L5-U2-P3 英语流利说 5-2-3 懂你英语 Level5 Unit2 Part3

L5-U2-P3-1 Listening : Introducing the Iceman


Introducing the Iceman

One of the most interesting people in history is probably someone you have never heard of.

We will call him "Iceman" because his body was frozen in ice for several thousand years.

His body was discovered in 1991 by two hikers in the mountains near the border of Austria and Italy.

The lower part of his body was still frozen in ice, but the upper part was uncovered and visible.

Once the body was extracted from the ice, it was taken in for examination.

Upon examination, scientists determined that the Iceman lived around 5,300 (fifty-three hundred) years ago.

This was at the end of the Stone Age, nearly 1,000 years before the great pyramids were built.

This made him the oldest mummy ever found.


What had to happen before the body could be examined? -It had to be extracted from the ice before it could be examined.

Which part of the body was uncovered and visible? -the upper part


Iceman's body was in good condition when it was found.

People believed that the body was one of many hikers who had been lost in recent years.

Nobody suspected that the body was as old as it was.

It had been preserved by the ice for thousands of years.

Given its good condition, studying it was like opening a window in time.

Scientists could learn a lot about how people lived 5,000 years ago.


Why was the body was in such good condition when it was found? - It had been preserved by the ice.

(1) Iceman's body was in good condition when it was found.
(2) Nobody suspected that the body was as old as it was.
(3) It had been preserved by the ice for thousands of years.
(4) Given its good condition, studying it was like opening a window in time.


The Iceman lived at the end of the Stone Age, a time of great change in human history.

Hunting was still a major source of food, but people were beginning to farm.

People were settling down and forming communities.

These communities were claiming territory and setting up boundaries.

As a result, sometimes they had to fight to defend their territory from outsiders.

The village where the Iceman lived was probably not far from where he died.

Perhaps he was killed in a battle with outsiders.


What was still a major source of food at the end of the Stone Age? - hunting

Why did people have to fight outsiders? - to defend their territory

Why did people need to claim territory? - They were settling down to farm.

Once the body was extracted from the ice, it was taken in for examination.

It was in good condition because it had been preserved by the ice.

Given its good condition, studying it was like opening a window in time.

The lower part of his body was still frozen in ice, but the upper part was uncovered and visible.

The Iceman lived at the end of the Stone Age, a time of great change in human history.

Comunities were claiming territory and fighting to defend from the outsiders.

It was in good condition because it had been perservered by the ice.


L5-U2-P3-2 Listening : Death of the Iceman


Iceman was about 45 years old when he died.

He was 1.60 meters tall and weighed about 50 kilograms when he was alive.

Along with the body were some other objects.

These included some weapons, including a bow and arrow, a knife and an ax.

He was still wearing one of his shoes and he had a backpack with a wooden frame.


What was one of the weapons that was found with his body? - a bow and arrow


He also had some plants that may have been used for medical purposes.

Further examination of the body showed that he was well fed, with a diet of meat, bread and fruit.

In fact, he had eaten several meals within a few hours of his death.

From all the evidence, he probably had a good life.

Perhaps he was hunting for food when he was caught in a sudden storm.


The plans that he had may have been used what purpose? - for medical purposes


For several years after the discovery of the body, scientists believed that he died from the cold.

Weather is unpredictable in the area where he was found, so perhaps he was caught in an unexpected storm.

However, ten years after his body was found, new evidence pointed to a new cause of death.

In 2001, examiners x-rayed the body and found an arrowhead deep in the Iceman's chest.

Further analysis revealed that the Iceman had been shot from behind.

The arrow had cut through an artery and had caused severe bleeding.

Clearly, it was a case of murder, the oldest case of murder ever discovered.


What new evidence was found for the cause of death? - an arrowhead in his chest

(1) For several years after the discovery of the body, scientists believed that he died from the cold.
(2) Weather is unpredictable in the area where he was found, so perhaps he was caught in an unexpected storm.
(3) However, ten years after his body was found, new evidence pointed to a new cause of death.
(4) In 2001, examiners x-rayed the body and found an arrowhead deep in the Iceman's chest.

People were settling down and forming communities.

From all the evidence, he probably had a good life.

He ate several meals within a few hours of his death.

People believed that the body was one of many hikers who had been lost in recent years.

In 2001, examiners x-rayed the body and found an arrowhead deep in the Iceman's chest.


L5-U2-P3-3 Vocabulary : Regulations in Company


Regulations in Company

To sue: to take someone to court in a legal disagreement.

They broke our contract and didn't pay, so we sued them and won.

