《语法俱乐部》| 第十九章、第二十章:副词从句简化

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所有从句的简化都是为了求精简,省略主语是为了避免与之前的重复,省略be动词是其本身无意义。副词从句的简化有五种不同的变化,我们分别讲解。

一、简化为Ving补语


如果副词从句是进行时,省略主语与be动词之后就是Ving形式,如果没有be动词和助动词,就得先改成进行式再省略be动词得到Ving形式:

① 连接词是否保留

副词从句的连接词有一定的词义功能,如while与before不同,虽然简化了,但有时候也不能省略,只有当句子的意思足够清楚的条件下才能够将连接词省略掉。

While lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

这一句中的while就可以省略,一般来说while(when)表示当……时,because、as、since表示因为,省略以后句子的意思依然完整,就可以省略。

② 没有be动词与助动词

Because we have nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

普通动词have,没有be动词可以省略,也没有助动词可以改写就只有先变成be+Ving形式,这里不是进行时态,而是词类的变化。

Having nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

注意:一般来说表示原因的连接词because、since等都需要省略,如果加上会十分累赘。

③ 应该保留的连接词

如果连接词省略以后句子意思不清楚,就不能省略

Although we have nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

简化成:

Although having nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

在这个句子中although表示一种转折,不能省略。

同理:

He raised his hand, as if he was trying to hit her.

简化成:

He raised his hand, as if trying to hit her.

as if 在这里表示好像,如果省略以后,读者可能默认为因为要打她,句子的意思就会改变。

④ being的运用

be动词一般在简化时都需要省略,但有时候也不能省略的过头了。

As I am a student, I can't afford to get married.

省略掉As I am以后,a student会被误认为是主语或者同位语,不适宜全部省略。可改写成:

As a student, I can't afford to get married.

Being a student, I can't afford to get married.

⑤ 连接词before、after、since作介系词

Before he was in school, he used to be a naughty child.

如果省略掉before he was就变成了:

In school, he used to be a naughty child.

没有了连接词before,就没有从前在学校的意思了,但是如果单纯的加上before in school,在语法上就有错误。before只能接名词类。为了将in school改成名词类,加入being即可:

Before being in school, he used to be a naughty child.

⑥ 时态问题

After he wrote the letter, he put it to mail.

简化成:

After writing the letter, he put it to mail.

需要保留连接词after,如果省略掉,就需要进行时态上的改变以保持句子原有的意思:

Having written the letter, he put it to mail.

⑦ 主语不同时

When the child was already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

从句的主语the child和主句的主语her mother是不同的,如果省略就变成了:

Already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

句子的意思表达不清楚,这时候就需要改变主语从句的结构,使得它与从句的主语一致:

Already sleeping soundly in bed, the child did not know it when her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

我们还可以保留两个不同的主语,改写成:

The child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

注意事项:a、连接词要省略,这里省略when;b、后面必须配合分词补语(现在分词、过去分词)sleeping soundly,才能显示省略了be动词。

二、简化为Ven补语


副词从句如果原来是被动时态(be+Ven),简化之后没有了be动词,就变成了Ven。

① 是否保留连接词

Although he was shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers.

简化以后不能省略掉连接词although,因为although表达有“相反”的意思应该予以保留:

Although shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldires.

② before、after、since的特殊连接词

Before it was redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

简化为:

Before redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

副词从句省略以后before不能省略,不然表达的意思就是装修完成以后,和句子以前的意思不同。但是保留以后又会出现一个问题,就是before当介词使用,后面要跟名词类,我们加入being只是作为词类的变化:

Before being redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

③ 如何处理having been

Because they had been warned, they proceeded carefully.

如果保留had been就改写成:

Having been warned, they proceeded carefully.

如果省略掉hand been,就改写成:

Warned, they proceeded carefully.

having been如果后面跟的是过去分词,即使省略掉having been以后句子的意思仍然不变,也没有语法上的错误。就可以省略掉。

④ 主语不同时

如果副词从句与主句的主语不同,就得把主语保留下来

When the coffin had been interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

副词从句的 主语是the coffin,主句的主语是the minister,并不相同。简化时要同时保留:

The coffin interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

⑤ 助动词改写成to V形式

I'll only be too glad if I can help.

简化成:I'll only be too glad to help.

⑥ 动词只有be动词时

只有当副词从句的主语与主句的主语相同的时候才能将be动词省略。

1> 介系词短语

When you are under attack, you must take cover immediately.

简化为:

When under attack, you must take over immediately.

2> 形容词

While it is small in size, the company is very competitive.

副词从句的补语是形容词small,简化的方式相同

While small in size, the company is very competitive.

3> 名词

Although he was a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.

简化方式相同:

Although a doctor by training , Asimov became a writer.

总结:副词从句的连接词通常有意义,需要保留,所有后面的简化没有太大的变化。只是一些特殊的连接词需要注意。

⑦ 改写成介系词短语

副词从句改写成介系词短语,是大幅度的简化。许多连接词都要找到接近的介词进行改写,只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句的内容。

when——on\upon;because——with;although——despite\in spite of;if——in case of;等

1> if改成in case of:

If there should be a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

In case of a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

2> although改写成despite

Although he opposed it, the plan was carried out.

Despite his opposition, the plan was carried out.

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