[译]7个技巧重塑认知,让你睡得更好

翻译BY刘安娜20161111

Struggling with sticking to a healthy bedtime and tired of daytime fatigue? Your mind may be to blame.

坚持健康作息,却睡得不好,白天更累?也许你的思路有问题。

How you think about sleep and how you prioritize it in your daily life can have a significant impact on your quality of rest. If you view rest as a chore or waste of time, it likely won’t top your mental to-do-list.

你如何看待睡眠,以及每天怎么安排它,显著影响你的休息质量。如果你觉得休息很麻烦,耽误时间,那很可能你不会重视它。

But, changing your mindset on snoozing can give you a boost. Try these tips to mentally rewire your brain for better sleep and get motivated to make healthy rest a part of your lifestyle.

然而,改变你对小憩的态度会让你激情迸发。尝试以下这些技巧,会让你思路焕新,睡得更好,激励你将睡得健康作为生活方式的一部分。

1. Rethink Your Perspective on Sleep 重塑你的睡眠观点

How you view rest (whether positive, negative, dismissively, or with anxiety) can significantly affect your quality of sleep. Learn to see sleep in a new light by reminding yourself of the immense value healthy habits bring to our lives.

你对睡眠的态度(无论是正面的、负面的,不屑一顾的,或者让你焦虑的)显著地影响你的睡眠质量。学会用新眼光看待睡眠,把它看作是生活中的优质健康习惯。

Every minute of shuteye is precious. During sleep, your body actively restores, renews and heals. No matter what you value in life, it’s almost a guarantee that sleep plays a direct role.

合眼休息的每分钟都很宝贵。在睡觉的时候,身体在自我修复,主动焕新和复原。无论你的人生价值观几何,毫无疑问,睡眠有重大意义。

Here are just a few reasons why sleep should be a top priority, according to the Harvard Health Sleep website:

哈佛健康睡眠网声称,以下是睡眠最重要的几点原因:

It affects how you look.它影响外表。

It affects your fitness.影响体形。

It affects your health.影响健康。

It affects your brain.影响大脑运作。

It affects your relationships.影响人际关系。

It affects your job.影响职场绩效。

What are your core priorities? Is there a fitness goal you are trying to achieve, do you want to be more present for your family, or do you want to simply stay healthy? Keep this awareness in mind as you begin rewiring your mind and improving your sleep habits.

你的核心目标是什么?你是否尝试塑形,或者想要和谐家庭关系,还是只想健健康康的?当你开始重塑认知,改善睡眠习惯时,记住你的核心目标。

When you feel like there is too much to do in your day to make time for rest or you are struggling to put your iPad down late at night, remind yourself of the reasons why you want to sleep better.

你感觉事情太多、没时间休息,或者深夜和Ipad难舍难分的时候,提醒自己你需要更好的睡眠的原因。

2. Put Stress In Its Place 把控压力

Although being cognizant of the value of sleep is important, it is also essential to not preoccupy your mind with negative thoughts and stress if sleep doesn’t come easyly.

尽管众所周知睡眠很重要,但如果一时睡不着也不必过分担忧,觉得压力山大。

Not only can this create sleep anxiety, but researchers at the Henry Ford Hospital found that people who ruminate on stress or try to avoid it were more likely to have insomnia symptoms. Other stress-relief tactics like positive reframing, religion and venting did not increase insomnia.

亨利福特医院的研究人员发现,压力不仅引起失眠焦虑,陷入压力无法自拔或试图无视压力的人更容易失眠。其他的压力释放方法,例如积极思考重塑,宗教信仰,以及感情宣泄则降低失眠发生率。

If you are stressing over snoozing, try positive affirmations – replace thoughts like “I can’t get to sleep and I have so much to do tomorrow!” with statements like “I will fall asleep soon and feel well-rested tomorrow”. If you are not physically tired, get out of bed and read or relax to music in a dim room until you feel sleepy.

如果你睡不着,觉得压力大,试试正面陈述,例如“我很快就睡着了,明天精神焕发”,而不是想着“我睡不着啊,明天还有好多事儿啊!”。如果你确实不困,起床读会儿书,或者在昏暗的房间里听音乐,放松一下,直到你觉得困了再睡。

Other studies also found that people with higher levels of gratitude experienced better sleep. Gratitude also has real effects on sleep-boosting neurotransmitters! Remind yourself of what you are thankful for before bed rather than you to-do list or stressful thoughts.

