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基于nginx和uWSGI在Ubuntu上部署Django

96
Gevin
2014.09.30 22:04* 字数 754

本文主要参考 uWSGI的文档

1. nginx

安装

sudo apt-get install nginx

启动、停止和重启

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx stop
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart

或者

sudo service nginx start
sudo service nginx stop
sudo service nginx restart

2. uWSGI安装

用python的pip安装最简单:

apt-get install python-dev #不安装这个,下面的安装可能会失败
pip install uwsgi

3. 基于uWSGI和nginx部署Django

1.原理

the web client <-> the web server(nginx) <-> the socket <-> uwsgi <-> Django

2.基本测试

测试uWSGI是否正常

在django项目的根目录下创建test.py文件,添加源码如下:

# test.py
def application(env, start_response):
    start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
    return ["Hello World"] # python2
    #return [b"Hello World"] # python3

然后,Run uWSGI:

uwsgi --http :8000 --wsgi-file test.py

参数含义:

  • http :8000: 使用http协议,8000端口
  • wsgi-file test.py: 加载指定文件 test.py

打开下面url,浏览器上应该显示hello world

http://example.com:8000

如果显示正确,说明下面3个环节是通畅的:

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Python

测试Django项目是否正常

首先确保project本身是正常的:

python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

如果没问题,使用uWSGI把project拉起来:

uwsgi --http :8000 --module mysite.wsgi
  • module mysite.wsgi: 加载wsgi module

如果project能够正常被拉起,说明以下环节是通的:

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Django

3.配置nginx

安装nginx完成后,如果能正常打开http://hostname,说明下面环节是通畅的:

the web client <-> the web server

增加nginx配置

  • uwsgi_params文件拷贝到项目文件夹下。uwsgi_params文件在/etc/nginx/目录下,也可以从这个页面下载
  • 在项目文件夹下创建文件mysite_nginx.conf,填入并修改下面内容:
# mysite_nginx.conf

# the upstream component nginx needs to connect to
upstream django {
    # server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket
    server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)
}
# configuration of the server
server {
    # the port your site will be served on
    listen      8000;
    # the domain name it will serve for
    server_name .example.com; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
    charset     utf-8;

    # max upload size
    client_max_body_size 75M;   # adjust to taste

    # Django media
    location /media  {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/media;  # your Django project's media files - amend as required
    }

    location /static {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/static; # your Django project's static files - amend as required
    }

    # Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
    location / {
        uwsgi_pass  django;
        include     /path/to/your/mysite/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed
    }
}

这个configuration文件告诉nginx从文件系统中拉起media和static文件作为服务,同时相应django的request

/etc/nginx/sites-enabled目录下创建本文件的连接,使nginx能够使用它:

sudo ln -s ~/path/to/your/mysite/mysite_nginx.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

部署static文件

在django的setting文件中,添加下面一行内容:

STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static/")

然后运行:

python manage.py collectstatic

测试nginx

首先重启nginx服务:

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart

然后检查media文件是否已经正常拉起:
在目录/path/to/your/project/project/media directory下添加文件meida.png,然后访问http://example.com:8000/media/media.png ,成功后进行下一步测试。

4.nginx and uWSGI and test.py

执行下面代码测试能否让nginx在页面上显示hello, world

uwsgi --socket :8001 --wsgi-file test.py

访问http://example.com:8000 ,如果显示hello world,则下面环节是否通畅:

the web client <-> the web server <-> the socket <-> uWSGI <-> Python

用UNIX socket取代TCP port

mysite_nginx.conf做如下修改:

server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket
# server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)

重启nginx,并在此运行uWSGI

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py

打开 http://example.com:8000/ ,看看是否成功

如果没有成功:

检查 nginx error log(/var/log/nginx/error.log)。如果错误如下:

connect() to unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock failed (13: Permission
denied)

添加socket权限再次运行:

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=666 # (very permissive)

or

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=664 # (more sensible)

5.Running the Django application with uswgi and nginx

如果上面一切都显示正常,则下面命令可以拉起django application

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --module mysite.wsgi --chmod-socket=664

Configuring uWSGI to run with a .ini file

每次都运行上面命令拉起django application实在麻烦,使用.ini文件能简化工作,方法如下:

在application目录下创建文件mysite_uwsgi.ini,填入并修改下面内容:

# mysite_uwsgi.ini file
[uwsgi]

# Django-related settings
# the base directory (full path)
chdir           = /path/to/your/project
# Django's wsgi file
module          = project.wsgi
# the virtualenv (full path)
home            = /path/to/virtualenv

# process-related settings
# master
master          = true
# maximum number of worker processes
processes       = 10
# the socket (use the full path to be safe
socket          = /path/to/your/project/mysite.sock
# ... with appropriate permissions - may be needed
# chmod-socket    = 664
# clear environment on exit
vacuum          = true

现在,只要执行以下命令,就能够拉起django application:

uwsgi --ini mysite_uwsgi.ini # the --ini option is used to specify a file

Make uWSGI startup when the system boots

编辑文件/etc/rc.local, 添加下面内容到这行代码之前exit 0:

/usr/local/bin/uwsgi --socket /path/to/mysite.sock --module /path/to/mysite.wsgi --chmod-socket=666

uWSGI的更多配置

env = DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=mysite.settings # set an environment variable
pidfile = /tmp/project-master.pid # create a pidfile
harakiri = 20 # respawn processes taking more than 20 seconds
limit-as = 128 # limit the project to 128 MB
max-requests = 5000 # respawn processes after serving 5000 requests
daemonize = /var/log/uwsgi/yourproject.log # background the process & log
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