经济学人 | 失业了, 你还回得去家吗?

就业,是每一个毕业生最终都要面临的问题。刚入学时我们听说今年是最难就业的一年,过了一年后又有了更难就业的一年,毕业时又是就业难。

似乎每一年都是大学生的“最难就业年”,总有学生会陷入失业的困局,这会怎样影响他们呢?家庭的帮助又会造成什么结果?让我们来了解一下吧~

How unemployment affects twenty somethings self-worth

失业会怎样影响青年人的自我价值感

【1】Does unemploymentthreatenyoung adults' developing confidence? Should parents come to theiraidby providing financial help or inviting them to live at homefor a while?

twenty somethings:二十多岁的人

self-worth:自尊,自大,自负

threaten:威胁

aid:帮助,助手,外援

for a while:暂时,一会儿

失业会威胁青年人的自信心吗?父母应该给予他们金钱援助或请他们来家里住一段时间吗?

【2】These questions are important, since rates of unemployment for young people (ages 16-24) in the United States are typically double those for the entirelabor force(in both good and bad economic times), and since returning home after unemployment or other difficulties is also becoming quiteprevalent. Both unemployment and the “failure to launch”jeopardizethetransitionto adulthood, as many young people, facing limited job prospects, delay finishing school,postponeestablishing their ownhouseholdsand starting families, and remainfinanciallydependent.

labor force:劳动力

prevalent:流行的,盛行的; 普遍存在的,普遍发生的

[例句]This condition is more prevalent in women than in men.

这种病症在女性当中比在男性当中更为普遍。

jeopardize:危及,损害; 使陷入险境或受伤; 使…遇险

[例句]The talks may still be jeopardized by disputes.

会谈仍有可能因存在争端而破裂。

transition:过渡,转变,变迁

[例句]The transition to a multi-party democracy is proving to be difficult.

事实证明,向多党民主制的转型非常艰难。

postpone:使延期,延缓; 把…放在次要地位; 把…放在后面

[例句]He decided to postpone the expedition until the following day

他决定把探险推迟到第二天。

household:家庭

financially:财政上,金融上,经济上

[例句]Life for the successful doctor can be emotionally and financially rewarding.

对于事业有成的医生来说,生活在精神和物质两方面都能令人满足。

这些问题很重要,因为无论经济好的时候还是坏的时候,美国16-24岁的年轻人的失业率都是全体劳动力的两倍。失业或者遇到其他的困难之后直接回家这种现象已经变的很普遍。年轻人因为失业或者未能适应离家影响了向成人世界的转变,他们面临工作前景差,推迟毕业,推迟结婚建立家庭,经济不能独立等许多问题。

[3]A long history of research confirms that, as might be expected in a highlyindividualisticsociety, adults tend to blame themselves when unemployment strikes, increasing the risk of depression anddespair. As unemployment continues, individuals may be considered less "employable" and may either remainjoblessor enter a lower paying job.

Individualistic:个人主义的

[例句]Most artists are very individualistic

大多数艺术家都非常强调个人独特性。

despair:绝望

employable:称职的,有资格任职的,可雇用的,具备受雇条件的

jobless:无业的,失业的,没有工作的

研究表明,也是在高度个人主义的社会里可以预料到的——很多成年人面临失业的时候,都会趋向于责备自己,然后他们变的更加沮丧和绝望。随着失业的持续,个人会被认为更难以就业,或是继续失业,或是屈就一个低薪的工作。

[4]Young workers may be no different. Even though unstable work histories are common in the early stage of one’s career, economicself-sufficiencyandresidentialindependence are widely acceptedmarkersof adulthood that are threatened by unemployment. Those who do not achieve these and othernormativeadult markers by theirmid-to-latetwenties may question whether they are, in fact, adults.

self-sufficiency:自给自足,自立

residential:住宅的,适于作住宅的; 与居住有关的; 适宜作住宅的

[例句]Fontbonne is a liberal arts college, located in a residential suburb of St. Louis.

芳邦大学是一所文科大学,位于圣路易斯市郊的居民区。

marker:(品质或特点的)标志,代表

normative:标准的,规范的

[例句]Methods employed include logical analysis and normative analysis.

