张鑫友:英语语法之“定语从句”(三)

对于老师们来说

高中英语课堂上

“从句”

是一个必讲的重要知识点

外语教师联盟每周一

“专项语法难题探微”栏目

(以下简称“探微”)

首期知识点为大家带来了

定语从句

(共八讲)

上两期内容为(

并列成分公共后置定语

中心词与其后置定语的分隔现象

本期第三讲——

多重定语从句的种类和特点


多重定语从句导图

同时修饰一个先行词或先行短语,或者分别修饰各自的先行词的两个或两个以上的定语从句统称为

多重定语从句(multiple attributive clause)

例如:

He was a man whom all his friends admired and who won the respect even of his enemies.

他是个朋友全都钦佩的、 甚至赢得敌人尊敬的人。

He wants you to know that anyone who chooses the path he has chosen is sure to have periodic holidays in jail.

他希望你了解, 凡是选择了他所选择的那条道路的人, 肯定会要定期地到监狱里去度假的。

I am the infamous creature you have heard of that lives among the thieves ,

我就是你们曾经听说过的那个声名狼藉 跟盗贼为伍的女人。

第一句是由连词and连接的两个定语从句同时修饰其先行词a man;

第二句中的两个定语从句"who chooses the path"和"he has chosen"并不是同时修饰先行词anyone而是第一个定语从句修饰其先行词anyone,第二个定语从句修饰其先行词(即第一个定语从句的宾语)the path;

第三句的第二个定语从句"that lives among the thieves"则不是限制或说明第一个定语从句前的先行词the infamous creature,而是限制或说明第一个定语从句的先行词+定语从句",即先行短语"the infamous creature you have heard of"。

现分别对多重定语从句的种类和特点作一探讨

A

并列式多重定语从句

(compound multiple attributive clause)

这种从句的特点是

两个或两个以上的定语从句由并列连词and, or, but 等连接, 修饰同一个先行词 ;

通常定语从句要冠以关系词以明确其性质和修饰对象, 也就是说要重复使用关系词。

关系词可以相同 , 在从句中起同样功能 ; 也可以不同 , 即在句中的 功能可以不一样 。

例如 :

This practice book is intended for foreign engineers or students of engineering who have already mastered the elements of English, and who now want to use their knowledge of the language to read books on their own subjects .

这本实用书是为那些已经掌握英语基本知识,而现在想用已学到的语言知识来阅读自己相关科目的书籍的外国工程人员和工程专业学生而编写的。

Just consider that we use hardly one hundred-thousandth of the heat that there is in coal and that could be extracted from it!

请想一想,储藏在煤里,并可以提取的热量,我们用的还不到十万分之一!

The past progressive is chiefly used for past actions which continued for some time but whose exact limit are not known and not important .

过去进行时主要用于表示持续了一段时间的 , 但其确切期限不清楚也不重要的过去的动作。

They wanted a prince whose life was good, and who had not wronged any man-though owing, as I said, to their jealousy to one another, they couldn't agree who this prince should be.

他们想要有一个生活纯洁而又没有无礼对待任何人的君王——但据我所知由于他们之间的相互嫉妒,他们不可能在这个王位谁个坐的问题,上取得一致的意见。

重复使用关系词的目的主要是为了对比或强调。在不影响修辞效果又不致引起含糊的前提下,也可以同时省略其中一个关系词。被省略的多为作宾语的关系代词,间或也可见到省略主语关系代词的情况 。

例如 :

The house( that) he bought in 1968, and that he sold two years later, is again on the market.

一九六八年他买 的那幢房子 , 两年后他卖掉了 , 而现在买主又要卖了。

He's the person (whom) I meet at the club every every day and who I've invited home to dinner tonight .

他是我每天在俱乐部碰到的那个人, 我已邀请他今晚到我家进餐。

Apart from repeating sentences that begin in the same way or (that) follow similar structural patterns, you can repeat key words or phrases at various places within the paragraph.

除了以同样的方法或者以相同的句型结构重复句子外,你还可以重复本段里各处的关键性的单词或短语。

一般来说,省略第二个定语从句中充当主语的关系词往往容易引起混淆。试比较 :

The boy (whom) Peter shared a flat with was a philosophy student and wanted to sit up half the night discussing philosophy.

与彼特同住一套房间的那位青年是学哲学的学生,他想熬到深夜来讨论哲学。

Peter shared a flat with a boy who was a philosophy student and (who) wanted to sit up half the night discussing philosophy.

