +宾语从句”，表示不大 可能实现的愿望
How I wish we students had more free time to relax ourselves! 我们学生多么希望有更多的自由时间放松自己!
I failed in the maths exam. How I wish I hadn’t wasted so much time playing!
What a pity you can’t go to the party. How I wish I could dance with you at the party!
It’s high/about time that somebody did (should do) (should通常不省略) …早就该……
It’s time that you went to school.= It’s time that you should go to school.
It’s high time that we did something to improve our environment. 该是我们为环保做些事情了。
I think it’s high time that she made up her mind. 我想她该拿定主意了。
could have done “本来可以……”(表示过去没有实现的可能)。
might have done “本来可能……;本来应该或可以做某事”(实际没有发生;含有轻微的责备语气。
should/ought to have done “本来该做某事”(而实际未做)
should not/ought not to have done “本来不该做”(实际却做过了，含有责备语气)
needn’t have done “本来不必做”(但是已经做过了)
would rather have done “当时宁愿做了某事”(实际没有做过);否定式would rather not have done表达相反意思，两者都有表示“后悔”之意。
as, though, although引导的让步状语从句。
1. Although/Though I’m young, I already know what career I want to follow.
→Young as/though I am, I already know what career I want to follow.
2. Although/Though I respect him very much, I cannot agree with his idea.
→Much as/though I respect him, I cannot agree with his idea. 虽然我很尊重他，但是我不同意他的观点。
3. Although/Though he is a child, he knows a lot of Chinese characters.
→Child(省略冠词)as/though he is, he knows a lot of Chinese characters. 他虽然还是个孩子，却认识了许多汉字。
4. Although he tried, he couldn’t solve the problem.
→Try as he might, he couldn’t solve the problem. 尽管他努力了，但是他没有解决问题。
5. Although it is raining, I’m going out for a walk.
→Raining as it is, I’m going out for a walk. 天虽然在下雨，我还是要出去散步。
6. Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident. 这次意外虽然显得不可思议，却没有人受伤。
7. Much as I would like to help, I have a lot to do. 虽然我很想帮助你，但是我有很多事要做。
8. Object as you may, I will go. 纵使你反对，我也要去。
The roof fell before he had time to dash into the room to save his baby.
He ran off before I could stop him. 我还没有来得及阻止，他已经跑了。
To my great disappointment, my favorite singer left the concert before I could have a word with her.
They walked about fifty miles to the west before they saw a village.
The workers worked day and night about three days before everything returned to normal.
He almost knocked me down before he knew it.
We had walked a long way before we found some water.
Five years went by before I knew it. 不知不觉，五年过去了。
It was + 时间段+before….“过了多久才(怎么样)……”
It was not long before….“不久，就……”
It will (not) be +时间段+before….“要过多久(不久)……才……”(before从句谓语动词要用一般时态)
It was not long before he sensed the danger of the position.不久他就意识到他处境的危险。
It was five days before he came back. 五天后他才回来。
It will be half a year before you graduate from the school. 再过半年你才能毕业。
It will not be long before they understand each other. 他们大概不久就会互相了解。
in case of…(+n.) “以防;万一”;
in case that…“以防，万一……”(谓语动词用一般现在时态或should+动词原形)
In case of fire, what should we do?
Please remind me about it in case I forget/should forget. 万一我忘了，请提醒我。
In case (that) John comes/should come, please tell him to wait.
Please take your umbrella in case (that it rains/should rain).带上雨伞，以防下雨。
强调句的基本构成：It is/was + 被强调的部分 + who(主要指人时)/that + 其余部分
强调时间、地点、原因或方式时不要用when, where或how, 必须用that。
I saw him in the street yesterday afternoon.
→It was I who saw him in the street yesterday afternoon.(强调主语)
→It was in the street that I saw him yesterday afternoon.(强调地点状语)
→It was yesterday afternoon that I saw him in the street.(强调时间状语)
→It was him that/who I saw in the street yesterday afternoon.(强调宾语)
He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back.
→It was not until his mother came back that he went to bed.
He didn’t do his homework until his father came back from work.
→It wasn’t until his father came back from work that he did his homework.
Only when you nearly lose someone do you fully realize how much you value him.
→It is only when you nearly lose someone that you fully realize how much you value him.
I was late again because the traffic was very heavy during the rush hour.
→It was because the traffic was very heavy during the rush hour that I was late again.
(强调句中只能强调由because引导的原因状语从句，because不能换成since, as, for, now that等)
一般疑问句 Is / Was it +被强调部分 +who / that …?
特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词+is /was +it +who / that…?