研究方法:逻辑分析和规范分析。

mid-to-late:中下旬,中晚期

年轻的工作者没有什么不同。一个人事业刚开始时,工作不稳定很常见,但是经济自足和住房独立都被认为是成年的象征,而这些都会受到失业的威胁。25-30岁还未能够满足这些条件或其他标准的成年人标志的人,就会开始自我怀疑,怀疑自己到底是不是一个成年人。

[5]Our research considered whether young adults’ sense of confidence in themselves declinesin the face ofunemployment. We drew on a unique dataarchive, theYouth Development Study(YDS), which has monitored the employment status (employed, unemployed, out of the labor force) of acohortof more than 1,000 youth inSt. Paul,Minnesotaas they moved fromadolescenceto adulthood. The members of this cohort were born in 1973-74, entered high school (9th grade) in the Fall of 1987 (when we began to study them), were set for graduation in 1991, and entered the full-time labor force during the relativelyprosperousdecade of the 90s.

in the face of:面对,面临

archive:存档,档案文件; 档案室

[例句]I decided I would go to the Archive the next day and look up the appropriate issue.

我决定第二天去档案馆查找对应的问题。

Youth Development Study:青年发展研究

cohort:一群人; 同伙,共犯; 支持者

[例句]Drake and his cohorts were not pleased with my appointment.

德雷克那一帮人对我的任命很不满。

St. Paul, Minnesota:圣保罗明尼苏达州

adolescence:青春期; 青年期

[例句]Some people become very self-conscious in adolescence.

有些人在青春期会变得异常害羞。

prosperous:富裕的; 繁荣的,兴旺的; 幸福的,运气好的; 良好的

[例句]The place looks more prosperous than ever.

这地方显得空前繁荣。

我们的研究考虑了年轻人面对失业的自信心是否会下降。我们采用了一类特别的数据——青年发展研究,该数据监控了圣保罗明尼苏达州超过1000名青年人从青年期到成年期的就业情况(就业,失业还是非劳动力)。这群人都出生在1973年到1974年间,在1987年秋天(这时我们开始研究他们)进入高中(九年级),1991年毕业,在90年代相对繁荣的时期成为全职劳动力。

[6]We began our observations of unemployment andparentalassistanceat age 21-22 (1995), when manyprerogativesof adulthood begin, and ended our observations a decade later, at age 31-32 (in 2005, before the recentGreat Recessionbegan).

parental:父母的

[例句]Medical treatment was sometimes given to children without parental consent

有时未征得家长同意就对孩子进行了药物治疗。

assistance:援助,帮助

Prerogative:特权,君权,天赋的特权(能力等); 特性,特点,显著的优点

[例句]It is your prerogative to stop seeing that particular therapist and find another one.

你有权决定不再去看那个治疗师而另找一个。

Great Recession:经济大衰退

我们首先观察的是21-22岁(1995年)的时候,也就是他们开始获得成年期特权的时候,观察到他们31-32岁(2005年,大衰退开始前),观察这些人在不同时期的失业率以及从父母那里得到的补助。

[7]The survey wasadministeredseven times over the 11-year study period. We recorded the number of months of unemployment for each individual, and whether they received financial or residential assistance from their parents during unemployment. We also measured theirself-efficacy, or the belief that one can accomplish the goals one sets, by looking at how they answered seven questions in the survey that focused on this. For example,respondentshad to agree or disagree, more or less strongly, to statements like “I can do just about anything Iset my mind todo” and “What happens to me in the future mostly depends on me.”

administer:管理,执行,给予

self-efficacy:自我效能

[例句]Objective: To explore the relationships between students in the Teacher Colleges general self-efficacy and setbacks coping styles.

目的:探讨高师生一般自我效能感和挫折应对方式的相互关系。

respondent:回答者

[例句]60 percent of the respondents said they disapproved of the president's performance.

60%的调查对象表示不认可总统的表现。

set one's mind to:下定决心

在过去的11年,一共调查了7次,记录的数据有每个人失业的时间,以及期间是否接受父母的经济以及住房上的帮助。另外还通过观察他们如何回答由此提出的7个问题,来衡量他们的自我效能或对自己能够完成设立目标的信心。例如,回答者必须对“我决定做就能做成;未来掌握在自己的手中” 这样的句子是否同意以及强烈程度。

[8]Analyzing how unemployment, bothdimensionsof parental help, and self-efficacy changed over time, we were able toassesswhether youth suffered declines in self-efficacy during periods of unemployment, or when they were receiving parental help (and whether their sense of efficacy was stronger otherwise). Because the sense of self-confidence may be influenced by many other circumstances during this transitionalphaseof life, weaccounted forbackground factors (e.g., parental education and income, the structure of the family of origin, gender, andminoritystatus), as well as life events and experiences (including schoolattendance, educationalattainment, family formation, and serious illness).