彼特与那位学哲学的学生住在一套房间 , 该学生想熬到深夜来讨论哲学。

上面第一例省略关系词意义清楚,因为只能把wanted理解为与was并列,否则就不成句。

第二例省略关系词就引起意义含, 即 “a boy who was and who wanted”,也可把wanted理解为与shared并列,即 " Peter shared .. . and wanted . . . ” ;

如果要表示与第一句相同的意义还是在wanted前重复一个关系词who为好。

有时我们还可见到并列式多重定语从句中省略相同的对应词语的例子,即这种省略不限于关系词也可以是定语从句中其他的相同部分。

例如 :

But of all the views which his garden, or which the country or the kingdom could boast, none was to be compared with Rosings

不管他庭园里的所有人,他的整个国家或王国怎样吹嘘其所有观点,还是没有一种观点可以与罗辛斯相比。

When this game has been played a great many times, a couple of young ladies, one of whom was named Bet, and the other Nancy, were called to see the young gentlemen .

当这种游戏进行多次后,一个名叫贝特,另一个叫兰希的两位女士被召见去见那些年轻的绅士。

以上第一例的第一个定语从句中,在which his garden 后省去了 could boast ; 第二例的第二个定语从句中,在the other后省去了of whom was called。

在这种结构中有时也可不用并列连词,而用逗号或分号将,多重定语从句隔开当然这一般限于and连接的定语从句。

例如

Before the graves of those who have fallen, whom we have not been able to save, let us say: "We shall remember the sacrifices of dead.”

在那些阵亡的,我们未能救活的战士的墓前,让我们说,“我们一定牢记死者所作出的贡献”。

B

链式多重定语从句

( chain multiple attributive clause )

链式多重定语从句也可称为

复合式多重定语从句 ( complex multiple attributive clause ) 。

这种定语从句的特点是 ,

第一个从句是整个复合句中第二层次 ( 或第二代 ) 的主句而第二个是从句;

第二个从句的先行词包含在第一个从句的范围之内 , 即其先行词是第一个从句中的动词宾语或介词宾语。

简言之,各个从句修饰的是各自的先行词,而不是同时修饰一个先行词。

例如 :

The cat killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.

那只猫把那只偷吃麦乳精的老鼠捕捉到了,麦乳精本是放在杰克所建的房子里的。

以上的整个复合句包括三个层次

第一层次的主句The cat killed the rat , 定语从句是 that ate the malt ;

第二层次的主句是第一层次中的定语从句,即 that ate the malt , 从句是that lay in the house ;

第三层次的主句是第二层次中的定语从句that lay in the house , 从句是 that Jack built。

三个层次中的定语从句分别修饰各自的先行词the rat , the malt 和 the house ,

由此可见 , 整个结构以链环式或复合式的形式出现,一环紧扣一环。

请再看几例:

I was endeavouring to put off one sort of life for another sort of life which was not better than the life I had known before .

我那是想要脱离一种生活,改换另一种生活,但是我所换到的生活比先前那一种并不见得好。

"Miss," said a servant who met me in the lobby, where I was  wandering like a troubled spirit , “ a person below wishes to see you.”

一位女仆在休息厅接待了我,在那儿我来回地踱着步,活像一个遇到麻烦的圣灵一样。她说:“小姐,下厅有人要见你。”

当多重定语从句是非限制性时,其关系代词也可以指代其前的整个句子或内容。

例如 :

Tom came to the party in patched jeans, which surprised the other guests , most of whom were wearing evening dress .

汤姆穿着打了补钉的牛仔裤来参加聚会,这使得其他的客人感到吃惊,因为大多数客人穿的都是夜礼服。(which代替前面的整个句子)

C

重叠式多重定语从句

( overlapped multiple attributive clause)

这一结构的特点是

第一个定语从句修饰其前的先行词,

第二个定语从句修饰该“先行词+第一个定语从句"。

第一个定语从句的关系词多为从句的宾语,通常省略。

例如 :

He's the best man I can find who can mend ü within an hour .

他是我能找到的,在一小时内把它修理好的最为合适的人。

Maggie was the only teacher we know who taught maths in that high school .

玛吉是我们在那所中学认识的唯一的教师, 她是教数学的 。

The things we eat, which are also a kind of fuel, combine with oxygen in the body cells to produce energy for process going on in the cells.

我们吃的食物也是一种燃料,它与人体细胞中的氧结合产生能量,供细胞新陈代谢之用。

In contrast with "tachyons", all of the more ordinary matter that we know about that moves at less than the speed of light would be put under the general heading of "tardyons", or " slowly moving one " .

我们已知道的所有速度小于光速的较普通物质,可统称"慢子”,即:“慢速运动的物质”,以与"快子”形成对照。

有时我们亦可见到第一个定语从句的关系词用作主语的情况,但这时一般不能省略。

Every nation also wants opportunity and privilege of buying from foreign countries products and services that are scarce or unavailable at home that would be useful and beneficial to its people .

