学习词根---Unit 2.4

昨天小练习的答案:

1. d   2. e   3. h   4. f   5. g   6. a   7. c   8. b

今天将学习DUC/DUCTSEQU两个词根~


DUC/DUCT. 源自拉丁动词ducere,意为"to lead". Duke means basically "leader". The Italian dictator Mussolini was known simply as Il Duce, "the leader". 但是像produce和reduce也包含这个词根,不过他们的意思没那么明显。


conducive. Tending to promote, encourage, or assist; helpful.

例句:She found the atmosphere in the quiet cafe conducive to study and even to creative thinking.

Something conducive "leads to" a desirable result. A cozy(舒适的) living room may be conducive to relaxed conversation, just as a boardroom may be conducive to more intense discussions. Particular tax policies  are often conducive to savings and investment, whereas others are conducive to consumer spending. 注意conducive后面接to.


deduction. (1) Subtraction.(减法,去除) (2) The reaching of conclusion(结论) by reasoning(推理).

例句:Foretelling the future by deduction based on a political or economic theory has proved to be extremely difficult.

To deduct is simply to subtract. A tax deduction is a subtraction from your taxable income allowed by the government for certain expenses, which will result in your paying lower taxes. Your insurance deductible is the amount of a medical bill that the insurance company makes you subtract before t starts to pay--in other words, the amount that will come out of your own pocket. But deduction also means "reasoning", and particularly reasoning based on general principles to produce specific findings. Mathematical reasoning is almost always deduction, for instance, since it is based on general rules. But when Dr. Watson exclaims "Brilliant deduction, my dear Holmes!" he simply means "brilliant reasoning", since Sherlock Holmes's solutions are based on specific details he has noticed rather than on general principles.



induce. (1) Persuade(说服), influence. (2) Bring about.

例句:To induce him to make the call we had to promise we wouldn't do it again.

Inducing is usually gentle persuasion; you may, for instance, induce a friend to go to a concert, or induce a child to stop crying. An inducement is something that might lure(引诱,哄骗) you to do something, though inducements are occasionally a bit menacing(威胁的), like the Godfather‘s offer that you can't refuse. Induce also sometimes means "produce"; thus, doctors must at times induce labor in a pregnant woman. 注意induct(使正式就职)和induction 与 induce和inducement的不同,虽然它们都有相同的词根。


seduction. (1) Temptation to sin, especially temptation to sexual intercourse. (2) Attraction or charm.

例句:The company began its campaign of seduction of the smaller firm by inviting its top management to a series of weekends at expensive resorts.

Seduction, with its prefix se-, "aside", means basically "lead aside or astray(被引入歧途)." In Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne is forced to wear a large scarlet A, for "adulteress", after it is revealed that she's been seduced by the Reverend Dimmesdale. Seduction also takes less physical forms. Advertisements constantly try to seduce us (often using sex as a temptation) into buying products we hadn't even known existed.




SEQU. 源自拉丁动词sequi, 意为"to follow". A sequel(续篇) follows the original novel, film, or television show.


sequential. (1) Arranged in order or in a series. (2) Following in a series.

例句:In writing the history of the revolution, his challenge was to put all the events of those fateful days in proper sequential order.

Things in sequence, or regular order, are arranged sequentially. Most novels and films move sequentially, but some use techniques such as flashbacks that interrupt the movement forward in time. Sequential courses in college must follow each other in the proper order, just like sequential tasks or steps.


subsequent. Following in time, order, or place; later

例句:Through all her subsequent love affairs, she never stopped thinking about the man who got away.

The prefix sub- normally means "below", and the sub- in subsequent seems to imply that everything after the first is somehow inferior. As the definition states, subsequent can refer to time ("All our subsequent attempts to contact her failed"), order("The subsequent villages on the list looked even worse"), or place("The subsequent villages on the river heading east become steadily more primitive"). But subsequently, as in "I subsequently learned the real story," simply means "later". 


consequential. (1) Resulting. (2) Important.

例句:None of our discussions thus far has been very consequential; next week's meeting will be the important one.

Something consequential follows or comes along with something else. The "resulting" meaning of consequential is usually seen in legal writing. For example, "consequential losses" are losses that supposedly resulted from some improper behavior, about which the lawyer's client is suing. But normally consequential means "significant" or "important", and it's especially used for events that will produce large consequences, or results.


non sequitur.(不合理的推论) A statement that does not follow logically from anything previously said.

例句:Rattled by the question, his mind went blank, and he blurted out a non sequitur that fetched a few laughs from members of the audience.

Non sequitur是拉丁语句,意为"It does not follow"—也就是不合理的推论。It was Aristotle who identified he non sequitur as one of the basic fallacies of logic--that is, one of the ways in which a person's reasoning may go wrong. For Aristotle, the non sequitur is usually a conclusion that doesn't actually result from the reasoning and evidence presented. Sometime when you're listening to politicians answering questions, see how many non sequiturs you can spot.


Quizzes:

Match the definition on the left to the correct word on the right:

1. out-of-place statement                                  a. deduction

2. persuade                                                       b. non sequitur

3. temptation                                                     c. induce

4. subtraction                                                    d. subsequent

5. helpful                                                           e. seduction

6. ordered                                                          f. consequential

7. following                                                        g. conducive

8. significant                                                      h. sequential

推荐阅读更多精彩内容