Beyond Feelings 《超越感觉》CH13笔记——找到错误的根源

第13章回顾了在思考的不同阶段影响我们的错误,其中mine-be-better“我的最好”是最基本的思维错误,并且成为其它错误的都受其影响。其它错误发生在不同的思考阶段。

这些错误会单独存在,也会同时存在。认识这些错误不难,只要认真阅读即可,但是合上书本,24个错误你能一个不漏的说出来吗?不能。当然也没有必要背过。因此,对我们来说,重要的不是知道有几种错误,而是要知道错误发生在推论过程中哪个环节,为什么会发生错误。

Knowing the right terminology is advantageous, but more important is recognizing where reasoning has gone awry and being able to explain the error in terms of the issue involved. In the vast majority of cases, plain language will do that job nicely.

归根结底,批判性思维围绕truth, opinion,statement, evidence, premise, assumption, argument, conclusion这些概念展开, 错误也和这几个概念息息相关。

比如分析 Poverty of aspect的错误,我们可以追溯到opinion的概念,因为个人认知的局限性等等原因, unwarranted assumptions同样可以规到opinion认知困难一类,等等。

每日五词

1. wheeze

息;气喘吁吁;If someone wheezes, they breathe with difficulty and make a whistling sound. [V] [V with quote]

He had quite serious problems with his chest and wheezed and coughed all the time...

他的胸部问题很严重,总是气喘,还不停地咳嗽。


2. tirade

激愤的长篇演说;长篇的批评性发言;A tirade is a long angry speech in which someone criticizes a person or thing.

She launched into a tirade against the policies that ruined her business...

她就造成自己企业破产的政策发表了激愤的长篇演说。


3. early/late/riser

someone who usually gets out of bed early late


4. dereliction

破败;弃置;年久失修;If a building or a piece of land is in a state of dereliction, it is deserted or abandoned.

The previous owners had rescued the building from dereliction.

这座建筑之前的业主将其从破败不堪的状况中挽救了出来。


5.goad

[VERB 动词] 招惹;刺激;激怒;If you goad someone, you deliberately make them feel angry or irritated, often causing them to react by doing something. [V n into n/-ing] [V n]

He wondered if the psychiatrist was trying to goad him into some unguarded response...

他怀疑那位精神科医生试图刺激他作出一些本能的反应。

Summary

In chapter 13, the author summarizes all errors which occur at various stages of the thinking process. “Mine-is-better” thinking is the most fundamental critical thinking error. The other errors in thinking are at least aggravated by “mine-is-better” thinking.


The part two section helps us to avoid the errors in our thinking and help us recognize them when they occur in other people’s thinking.

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