What is/was it that…? Who is/was it that…? When is/was it that…?
Where is/was it that…? Why is/was it that…? How is/was it that…?
I saw him in the street yesterday afternoon.
→When was it that you saw him in the street?
→Who was it that you saw in the street yesterday afternoon?
→Where was it that you saw him yesterday afternoon?
I don’t know when he will come back.
→I don’t know when it is that he will come back.(宾语从句疑问词后用陈述句语序)
–How was it that you got in touch with Mr. Smith? 你是怎么和Smith先生联系上的?
–Trough a friend of mine. 通过一个朋友。
(1)、祈使句(表条件)+ or/or else/ otherwise + 主句(表结果)… “否则…，要不然…”
(2)、祈使句(表条件)+ and +主句(表结果)
Hurry up, or you’ll be late for class.
Please call me up before you come, otherwise/or else/or we might be out.
Think it over and you will find the answer.
Give him an inch and he will take a mile. 得寸进尺。
Work hard and you will make progress every day. 好好学习，天天向上。
You are to stay until/till your mother comes back. 你得等到你妈妈回来。
The meeting was put off until ten o’clock. 会议推迟到十点钟。
The villagers didn’t realize how serious the pollution was until all the fish died in the river.
→Not until all the fish died in the river did the villagers realize how serious the pollution was.(倒装句)
He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back.
→It was not until his mother came back that he went to bed.(强调句)
Not until he failed in the exam did he realize that he had wasted much time playing computer games.
Not until his son came back from school did he go to bed.
I shall go tomorrow unless it rains. 如果不下雨，我明天去。
–Shall Tom go and play football?
–Not unless he has finished his homework. 除非他完成作业，否则不能出去。
I won’t go unless he comes to invite me himself.
I won’t attend his birthday party unless invited (=unless I am invited). 除非被邀请，否则我不
when除了用来引导主语从句、宾语从句、时间状语从句、表语从句和定语从句，还有一种用法值得关注，那就是when引导并列分句，意思是“这 时突然;就在那时”，强调另一个动作的突然发生。常用于以下句型中：(1)、主语 + be doing… when…意思是“正在做某事这时……”;(2)、主语 + be about to do…when…;(3)、主语+be on the point of (doing) …when…意思是“正要去做某事这时……”
One day Chuck was on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashed. 有一天，Chuck正在太平洋上飞行，这时他的飞机突然爆炸了。
I don’t know when he will arrive. 我不晓得他什么时候到达。
I thought of the happy days when I was in Beijing. 我想起了在北京时的那段快乐日子。
I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world. 我相信世界上没有武器的日子不久就会到来。
I was walking along the river when I heard a drowning boy cry for help. 我正在河边行走，这时我突然听到一个落水男孩求救。
I was about to leave when it began to rain. 我刚要离开，这时下雨了。
I had just finished my exam paper when the bell rang, announcing the class was over. 我刚做完作业，下课铃响了。
I thought of the happy days when I was in France. 我想到了在法国时那段快乐日子。
I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world. 我相信世界上没有武器的日子不久就会来临。
I was walking along the street when I caught sight of a tailor’s shop. 我正在街上走，这时我看见一家裁缝店。
I was walking along the streets. Just at the moment I caught sight of a tailor’s shop. 我在街上走。就在那时我看见一家裁缝店。
while除了有“当/在……时候”的意思外(注意：引导的句子谓语动词只能是延续性动词!)，另外的两层意思也是考查的重点： (1)while = although “尽管”、“虽然”，引导让步状语从句;(2)while的意思是“然而;可是”，常用来表达对比关系。
While I admit that the problem is difficult, I don’t think that they can’t be solved.
While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcomings.
While I was angry with her, I didn’t lose my temper.
While I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you. 虽然我了解你的见解， 我还是不能同意(你)。
I earn only 120 dollars a week, while she earns 180 dollars. 我一星期只赚120美元，她却赚180美元。
[注意]where引导地点从句时，可以引导定语从句或是逻辑地点状语从句。当它在定语从句中作地点状语，指代地点时，这时可以用in which, on which, at which, to which, from which等结构代替。但是它引导逻辑地点状语从句时，没有这样用法。
You should put the book where it was. 把书放回原处。
Persistent people begin their success where others end in failure.
Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。
Where men are greedy, there is never peace. 人类贪欲不止，世界和平无望。
Go where you should, keep on studying. 无论你到哪里，你都应该继续学习。
That is the building where my father works. 那是我父亲工作的大楼。
Yesterday I went to the department store, where I met my teacher. 昨天我去百货公司，就在那儿遇见了我的老师。
That’s where a change is needed. 那就是需要变更的地方。
We could see the runners very well from where we stood. 从我们所站的地方能很清楚地看到赛跑的选手。
You should let your children play where you can see them. 你应该让小孩在你的视线所及的地方玩耍。
Potatoes can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.=Potatoes can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.(本句where引导定语从句)
Potatoes can be grown where it is too cold to grow rice.(本句where引导地点状语从句)
What is the population of the world? 世界的人口有多少?
What did you pay for this picture? 这幅画你付了多少钱?
What is most important in life isn’t money. 人生最重要的并非是金钱。
Will you show me what you bought? 可以把你所买的东西给我看一下吗?
Mary is no longer what she was ten years ago. Mary已经不是10年前的她了。
在as引导的非限制性定语从句中，连接代词as在句子中可以作主语、宾语或表语等，可以指人或物。其在定语从句中的位置比较灵活，即可以在句子 前面，在句子中间或句子末尾。常用的结构有：as we all know; as is well known to…; as is often the case; as is said/mentioned above; as has been said before; as I told you before; as is evident; as often happens; as can be seen; as is/was expected; as we expect; as I can remember等。
[注意3]as引导限制性定语从句时，常构成the same…as…; such…as…; so/as …as…等结构。在从句中既可以指人、物，也可以指整个句子。
This is also part of your work, as I told you before. 我曾告诉过你，这也是你工作的一部分。
The man was a teacher, as was evident from his way of speaking. 从那人说话的样子可明显看出，他是个老师。
Such ideas as he hits on are worthless. 像他那样偶然想起的主意是无用的。
It’s the same story as I heard from her yesterday. 这故事跟我从她那儿听到的相同。
He will marry as pretty a girl as he can find. 他要尽可能找漂亮的女孩结婚。
Such people as have made great contributions to the world should be greatly respected.
Yellowstone National Park, which is in Wyoming, is one of the most beautiful national parks in the world. 黄石国家公园位于怀俄明州，是世界上最美丽的国家公园之一。
The clock, which my grandfather bought, is still in good order. 这时钟是我祖父买的，现在还走时很准。
The picture, for which he paid an enormous amount of money, was a forgery.
She changed her mind again, which made us all angry. 她又改变了主意，这使我们大家都生气了。
I lived three years in Paris, during which time I learned French. 我在巴黎住了三年，在那期间我学了法语。
The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. 天气结果转晴，
(1)、疑问词+ever whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever,
wherever, however用来引导让步状语从句，相当于no matter和what, who, which, when, where, how连用。
Whatever (=No matter what) may happen, we shall not lose hope.
Whatever reasons you (may) have, you should carry out a promise. 无论你有什么理由，你都应该遵守诺言。
Whoever (=No matter who) comes, he will be warmly welcome. 无论谁来，都会受到热烈欢迎。
Whenever (=No matter when) it happened, it was certainly not yesterday.
Whenever you (may) call, you will find her sitting by the window. 无论什么时候你去找她，你都会看到她坐在窗边。
Wherever (=No matter where) he went, he made friends with people.
Whichever (=No matter which) of them you many choose, the quality will be the same.
However (=No matter how) hard I have tried, I can’t find the answer.
(2)、whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever等引导名词性从句，这时不能用no matter+疑问词替换。
Take whichever you want. 你要哪个就拿哪个。
We will do whatever we can to help him out. 我们要尽力帮助他摆脱困境。
I’ll show you whatever you want to see. 你想看什么我就给你看什么。
Whoever did this job must be rewarded. 无论谁做这件事都要得到报酬。
Whoever walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold. 任何人在这种大雨中行走都会患感冒。
You may invite whomever(口语中常用whoever代替)you like to the party. 你可以邀请你喜欢的人来参加晚会。
Take whatever magazines you want to read. 你可以取阅任何你想读的杂志。
here, there, out, in, up, down, now, then, away等副词放在句首，句子需要全部倒装
There goes the bell! = The bell is ringing. 铃响了!
Here comes the bus. =The bus is coming. 汽车来了。
Now comes your turn to make a short speech. 该轮到你发言了。
Away went the thief when he saw the police.
Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. 我们期盼的时候到了。
(1)在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或be动词，像go, come, rush, live, stand, lie等。
(2)主语是人称代词时不要倒装。如：Away he went. 他走远了。
表示方位的状语放在句首，句子全倒装;谓语动词多为be, lie, stand, sit, come, walk, run, stop etc. 不及物动词。
On a hill in front of them stands a great castle. 在他们面前的山上矗立着一座巨大的城堡。
In front of the house stopped a police car. 房子的全面停着一辆警车。
Around the corner walks a young policeman. 拐角处有个年轻的警察在行走。
Under the tree sat a boy of about ten. 在树下坐着一个大约10岁的男孩。
(表语)adj. / v-ing / v-ed +(地点状语)+ be(或其他动词形式)…
So adj./adv…that…如此……以至于……(so引导的句子倒装，而that引导的句子不倒装!) (这种结构是半倒装句。)
Present at the meeting were the manager, all the designers and the writer. 出席会议的有经理，设计师和词作者。
Fastened to the pole is the National flag. 旗杆上有一面国旗。
Hidden behind the door were some naughty children. 有几个顽皮的孩子藏在门后面。
Sitting at the back of the classroom were several old teachers, listening attentively to the new teacher. 坐在教室后面的是几位老教师，他们在认真地听新教师的课。
Gone are the days when farmers lived in the poor houses.
Typical for China is the crosstalk show, where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play. 相声是中国典型的喜剧，两个演员通过玩弄词藻来逗乐观众。
So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood.
So fast does light travel that we can hardly imagine its speed. 光运行非常快，我们几乎无法想象它的速度。
否定意义的副词或短语放在句首，句子半倒装。这样的副词主要有：little, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, never, not at all, by no means(决不), at no time(在任何时候都不)，nowhere, in no case (无论如何都不);not in the least (=not at all) , on no condition(决不) 等。
Never shall I forget you.
At no time was the man aware of what was happening. 那个人根本没有注意到发生的情况。
Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 我那时几乎没有明白他给我说的话。
It’s beyond description. Nowhere else in the world can there be such a quiet, beautiful place.
Not a single mistake did he make in the exam. 他在考试中没有犯一个错误。
By no means are these works of art satisfactory. 这些艺术品根本不能令人满意。
On no condition should you visit that place. 你决不能去那个地方。
not only…, but also…(前一分句倒装，后一分句不倒装)
Not only was everything he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. 不仅他拥有的一切被那走了，就连他的德国国籍也被取消了。
They suggested not only should we attend the party but also give a performance. 他们建议我们不仅要参加晚会，还要进行表演。
Not only should we students study hard, we also should know how to enjoy ourselves in our spare time. 我们学生不仅要学习好，还应该知道在课余时间怎样享受生活。
If you don’t go to see the movie, neither will I. 如果你不去看电影，我也不去。
--Why didn’t you buy the jacket?
--Neither was the price satisfactory, nor did the color agree with me.
I don’t like him, nor do I care about him. 我不喜欢他，也不关心他。
“only + 状语”放在句首，句子半倒装
Only when the war was over did he return to work. 直到战争结束他才回去工作。
Only after you have reached eighteen can you join the army. 你只有到了18岁才能参军。
Only in that way will we be ready for the challenges and opportunities in life.
Only by changing the way we live will we be able to save the earth.
Only in this way can you work out the problem. 你只有用这种方法才能做出题目。
Only this way can help you work out the problem. 只有这种方法才能帮你做出题目。
so + be动词/助动词/情态动词等 + 主语 “……也……”(表示肯定意思)
neither/nor +动词/助动词/情态动词等 + 主语 “……也……”(表示否定意思)
She is interested in the story, so am I.
He enjoys playing the guitar, so do I.
I saw the film last night, so did he.
In the past 20 years, our society has changed a lot, so have our eating habits.
Tom didn’t attend the meeting last night; nor did Mary. Tom没来参加昨晚的会议，Mary也没来。
I have never been abroad. Neither/Nor has Tom.
[比较1] “so + 主语 + 助动词” 表示肯定已有的观点或事实
–We have all worked hard these days.
–So we have.(的确如此)
I promised to help him, and so I did.(我确实帮助他了)
[比较2] “主语 + 助动词 + so” 表示按照别人的要求去做
The wounded little boy asked me to lift him up and I did so.
The doctor asked Charlie to breathe deeply and he did so.
so it is with somebody = it’s the same with somebody前者怎么
John likes English but he doesn’t like maths, so it is with me (so it is the same with me).
Tom is a student and he studies hard, so it is with me.
–He was really manly enough to be responsible for what he had done. 他像个男子汉，敢于对自己的所作所为负责。
–So he was, and so it was with you. 他的确如此，你当时也一样。
(从句)If + were/did(动词的过去式)，(主句)主语 + would/might/should/could + do(表示对现在情况的假设)
If I were you, I would not be so proud. 如果我是你，我不会如此自负。
I don’t have a cellphone. If I had one, it would be convenient for me to get in touch with others.