She sued her employer for firing her, but she lost because they had the right to fire her.


We couldn't agree to her plan to avoid paying taxes, which was illegal, so she threatened to sue us.

When she left her job she sued her emplpoyer for not keeping its promise to pay her a bonus.


To restrict: to put limits on something.

This is a restricted area, so stay away.

We need to restrict them from talking to anyone about our project.


We can't trust him, so we will have to restrict his activities until we know him better.

We have unlimited access to their research and there are no restrictions on how we use the informaion.


To negotiate: to deal with or bargain with others to reach an agreement.

Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate and find a way to compromise.

We are trying to negotiate a better deal, but it isn't easy.


He never wants to negotiate, so he has lost several important customers.

The price is too high, but if we negotiate we may be able to get a discount.


Responsible for or responsible to: to be responsible for something means to have the job of getting it done or taking care of.

If you are responsible to someone, it means that you are working under their control.


She is the person responsible for improving sales last year, so we should give her a promotion.

He is responsible to the CEO, so he can't sign the contract without her final approval.

We need to report this to our boss because we are responsible to her and because she will judge our performance.

We have many responsibilities, but she is the one responsible for product development.


Oversee or supervise: to control or direct a process or project.

One of his responsibilities was to supervise the rescue operations and keep things under control.

As product manager, she oversees the work of several departments.


When we got to the accident, everyone was confused because there was nobody there to supervise.

Their new project is behind schedule because nobody oversees how the departments work together.


If something is confidential, you should ...restrict access to it.

They broke our contract and didn't pay, so we sued them and won.

We need to restrict them from talking to anyone about our project.

If you are responsible to someone it means that you are working under their control.

They broke our contract and didn't pay, so we sued them and won.

We are trying to negotiate a better deal, but it isn't easy.

If something is confidential, you should restrict access to it.

She sued her employer for firing her, but she lost because they had the right to fire her.

We can't trust him, so we will have to restrict his activities until we know him better.

If you have a legal disagreement, you have to sue.

To deal with or bargain with others to reach an agreement ——to negotiate.

To be responsible for something means...to have the job of getting it done.

She sued her employer for firing her, but she lost because they had the right to fire her.

Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate and find a way to compromise.

One of his responsibilities was to supervise the rescue operations and keep things under control.


This is a restricted area, so stay away.

He never wants to negotiate, so he has lost several important customers.

We have many responsibilities, but she is the one responsible for product development.

When she asked for an extra payment, we refused because it was illegal and she could have sued us.

Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate and find a way to compromise.

If something is confidential, you should restrict access to it.


L5-U2-P3-3 Vocabulary : Business Terms


Business Terms

To merge: to combine or come together.

Those two companies used to be competitors, but now they have merged into one company.

When the two companies merged, many people were laid off.


When two companies merge, there are often many problems, including layoffs.

They plan to merge with a much larger company, so they will lose her identity.


To acquire: to buy or take possession.

Some big companies grow by acquiring other companies.

One way to protect your business is to acquire your competitors.


We need to acquire new technology as soon as possible because we are out-of-date.

One way to acquire new technology is to hire innovative people from other companies.

The best way to acquire a new skill is to find a great teacher orprogram and practice every day.


An agenda: a plan or list of items to be discussed at a meeting.

The agenda for the meeting is still unclear.

What are the main points on the agenda for the meeting?


There are too many items on the agenda, so we need to cut it down and focus on fewer things.


A contract: a written document that defines the rules in a relationship.

A contract isn't usually useful until things begin to go badly in a relationship.

According to our contract, their first payment is due next week.


It took a long time to agree on a contract because their lawyers kept finding issues that kept us apart.

The contract was too much in their favor, so we didn't sign it.


Assets and liabilities: assets are what you own and liabilities are what you owe.

Knowing the assets and liabilities of a company helps determine a company's value.

The company had more liabilities than assets so we decided not to invest.


Their assets were rapidly increasing in value each year, so we decided to invest.


To combine or come together ——to merge.

To buy or take possession ——to acquire.

 A written document that defines the rules in a relationship ——a contract.

What you own, including money and property ——your assets.

What you owe, including debts and obligation ——your liabilities.

Knowing the assets and liabilities of a company helps determine a company's value.

contract isn't usually useful until things begin to go badly in a relationship.


When the two companies merged, many people were laid off.

What are the main points on the agenda for the meeting?

When two companies combined into one, it's called a merger.

They have to pay a huge tax penalty, so they have lost value due to the increase in their liabilities.

He may have a hidden agenda that hides his real plan, so let's be careful what we say at the meeting.

