Mass memories in space systems are evolving from simple stream tape-like recorders to complex intelligent (sub)systems capable of autonomous operations.
This evolution is both driven by requests coming from complex multi-payload missions and from the availability of very high density memory components.
NAND ﬂash memories are gaining acceptance as data storage in consumer electronics (e.g., USB ﬂash drives) because of their compactness, low power, low cost and high data throughput.
However, （hi-rel electronics is struggling in keeping the pace with the aggressive （scaling down）缩减 of NAND ﬂash technology. ）
As a consequence, the use of NAND ﬂash in space applications is not as established as in the consumer market and is still under research.
Furthermore, the availability of fully qualiﬁed space memories is not an option for cost, availability, long lead or performance reasons.
Commercial Off The Shelves (COTS，一种集成通信技术) NAND ﬂashes need to be adopted.
Since most of them are not able to successfully operate and survive in the space environment, they request additional tests and design methods (e.g., up screening, redundancy).
One of the section's main R&D activity area is targeted towards providing practical valuable design guidelines, comparisons and tradeoffs among the huge number of dimensions of fault tolerant design methodologies applied to the critical space environment。