# 基于R语言绘制坐标轴截断图

• 分割+组合法，如基于ggplot2, 利用coord_cartesian()将整个图形分割成多个图片,再用grid 包组合分割结果
• plotrix R包
• 基本绘图函数+plotrix R包

### 示例数据

df <- data.frame(name=c("AY","BY","CY","DY","EY","FY","GY"),Money=c(1510,1230,995,48,35,28,10))
df

#加载 R 包
library(ggplot2)
# ggplot画图
p0 <- ggplot(df, aes(name,Money,fill = name)) +
geom_col(position = position_dodge(width = 0.8),color="black") +
labs(x = NULL, y = NULL) +
scale_fill_brewer(palette="Accent")+
#scale_x_discrete(expand = c(0, 0)) +
scale_y_continuous(breaks = seq(0, 1600, 400), limits = c(0, 1600), expand = c(0,0)) +
theme(axis.text.x = element_text(angle = 45, hjust = 1), legend.title = element_blank())

gap.barplot <- function(df, y.cols = 1:ncol(df), sd.cols = NULL, btm = NULL,
top = NULL, min.range = 10, max.fold = 5, ratio = 1, gap.width = 1, brk.type = "normal",
brk.bg = "white", brk.srt = 135, brk.size = 1, brk.col = "black", brk.lwd = 1,
cex.error = 1, ...) {
if (missing(df))
stop("No data provided.")
if (is.numeric(y.cols))
ycol <- y.cols else ycol <- colnames(df) == y.cols
if (!is.null(sd.cols))
if (is.numeric(sd.cols))
scol <- sd.cols else scol <- colnames(df) == sd.cols
## Arrange data
opts <- options()
options(warn = -1)
y <- t(df[, ycol])
colnames(y) <- NULL
if (missing(sd.cols))
sdx <- 0 else sdx <- t(df[, scol])
sdu <- y + sdx
sdd <- y - sdx
ylim <- c(0, max(sdu) * 1.05)
## 如果没有设置btm或top，自动计算
if (is.null(btm) | is.null(top)) {
autox <- .auto.breaks(dt = sdu, min.range = min.range, max.fold = max.fold)
if (autox\$flag) {
btm <- autox\$btm
top <- autox\$top
} else {
xx <- barplot(y, beside = TRUE, ylim = ylim, ...)
if (!missing(sd.cols))
errorbar(xx, y, sdu - y, horiz = FALSE, cex = cex.error)
box()
return(invisible(xx))
}
}
## Set up virtual y limits
halflen <- btm - ylim[1]
xlen <- halflen * 0.1 * gap.width
v_tps1 <- btm + xlen  # virtual top positions
v_tps2 <- v_tps1 + halflen * ratio
v_ylim <- c(ylim[1], v_tps2)
r_tps1 <- top  # real top positions
r_tps2 <- ylim[2]
## Rescale data
lmx <- summary(lm(c(v_tps1, v_tps2) ~ c(r_tps1, r_tps2)))
lmx <- lmx\$coefficients
sel1 <- y > top
sel2 <- y >= btm & y <= top
y[sel1] <- y[sel1] * lmx[2] + lmx[1]
y[sel2] <- btm + xlen/2
sel1 <- sdd > top
sel2 <- sdd >= btm & sdd <= top
sdd[sel1] <- sdd[sel1] * lmx[2] + lmx[1]
sdd[sel2] <- btm + xlen/2
sel1 <- sdu > top
sel2 <- sdu >= btm & sdu <= top
sdu[sel1] <- sdu[sel1] * lmx[2] + lmx[1]
sdu[sel2] <- btm + xlen/2
## bar plot
xx <- barplot(y, beside = TRUE, ylim = v_ylim, axes = FALSE, names.arg = NULL,
...)
## error bars
if (!missing(sd.cols))
errorbar(xx, y, sdu - y, horiz = FALSE, cex = cex.error)
## Real ticks and labels
brks1 <- pretty(seq(0, btm, length = 10), n = 4)