We don't know what's on his agenda, so we need to be careful what we say.

If a company borrows a lot of money, it's increasing its liabilities.


L5-U2-P3-5 Dialogue : Quitting a Job


Quitting a Job

M: Good morning, Lisa. What was it you wanted to see me about?

L: Eh, good morning. Thanks for seeing me on such short notice, I know it's a busy time for you.

M: That's okay, Lisa. I can see that you're upset about something. Is there something wrong?

L: Yes, actually there is, and I've been thinking about it a lot. To make it short, I've decided to leave the company.


How is Lisa feeling? -She is upset about someting.

I can see that you're upset about something.

To make it short, I've decided to leave the company.

Thanks for seeing me on such short notice.

What has Lisa decided to do? - She has decided to leave the company.

I can see that you're upset about something.

She has been thinking about it a lot.

What was it you wanted to see me about?


M: You are going to leave?

L: Yes, I think it's best, I'm really not happy here anymore.

M: Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. Have you found another job?

L: No, it isn't that. My husband and I have just decided that I really don't need to work.


What has she and her husband decided? - She doesn't need a job.

I'm really not happy here anymore.

My husband and I have just decided that I really don't need to work.

Why has she decided to quit her job? -She is not happy working there.

I'm really not happy here anymore.

She decided to quit because she's not happy working there.


M: Well, I'm sorry to hear that you want to leave. But I really want you to reconsider. You've only been here for a year. That isn't very long, and it won't help your resume if you decide to look for a job in the future.

L: Yes, that may be true, but staying here is really stressful. You may not be aware of it, but I have real problems with my supervisor , Bill.


Who is bill? -He is her supervisor.

Yes, that may be true, but staying here is really stressful. You may not be aware of it, but I have real problems with my supervisor , Bill.

I'm sorry to hear that you want to leave.

She's been working there for about a year.

Bill is her supervisor, so he supervises her work.

She has some serious problems working with her supervisor.

Yes, that may be true, but staying here is really stressful.

(1) I'm sorry to hear that you want to leave.
(2) But I really want you to reconsider.
(3)That isn't very long, and it won't help your resume if you decide to look for a job in the future.
(4) You've only been here for a year.

Why is her job so stressful?  - She doesn't like working with her supervisor.

You've only been here for a year.

But I really want you to reconsider.

She has some serious problems working with her supervisor.

That isn't very long, and it won't help your resume if you decide to look for a job in the future. 


M: Oh, what kind of problems?

L: He takes on projects and assigns them to me with no regard from my other responsibilities. It's just too much. Then he takes all the credit for my work. Maybe I'm just too sensitive.

M: Yes, I know he can't act that way and I have told him it's an area he needs to improve. Anyway, there are people like that in every organization.


What does her supervisor need to improve? -How he works with others.

To take credit for something means ...to claim responsibility for the results.


M: I know it's difficult, but you need to learn how to deal with people like him.

L: Well, I don't know. It's really stressful. It isn't easy for me that talk to him.

M: Listen, Lisa. You have great potential and I don't want to lose you. If you already had a job offer, I wouldn't stand in your way. But since you don't, I really want you to stay.

L: I appreciate your saying that. It means a lot.


To stand in the way of something means ...to try to stop it.

What's another word for potential? -ability.

(1) If you already had a job offer, I wouldn't stand in your way.
(2) But since you don't, I really want you to stay.
(3) I appreciate your saying that.
(4) It means a lot.

You have great potential and I don't want to lose you.

If you already had a job offer, I wouldn't stand in your way.

But since you don't, I really want you to stay.


M: So will you please reconsider your decision?

L: Yes, I'll talk to my husband.

M: As for Bill, please try to work with him for a bit longer. This is a part of your learning experience.

L: Thanks, I really appreciate your advice. You are a great sales person. I'm feeling better already.

M: You are welcome, Lisa. I need you to stay. Please give it at least another year.


Why does Lisa think her boss is a great sales person? -She has convinced her of the importance of staying instead of quitting.

So will you please reconsider your decision?

She had sold Lisa on the idea of staying for another year.

This is a part of your learning experience.

I know it's difficult, but you need to learn how to deal with people like him.

He takes on projects and assigns them to me with no regard from my other responsibilities.

What advice does she give to Lisa? -to reconsider her decision and stay for at least another year

Thanks, I really appreciate your advice.

Please give it at least another year.

You have great potential and I don't want to lose you.

As for Bill, please try to work with him for a bit longer.

If you already had a job offer, I wouldn't stand in your way.

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