Academic writing

l1. Introduction of terms /abbreviations

Introduce or define abbreviations, acronyms and other terms as they are first used. Don't repeat their definitions subsequently.

  1. 首字母缩写 在括号里面 在后面
  2. 全拼解释 全部小写
    global positioning system (GPS)
  3. 即使摘要,所有的首字母缩写前面也都要全拼解释
  4. 摘要中定义过的术语,在正文中不需要再次定义

L1. Latin terms

Use italics font to write Latin expressions such as a priori, et al, ipso facto

A4. Articles

Do not use the definite article 'the' before something unless it has been previously defined/introduced or is well known.

  1. 容易出现在摘要中,第一次简要介绍试验结果,可以说‘the described experiments’,但不能说‘the experiments’
  2. donot use 'the' before proper nouns.
    'the SF-PPP' 去掉 the

T1. Terms

Use scientific terms correctly. For example, 'proofs' are an exercise in logic. Some examples do not constitute a proof because there may exist counter examples.

  1. 试验结果‘证明’了什么,改为‘显示’了什么:... is proved 改为 ... is demonstrated
  2. 某事实可以‘断定’,改为可以‘估计’:... can tell 改为 ... can estimate

C3. Consistent heading capitalisation

Chapter headings can have the first letter of the first word capitalised. Chapter headings can also have the first letter of all words capitalised. Choose a style and apply it consistently.

N1. Capitalisation of proper nouns

The names of steps, examples, figures, tables, chapters, appendices and sections within documents are considered to be proper nouns and need to be capitalised.

S1. Style

Avoid starting a sentence with conjunctions such as 'and' or 'but'.


  1. staff 没有s复数形式