python测试开发教程-1基础-1安装Anaconda

本文教程完整文档-持续更新

安装

阅读建议:初学者精读,已经有现成环境者可跳过

Linux安装

Anaconda是最受欢迎的python数据科学和机器学习平台,用于大规模数据处理,预测分析和科学计算。Anaconda发行版附带了1,000多个数据包,conda命令行工具和Anaconda Navigator的桌面图形用户界面。一般而言,使用Anaconda比直接使用官方的python更好用。

本教程将指导您完成在Ubuntu 18.04上下载和安装Anaconda Python Distribution。通常也适合多数其他Linux。

下载Anaconda

https://www.anaconda.com/download/#linux

请选择64-Bit (x86) Installer 进行下载。

安装Anaconda


$ sudo sh Anaconda3-5.3.0-Linux-x86_64.sh 
[sudo] andrew 的密码: 

Welcome to Anaconda3 5.3.0

In order to continue the installation process, please review the license
agreement.
Please, press ENTER to continue
>>>  # 按下回车
... # 多次按空格读完license。
Do you accept the license terms? [yes|no]
[no] >>> yes # 输入yes

  - Press ENTER to confirm the location
  - Press CTRL-C to abort the installation
  - Or specify a different location below
...
[/home/andrew/anaconda3] >>> /usr/local/anaconda3 # 输入自定义目录
...  # 安装根据机器性能,通常需要持续几分钟。
Do you wish to proceed with the installation of Microsoft VSCode? [yes|no] #选择no,一般来说自带的spyder和专业IDE wingIDE更好用。
...
Do you wish the installer to initialize Anaconda3
in your /home/andrew/.bashrc ? [yes|no]
[no] >>> # 选择yes
Initializing Anaconda3 in /home/andrew/.bashrc
A backup will be made to: /home/andrew/.bashrc-anaconda3.bak


For this change to become active, you have to open a new terminal.

Thank you for installing Anaconda3!

===========================================================================

Anaconda is partnered with Microsoft! Microsoft VSCode is a streamlined
code editor with support for development operations like debugging, task
running and version control.

To install Visual Studio Code, you will need:
  - Administrator Privileges
  - Internet connectivity

Visual Studio Code License: https://code.visualstudio.com/license

Do you wish to proceed with the installation of Microsoft VSCode? [yes|no]
>>> no

添加“export PATH=/usr/local/anconda3/bin:$PATH“ 到/etc/profile,这样所有用户都可以使用Anaconda python3.7了。

上面的.bashrc在刚才安装时添加了如下内容:

# added by Anaconda3 5.3.0 installer
# >>> conda init >>>
# !! Contents within this block are managed by 'conda init' !!
__conda_setup="$(CONDA_REPORT_ERRORS=false '/usr/local/anaconda3/bin/conda' shell.bash hook 2> /dev/null)"
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    \eval "$__conda_setup"
else
    if [ -f "/usr/local/anaconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh" ]; then
        . "/usr/local/anaconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh"
        CONDA_CHANGEPS1=false conda activate base
    else
        \export PATH="/usr/local/anaconda3/bin:$PATH"
    fi
fi
unset __conda_setup~/.bashrc
# <<< conda init <<<

验证安装

通过重新登陆或者执行'source ~/.bashrc"加载环境变量。

$ conda info

     active environment : base
    active env location : /usr/local/anaconda3
            shell level : 1
       user config file : /home/andrew/.condarc
 populated config files : 
          conda version : 4.5.11
    conda-build version : 3.15.1
         python version : 3.7.0.final.0
       base environment : /usr/local/anaconda3  (read only)
           channel URLs : https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/main/linux-64
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/main/noarch
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/free/linux-64
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/free/noarch
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/r/linux-64
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/r/noarch
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/pro/linux-64
                          https://repo.anaconda.com/pkgs/pro/noarch
          package cache : /usr/local/anaconda3/pkgs
                          /home/andrew/.conda/pkgs
       envs directories : /home/andrew/.conda/envs
                          /usr/local/anaconda3/envs
               platform : linux-64
             user-agent : conda/4.5.11 requests/2.19.1 CPython/3.7.0 Linux/4.15.0-36-generic ubuntu/18.04 glibc/2.27
                UID:GID : 1000:1000
             netrc file : None
           offline mode : False

$ python
Python 3.7.0 (default, Jun 28 2018, 13:15:42) 
[GCC 7.2.0] :: Anaconda, Inc. on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> 

至此,已经安装完毕。

更新Anaconda

一般是有新版本发布时才需要使用。

$ conda update conda
$ conda update anaconda

删除Anaconda

一般是有新版本发布时才需要使用。

$sudo rm -rf /usr/local/anaconda3
删除上面~/.bashrc和/etc/profile的修改
清空隐藏文件: rm -rf ~/.condarc ~/.conda ~/.continuum

参考资料

Windows安装

下载
https://repo.anaconda.com/archive/Anaconda3-2021.05-Windows-x86_64.exe

执行:

上面红色的部分一定要选中,这样会帮你自动配置环境变量。

新开cmd,输入python

MAC安装

MAC的安装和Windows类似。

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