If I were in your position, I would think better of it. 如果我处在你的位置，我会好好考虑它。
(从句)If + had done, (主句)主语+ would/might/should/could +have done(表示对过去或已经发生事情的虚拟假设)
What a pity it is that you didn’t attend the concert yesterday! If you had attended the concert, you would have seen the famous singer.
Anyone in his position would have done the same.
=If anyone had been in his position, he would have done the same. 任何处在他位置的人都会这样做的。
(从句)If + were/did(动词过去式)/were to do/should do，(主句)主语+ would/might/should/could + do(表示对将来的假设)
If he should refuse (= If he were to refuse=If he refused), it didn’t matter at all. 万一他拒绝了，那也没关系。
If you shouldn’t pass the college entrance examination, what would you do?
在虚拟条件句中，如果出现有were, had, should，可以省去if, 把这些词放在句子前面，构成虚拟倒装句。
Should he act like that again, he would be fined. 如果他还这样做，就要受罚。
Had the doctor come in time last night (=If the doctor had come in time last time), the boy would have been saved. 昨天晚上要是医生及时到达，小孩就会得救。
Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes.
Had I enough money (= If I had enough money), I would buy a larger house.
if only引起的感叹句，相当于 “How I wish + 宾语从句”，意思是“但愿……;要是……就好了”
If only he could come! 他要是能来就好了!
If only we students didn’t have so much homework!要是没有这么多的作业该多好!
If only I hadn’t been so careless in the exam! 我当时没有那么粗心就好了!
if it were not for… (= were it not for…)
if it hadn’t been for… (= had it not been for…)“要不是因为有……;如果不是……”
[注意]这种结构中不能用否定结构的缩写形式，即不能用weren’t it for…)
If it hadn’t been for (= Had it not been for) the determined captain, all the passengers on board wouldn’t have been saved. 要不是船长一直坚强，船上的旅客就不会得救。
If it were not for your rich parents, you couldn’t live so easy a life. 要不是你父母有钱，你的生活不会如此安逸。
If it were not for the expense, I would go abroad now. 如果不是因为经费问题，我现在就出国了。
“but for + 名词”和“but that +从句”，意思是“倘若不是;要不是”，接虚拟语气
But for air and water, nothing could live. (= If there were no air or water, nothing could live.)
But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.
= If it hadn’t been for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. 如果不是暴风雨，我们早就到了。
But for you, we couldn’t have carried out the plan. 要不是你的话，我们无法实施那项计划。
She could not have believed it but that she saw it. 若非亲眼所见，她是不会相信的。
在动词insist(1坚持做某事)，order, command(2命令), advise, suggest, propose(3建议做某事)，demand, require, request, ask(4要求)等表示建议、命令、要求的名词性从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气。基本句型：主语+ (should) + 动词原形。另外像decide, desire, intend, recommend等也要接(should)+动词原形结构。
Mother insists that Tom (should) go to bed at nine o’clock.(宾语从句)
We suggested that the meeting (should) be held at once.
It was required that the crops (should) be harvested at once.(主语从句)
The suggestion that he (should) be invited was rejected.(同位语从句)
That is their demand that their wages (should) be increased.(表语从句)
advice, suggestion, order, demand, proposal, request, desire, command, decision, requirement等名词引导的同位语从句或表语从句，谓语动词用 (should) + 动词原形。
It’s suggested/ advised/ demanded/ordered/requested/proposed/required/desired等结构后的主语从句中，谓语动词用(should) + 动词原形。
He insisted that he was innocent.=He insisted on his innocence. 他坚持说自己是无辜的。
He insisted that he had never done wrong. 他坚持说没有做错事情。
Are you suggesting that I’m not suited for the job? 你是在暗示说我不适合做那项工作?
The look on his face suggested that the teacher was quite satisfied with the result. 脸上的表情说明老师对结果感到满意。
It is necessary/important/natural/impossible/essential(基本的)等结构后的主语从句中要用虚拟语气，即主语+(should)+动词原形
It’s necessary that Tom take the exam first. Tom有必要先参加考试。
With the society developing very fast, it’s quite necessary/important that we (should) have a good knowledge of English and computer. 随着社会的快速发展，我们有必要精通英语和电脑。
It’s strange/surprising/a pity/a shame/a surprise (that) … should do…should表示“竟然”
It’s a pity that she should miss the chance. 很遗憾她错过了机会。
It’s really surprising that a prophecy(预言)should coincide with the fact so exactly. 令人惊讶的是，预言和事实竟然如此巧合。
It’s strange that he shouldn’t pass the exam. 奇怪的是他竟然没有通过考试。