Django入门笔记--用户登录

前言

从之前的学习我们发现,一直在blog应用中进行开发。本章开始新建另一个App来开发,介绍Django的身份认证模块,实现用户登录、注册、注销。

一个简单的登录界面

创建应用

为了实现用户登录、退出、注册等功能,从而进行用户管理,创建一个新的应用。

python manage.py startapp accounts

然后我们就多了一个accounts目录,然后在/myblog/settings.py中对新应用进行配置。

INSTALLED_APPS = [
  ...,
  'blog',
  'accounts',
]

在./accounts目录中创建urls.py文件,然后设置本应用中的路径。

from django.urls import path
from . import views


app_name = "accounts"
urlpatterns = [
    path('login/', views.user_login, name='user_login'),
]

然后在./myblog/urls.py配置accounts应用的URL配置:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path, include
from django.conf.urls import url
from blog import views


urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    url(r'^$', views.home, name='home'),
    path('<int:article_id>/', views.blog_article),  
    path('accounts/', include('accounts.urls', namespace='accounts')),  # 新增
]

基本配置到位,接下来我们设计用户登录界面:

登录表单设计

./account目录下新建forms.py,代码如下:

from django import forms


class LoginForm(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField()
    password = forms.CharField(widget=forms.PasswordInput)

登录视图函数

编辑./account/views.py文件,实现user_login()的视图函数:

from django.shortcuts import render, HttpResponse
from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login
from . forms import LoginForm


# Create your views here.
def user_login(request):
    if request.method == "POST":
        login_form = LoginForm(request.POST)
        if login_form.is_valid():
            cd = login_form.cleaned_data
            user = authenticate(username=cd['username'], password=cd['password'])

            if user:
                login(request, user)
                return HttpResponse("欢迎你,登录成功")
            else:
                return HttpResponse("抱歉,用户名或者密码错误")
        else:
            return HttpResponse("登录非法")

    else:
        login_form = LoginForm()

    return render(request, "accounts/login.html", {"form": login_form})

登录前端界面

./templates/accounts/login.html模板,代码如下:

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}登录{% endblock %}

{% block content %}
    <div class="container text-center" >
        <h1>用户登录</h1>
        <p>
            输入你的用户名和密码
        </p>
        <form action="." method="post">
            {% csrf_token %}
            {{ form.as_p }}
            <p><input type="submit" value="登录"></p>
        </form>
    </div>
{% endblock %}

修改./templates/base.html,代码如下:

{% load staticfiles %}
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title>{% block title %}{% endblock %}</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="{% static 'css/bootstrap.min.css' %}">
    </head>
    <body>
        <div id="header">
            <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-dark bg-dark">
                <div class="container" >
                    <a class="navbar-expand" href="{% url 'home' %}">主页</a>
                    <ul class="nav navbar-nav navbar-light" style="margin-right: 10px">
                        <li><a href="{% url 'accounts:user_login' %}">登录</a> </li>
                    </ul>
                </div>
            </nav>
        </div>
        <div class="container">
            <div id="content">
                {% block content %}
                {% endblock %}
            </div>
        </div>
    </body>
</html>