dimension:维度,程度,量度

[例句]He considers the dimensions of the problem

他考虑了问题的严重程度。

assess:评定,估价

phase:阶段

account for:导致,解释,对……有责任

minority:少数,少数民族

attendance:出席率,出席,参加

attainment:达到,获得,成就

从父母帮助和自我效能两个维度分析失业率随时间变化的原因,我们能够评估青年在失业期间的自我效能感是否下降,或者当他们接受父母的帮助时(他们的效能感是否更强)。因为自信心可能会受这个过渡阶段许多其他情况的影响,我们考虑了背景因素(例如,父母的受教育水平以及收入,家庭原始构成,性别以及是否为少数民族),还考虑到了生活经历(包括上学情况,教育程度、家庭组成和疾病困扰等)。

[9]We found that unemployment reduced young adults’ self-efficacy whether or not it was accompanied by parental support. Each month of unemployment decreased the young adult’s self-efficacy below the individual’s average self-confidence over the entire study period. Parents’ financial contributions also had a negative effect on self-efficacy, but their housing support (when a young adult lived with them) did not. These negative effects of unemployment and parental financial support were the same for young men and women.

我们发现无论父母会否给予帮助失业都会减少青年人的自我效能。每一个月的失业都会把年轻人的自信心降到整个研究周期个体自信心的平均值之下。父母的经济援助也会对自我效能有负的影响,但是他们的房屋支持(当一个青年人和父母住在一起)却不会。失业和父母经济援助的这些负影响对于青年男女是一样的。

[10]Thus, just like their oldercounterparts, we suggest that youth tend to think they are at fault when they suffer job loss. Parental financial support also appears to reduce their confidence in being able to achieve their goals.  But why isn’t living with one’s parents similarlydetrimental? This is probably because parental financial and housing support arise in response to different circumstances.

counterpart:极相似的人或物

[例句]The Foreign Secretary telephoned his Italian counterpart to protest.

外交部长致电意大利外长表示抗议。

detrimental: 有害的,不利的

[例句]The government's policy of high interest rates is having a detrimental effect on industry.

政府的高利率政策正对工业产生不利影响。

in response to:对…做出反应,应……要求

但是,就像他们的老一辈一样,我们认为年轻人失业时倾向于归咎自己、父母的经济援助也会削减他们对自己能否达成目标的自信心,但是为什么和父母一起居住却不如此呢?这可能是因为父母的经济援助和提供住所面对的情况不同。

[11]Previous YDS research found that parents came to the aid of their young adult children who become unemployed by giving them money for living expenses. But parents provided residential support in other circumstances—when youth suffereda variety of negative life events(e.g., a serious illness, a romantic breakup,victimization, etc.) and when they were attending school. Returning to the parental home under these circumstances, often beyond an individual’s control, likely wouldn’tprecipitatethe same level of self-blame as the loss of a job, for which the person might be perceived as more responsible. Finally, young adults who live at home may pay for at least some of their expenses: some pay "rent", do some housework, or contribute to the family’s functioning in other ways. Unemployed youth, in contrast, cannot immediatelyreciprocatetheir parents’ financial contributions.

a variety of:各种各样的

negative life events:负性生活事件,消极生活事件

victimization:迫害,牺牲

precipitate:使(通常指不好的事件或形势)突然发生

reciprocate:报答,回报

过去青年发展研究曾发现父母通过给生活费来帮助他们年轻的失业的孩子,但是父母提供住所是在其他情况下——当青年人遭受了各类负面的生活事件(像是生重病、分手、遭到迫害等),或者是上学的时候。回到父母家住,通常都是超出个人把控范围的,因此不会产生与失业同样的自责。失业的时候,个人的责任会更大一些。最后,在家住的孩子们,会适当的交些费用,或者通过做家务偿还“房租”,或者通过一些其他的方式回报父母。而失业的青年人,相反地,不能立刻回报父母的经济援助。

[12]This topic needs further research. These findings are based on a single cohort of young people initially residing in St. Paul, Minnesota, and should bereplicatedwith a nationally representative sample. Importantly, the period of study did not capture the Great Recession, and the effects of unemployment could differ when there are far more unemployed young people. We also could not study the circumstances of unemployment—for example, whether the youth were unemployed because theyquita job or wereterminatedby their employer. Future studies should also investigate how a person’s self-efficacy influences work-related behaviors, such as goal-setting, job searching, and returning to school toaugment credentialsand skills.

replicate:复制,重复

quit:离开,放弃,辞职

terminate:解雇,结束,终结

augment:增强,增加,提高

credentials:证书; 凭证,证件

[例句]I can testify to the credentials of the clientele.

