应用即兴06-A Brief Journey through AI History

Applying improvisation beyond the theatre to improve the lives of people as individuals, in communities, and in organizations is not new. Following is a very small sampling of the major AI movements and pioneers of the twentieth century. In 1921, Austrian psychiatrist Jacob L. Moreno, founder of psychodrama, created Das Stegreiftheater (Theatre of Spontaneity) which involved actors improvising daily newspaper articles in public (similar to the “Living Newspapers” produced by the Federal Theatre Project in the 1930s). It was a forum allowing for sociopolitical questions and personal issues of the actors to be examined and experienced (Frost and Yarrow 2007: 111). This early psychodramatic improvisational laboratory, so to speak, emerged from Moreno’s belief that spontaneity is the most basic human trait and from the premise that “acting is healthier than speaking” (Innes 1993: 50).

在戏剧之外的即兴创作来改善个人、社区和组织的生活并不是什么新鲜事。以下是对20世纪主要的人工智能运动和先驱者的一个非常小的样本。1921年,奥地利精神病学家雅各布·l·莫雷诺创立了自发戏剧剧院,包括演员在公共场合即兴创作每日报纸文章(类似于20世纪30年代联邦剧院项目制作的“活报纸”)。这是一个论坛,允许审查和经历演员的社会政治问题和个人问题的论坛(弗罗斯特和亚罗2007:111)。可以说,这个早期的心理戏剧即兴实验室源于莫雷诺认为自发性是人类最基本的特征,以及“表演比说话更健康”的前提(印度1993:50)。

Influenced by J. von Nuemann and O. Morgenstern’s Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour (1944), two important studies arguing for “the importance of play and games in the development of the individual, in the growth of a child into maturity, and more broadly as a key to successful interaction and the formation of societies” were published: Johan Huizinga’s Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture (1955) and Roger Caillois’s Man, Play, and Games (1961) (Heddon and Milling 2006: 34). In Chicago in the 1920s, sociologist Neva L. Boyd was the first to apply games and play to group work and group experience as a means of social development at her Recreational Training School at Hull-House settlement house in Chicago.7

受纽曼和摩根斯坦的游戏和经济行为理论的影响,两项重要的研究主张“游戏在个人发展的重要性,孩子成长为成熟,更广泛的关键成功的互动和社会的形成”出版:约翰惠辛加的卢登斯人:文化游戏元素研究(1955)和罗杰卡洛斯的人,玩,和游戏(1961)(海登和磨坊2006:34)。20世纪20年代,在芝加哥,社会学家内娃·l·博伊德是第一个在芝加哥赫尔屋娱乐培训学校的人,将游戏和团队经验作为社会发展的手段。7

From 1924 to 1927, Viola Spolin (Paul Sills’s mother) trained under Boyd, and from 1938 to 1941, as teacher and drama supervisor for the Works Progress Administration Recreational Project, Spolin began developing her foundational theatre games (later used by Sills at Second City) to help immigrant and inner-city children unleash creative self-expression. The Theatre in Education (TIE) movement beginning in the mid-1960s saw theatre techniques, including improvisation, used as tools in the classroom. Notable postwar British TIE innovators such as Peter Slade, Brian Way, Dorothy Heathcote, and Richard Courtney applied and wrote about improvisatory methods encouraging creative play in childhood development.8

从1924年到1927年,维奥拉·斯波林(保罗·西尔斯的母亲)在博伊德的指导下接受训练,从1938年到1941年,作为工作进步管理娱乐项目的教师和戏剧主管,斯波林开始开发她的基础戏剧游戏(后来被第二城的西尔斯使用),以帮助移民和市中心的孩子们释放创造性的自我表达。20世纪60年代中期开始的教育戏剧运动见证了戏剧技术,包括即兴创作,被用作课堂上的工具。战后著名的英国电视创新者如彼得·斯莱德、布莱恩·韦、多萝西·希思科特和理查德·考特尼运用并撰写了在儿童发展中鼓励创造性游戏的即兴方法。8

Augusto Boal, founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, working in his native Brazil in the 1950s and 1960s, developed a series of improvisational games and formats that would support individuals and groups seeking to understand and liberate themselves from oppressive social situations. Forum Theatre, one of Boal’s most popular formats, is a structure that allows groups to explore solutions to problems improvisationally, on their feet. First, actors present a scenario of oppression and then spectators intervene as “spect-actors” trying out tactics with the goal of bringing the scenario to a more ideal conclusion.

奥古斯托·布尔是被压迫剧院的创始人,20世纪50年代和60年代在他的祖国巴西工作,开发了一系列即兴游戏和格式,支持寻求理解并从压迫的社会环境中解放出来的个人和团体。论坛剧院是博尔最受欢迎的形式之一,它是一种允许团体即兴探索解决问题的结构。首先,演员呈现出一个受压迫的场景,然后观众作为“谨慎的演员”进行干预,试图尝试策略,目的是使场景得出一个更理想的结论。

推荐阅读更多精彩内容