每个国家也需要有机会和优惠权从外国购买国内稀缺或买不到的产品和劳务,但这些产品和劳务一定要对本国人民有用又有利。

第二个定语从句的关系词可以是从句的定语,也可以是宾语,用作前者时,一般不能省略,用作后者时,省略与否均可,但不省略的时候居多。

试比较 :

She is the only girl I know who can play the guitar.

她是我认识的唯一能弹吉他的女孩(who在第二个从句中作主语)。

Is there anything you want that you have not ?

你需要什么你所缺的东西吗 ?

( that 在第二个从句中作宾语 )

She's the only friend of yours I've met (whom) I really like.

她是你的朋友中我所见到的唯一让我真正喜欢的一个。

(whom在第二个从句中作宾语,可省略)

这种结构中 的第二个定语从句还可以用 “ 介词 + 关系 代词结构来引导 。

例如 :

But there are other broadcasts which the listeners may find difficult to understand in which the taking of notes would be useless even if it were possible.

但是,也另有一些收听者可能感到难听懂广播;听这些广播时,即使可能做笔记,记了也往往没有用。

His eyes had fallen upon a small desk that stood near, on  which she was accustomed to write her letters .

他的眼光早已落到放在附近的一张小书桌上,她往常老在那上面写信。

有一种情况与重迭式多重定语从句结构有些相似。

不妨先看看以下两句:

They 've worked out a new plan that he believed is practical .

他们制订出了一个新计划,这个计划他认为是切实可行的。

The person who we thought was guilty proved to be innocent.

那个人我们本来认为他有罪,后来才发现他并没有罪。

以上两例的定语从句分别是that is practical 和 who was guilty,它们又分别是 he believed 和 we thought 的宾语, 后者是表示一种说话人态度的“插入语",不是定语从句。

这种结构有人称为复杂定语从句它与重迭式多重定语从句的主要区别有二:

一是这种结构可以略去其插人语但不可略去其定语从句。如上面,最后一例略去we thought , 剩余部分为 " The person who was guilty proved be innocent " 则意思完整,若略去 was guilty 则剩下 " The person we thought proved to be innocent " 是不能成立的 ; 而重迭式多重定语从句则可随意略去其中 一个定语从句而仍然保持句意的完整性。

二是这种结构只有一个关系词,因为它只有一个定语从句,而且其关系词必须位于插入语之前; 而重迭式多重定语从句则有两个关系词 ( 只不过第一个关系词常省略罢了) , 因为它有两个定语从句 。

请再看两例 :

He asked for something that I knew could not be provided.

他所要求的 , 我知道是无法提供的。

The wife (whom) he thought he had killed was restored to him and the harm(that)he had done was at last undone.

他以为已经被他杀死的妻子与他破镜重圆了,他所造成的祸害终于消除了。

D

同位式多重定语从句。

( appositive multiple attributive clause)

同位式多重定语从句主要见于两种结构,

一是“定语从句+同位语从句”结构

二是“定语从句+定语从句”结构

后一种结构的第二个定语从句必须在意义或内容上是重复前一定语从句所表示的意义,往往起补充说明的作用。

例如 :

Abraham Lincoln is the most famous instance of the claim that Americans often make that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position in their land.

美国人经常声称 , 在他们的祖国一个人可以在自己的国土上从最低地位提升到最高地位,亚伯拉罕·林肯就是一个最有名的例证 。

( "定语从句+同位语从句”结构)

The word "weight" is called a countable noun in these examples, because the weight are things which are countable which can be counted; we can say one weight two weights .

在这些例子中单词”weight ( 秤铊 ) " 叫做可数名词,因为称铊是可数的东西 , 它们是可以计算的。我们可以说,一个秤铊,两个秤铊。

( “ 定语从句 + 定语从句 ” 结构 )

下面一句中的两个定语从句之间插有 that is , 后一从句的同位意义就更为明显。

例如 :

This usually happens, if you touch something which is live——that is, which is connected to a supply of electricity .

如果你触摸带电的东西也就是说与电源有关的东西这种情况就会经常发生。

内容来源(独家授权):

张鑫友. 英语语法难题探微词典[M]. 华中师范大学出版社.

本文编辑:Joyce

编辑助理:Jane

下期预告

英语语法之“定语从句”(四)

引导定语从句的“介词+关系代词”结构

-END-

往期语法专题

1

定语从句(一)并列成分公共后置定语

2

定语从句(二)中心词与其后置定语的分隔现象

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