brks1 <- brks1[brks1 >= 0 & brks1 < btm]
brks2 <- pretty(seq(top, r_tps2, length = 10), n = 4)
brks2 <- brks2[brks2 > top & brks2 <= r_tps2]
labx <- c(brks1, brks2)
## Virtual ticks
brks <- c(brks1, brks2 * lmx[2] + lmx[1])
axis(2, at = brks, labels = labx)
box()
## break marks
pos <- par("usr")
xyratio <- (pos[2] - pos[1])/(pos[4] - pos[3])
xlen <- (pos[2] - pos[1])/50 * brk.size
px1 <- pos[1] - xlen
px2 <- pos[1] + xlen
px3 <- pos[2] - xlen
px4 <- pos[2] + xlen
py1 <- btm
py2 <- v_tps1
rect(px1, py1, px4, py2, col = brk.bg, xpd = TRUE, border = brk.bg)
x1 <- c(px1, px1, px3, px3)
x2 <- c(px2, px2, px4, px4)
y1 <- c(py1, py2, py1, py2)
y2 <- c(py1, py2, py1, py2)
px <- .xy.adjust(x1, x2, y1, y2, xlen, xyratio, angle = brk.srt * pi/90)
if (brk.type == "zigzag") {
x1 <- c(x1, px1, px3)
x2 <- c(x2, px2, px4)
if (brk.srt > 90) {
y1 <- c(y1, py2, py2)
y2 <- c(y2, py1, py1)
} else {
y1 <- c(y1, py1, py1)
y2 <- c(y2, py2, py2)
}
}
if (brk.type == "zigzag") {
px\$x1 <- c(pos[1], px2, px1, pos[2], px4, px3)
px\$x2 <- c(px2, px1, pos[1], px4, px3, pos[2])
mm <- (v_tps1 - btm)/3
px\$y1 <- rep(c(v_tps1, v_tps1 - mm, v_tps1 - 2 * mm), 2)
px\$y2 <- rep(c(v_tps1 - mm, v_tps1 - 2 * mm, btm), 2)
}
par(xpd = TRUE)
segments(px\$x1, px\$y1, px\$x2, px\$y2, lty = 1, col = brk.col, lwd = brk.lwd)
options(opts)
par(xpd = FALSE)
invisible(xx)
}
## 绘制误差线的函数
errorbar <- function(x, y, sd.lwr, sd.upr, horiz = FALSE, cex = 1, ...) {
if (missing(sd.lwr) & missing(sd.upr))
return(NULL)
if (missing(sd.upr))
sd.upr <- sd.lwr
if (missing(sd.lwr))
sd.lwr <- sd.upr
if (!horiz) {
arrows(x, y, y1 = y - sd.lwr, length = 0.1 * cex, angle = 90, ...)
arrows(x, y, y1 = y + sd.upr, length = 0.1 * cex, angle = 90, ...)
} else {
arrows(y, x, x1 = y - sd.lwr, length = 0.1 * cex, angle = 90, ...)
arrows(y, x, x1 = y + sd.upr, length = 0.1 * cex, angle = 90, ...)
}
}
.xy.adjust <- function(x1, x2, y1, y2, xlen, xyratio, angle) {
xx1 <- x1 - xlen * cos(angle)
yy1 <- y1 + xlen * sin(angle)/xyratio
xx2 <- x2 + xlen * cos(angle)
yy2 <- y2 - xlen * sin(angle)/xyratio
return(list(x1 = xx1, x2 = xx2, y1 = yy1, y2 = yy2))
}
## 自动计算断点位置的函数
.auto.breaks <- function(dt, min.range, max.fold) {
datax <- sort(as.vector(dt))
flags <- FALSE
btm <- top <- NULL
if (max(datax)/min(datax) < min.range)
return(list(flag = flags, btm = btm, top = top))
m <- max(datax)
btm <- datax[2]
i <- 3
while (m/datax[i] > max.fold) {
btm <- datax[i]
flags <- TRUE
i <- i + 1
}
if (flags) {
btm <- btm + 0.05 * btm
x <- 2
top <- datax[i] * (x - 1)/x
while (top < btm) {
x <- x + 1
top <- datax[i] * (x - 1)/x
if (x > 100) {
flags <- FALSE
break
}
}
}
return(list(flag = flags, btm = btm, top = top))
}