我可以证明委托人的资质。

这个话题需要更广泛的研究,这些发现是基于最初居住在明尼苏达州圣保罗市的一组年轻人,应该被拓展到具有代表性的全国样本。重要的是,研究的时间没有涉及到经济衰退期,那个时候失业人数更多,应该会有不同的结果。我们也没有研究失业的情况——例如,年轻人失业是因为他们辞职了还是被老板开除了?未来的研究应该调查一个人的自我效能对工作的影响——工作相关的行为,比如设立目标、工作搜寻和回到学校获取更多的证书和技能。

[13]Yet, despite our study’s limitations and the work that still needs to be done, this research is important. Youth unemployment and parental financial support may have short-term negativepsychologicalconsequences, in that they undermine a sense of efficacy. They may also have long-term detrimental effects on employment.

psychological:心理的; 精神上的,精神(现象)的; 心理学(上)的; 关于心理学的

[例句]Robyn's loss of memory is a psychological problem, rather than a physical one.

罗宾的失忆是心理问题,而非生理问题。

但是,尽管我们的研究限制以及还需完成的工作,这份研究仍然很重要。失业率和父母的经济援助对年轻人有短期的心理负作用,他们的效能会被削弱。这些也可能对就业有长期的不利影响。

[14]While sociologists and economists have given some attention to labor market “scarring”—the long-term reduction in wages that occurs when young people enter the workforce during periods of high unemployment — less attention has been directed to workers in their twenties and early thirties, who are old enough to be beyond the school-to-work transition, but young enough to avoid age-baseddiscrimination. If young adults are notgainfullyemployed, they cannot achieve objective markers of adulthood, and they may lose out on valuable workplace experiences (e.g., skill development, the formation of work-related ties and social capital).

scarring:伤疤

[例句]Fallopian tube scarring can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

输卵管瘢痕化会引起不育和异位妊娠。

discrimination:歧视; 辨别,区别; 辨别力,识别力; 不公平的待遇

[例句]She is exempt from sex discrimination laws.

她免受性别歧视法的追究。

gainfully:有利益地,有收入地

[例句]Clearly there was nothing that could gainfully be said.

显然,说什么都没有用了。

尽管社会学家和经济学家对劳动市场的“伤疤”——年轻人在高失业率的时候进入职场,会面临长期工资下滑现象——给予了一些关注,但他们对二三十岁的工作者关注相对较少,这些人成熟到已经度过了学校向社会转型的阶段,但是也不会因为年龄遇到差别待遇。如果年轻人不能够成功的进入职场,那么就不能拥有成人的标签,也会失去很多宝贵的职场经验,如技能发展、工作关系与社会资本的形成。

[15]In sum, we think that unemployment has thepotentialtoerodethe young adult’s confidence in two ways: first, by delaying or preventing successful adult transitions (e.g., economic self-sufficiency, marriage,parenthood, etc.); and second, by providing the occasion for parental financial assistance thatundercutsthe youth’sautonomyand independence. Interventions to reduce the risks of youth unemployment and to make it easier to return to work are urgently needed.

potential:潜能,潜力

[例句]The city's problems are symptomatic of the crisis that is spreading throughout the country.

该市的问题是正在全国蔓延的危机的征兆显现。

erode:侵蚀,腐蚀;逐渐毁坏;削弱,损害

[例句]By 1980, Miami beach had all but totally eroded

到1980年,迈阿密海滩已经完全风蚀了。

parenthood:为人父母,父母身份

undercut:削弱,破坏

autonomy:自主权; 自治,自治权; 自治国,社区,或集团等; 人身自由

[例句]Activists stepped up their demands for local autonomy last month.

上个月激进分子对地方自治的呼声更高了。

总的来说,我们认为失业可能以两种方式侵蚀青年人的信心:一,推迟或阻止成功的成人转变(如经济自给自足、结婚、成为父母等);二,使父母可能向青年人进行经济援助,而削弱了青年人的自主性和独立性。迫切需要采取措施减少青年失业的风险,使其更容易重返工作岗位。

失业带来的影响似乎没有我们想的那么简单,除了容易想到的打击自信心,也会间接导致年轻人因接受父母的经济援助而感到挫败。父母因为爱而采取的支持竟然也会有负效果,看来这种资金援助需要有所节制,一方面降低孩子的依赖,鼓励他们独立自主,另一方面也可以降低其失败感。

刚刚毕业的年轻人,处在初入社会的阶段,他们需要将自己的知识转化为实际的价值,也需要调整自己来适应社会的规则,他们需要帮助和鼓励,需要被多给一点时间。关注而非漠视,理解而非苛责,是这个社会应该给予他们的。

英文原文:

https://hbr.org/2016/12/how-unemployment-affectstwentysomethings-self-worth

讲解:霞姐 / Tiassa / Angel

编排 / 校对:Angel

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