其他研究表明心怀感恩的人睡得更好。感激的心情切实影响到促进睡眠的神经传导物质!睡前多想想你所感激的事,少想你的待办清单,或让你有压力的想法。

You can also neutralize stress and sleep-stealing thoughts with relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation and visualization. Try different things to see what works for you, and incorporate these habits into your daily routine.

你可以用类似于深呼吸、冥想和视觉化想象等放松方法来消除压力,驱赶让你睡不着的想法。尝试各种办法,看哪种适合你,然后把这些习惯固化在你的日常里。

3. Plan for Better Rest 制定最佳睡眠计划

An evening pre-bed routine helps prepare you mentally and physically for rest. Your body and mind know that it is time to start winding down, and that sleep is soon to follow. Your nighttime routine should have a consistent pattern and timing every night, and should allow enough time to get adequate rest in.

睡前仪式能帮你准备好身心,投入睡眠。你的身体和思绪都开启了睡眠模式,很快就会睡着了。你的夜间睡眠例行程序应该模式固定,每晚时间固定,并且有足够时间进行充分休息。

Two hours before bedtime, you might start with a warm bath or shower. Slip into pajamas, begin dimming lights, and drop the thermostat to cool your bedroom. Start weaning yourself off of smartphones, laptops and television. Stop checking emails and Facebook, and make a conscious effort to be calm and tranquil.

睡前两小时你可以来个热水泡浴或洗个澡。换上睡衣,调暗灯光,调节温度,准备好卧室。远离手机、电脑和电视。别看邮件和脸书,有意识调整自己心神宁静。

Include habits that relax you and release stress as mentioned above. Try reading, journaling, listening to calm music, stretching, a crossword puzzle, meditation, a cup of decaf tea – anything that puts you in the mood for slumber. When it’s close to bedtime, wash your face, brush your teeth, and slip into your cozy bed ready for sleep.

除了以上说的能让你放松,消除压力的习惯以外,你还可以试试阅读,写日记,听轻音乐,拉伸,做字谜游戏,喝一杯无咖啡因咖啡——任何能让你想睡觉的方法。快到睡觉时间时,洗把脸,刷刷牙,躺进舒适的被窝,准备睡觉。

4. Set Gradual Goals 设计阶段性目标

When it comes to sleep, small changes are often best for long-term results. Set gradual and attainable goals for getting more sleep or adjusting your bedtime and wake time. You might start by sleeping 15 minutes more per night, or shifting your bedtime or alarm 15 minutes earlier.

谈到睡眠,微小变化长远来看效果最好。设定阶段性的可行目标,睡得更多,或调整作息时间。一开始可能每晚多睡15分钟,或者把你的就寝时间整体提早15分钟。

Think of what you hope to accomplish, and set gradual steps for getting there. You can even make it a game where you compete against your personal best, or work together with a partner for encouragement.

想想你的期望目标,设定阶段性计划,持续进步直至实现。你也可以把这当做突破个人极限的游戏,或者和小伙伴们一起努力,互相鼓励。

5. Track Your Sleep 追踪睡眠状况

For many people, tracking sleep habits and improvements toward goals can be motivating and encouraging. Use a journal or try sleep apps to monitor when you are sleeping and waking. Tracking rest can help you see where you can improve, and many apps also provide helpful insight into ways your routine affects sleep.

对很多人而言,追踪睡眠习惯和改善情况给他们很大鼓励。写日记,或者用睡眠软件监控你的入睡情况和清醒时间。这种追踪帮你认清可改进的不足,很多软件也有助于你学习日常习惯如何影响睡眠质量。

6. Reward Yourself for Reaching Goals 实现目标的自我奖励

We are mentally wired to enjoy and seek rewards after we do things. One study on obesity found that people who set goals, monitored progress, and rewarded themselves for changing unhealthy habits had the most success at weight loss. While obesity and sleep are different, the behavioral aspects of changing habits are similar, and links between goals and rewards have been studied many times.

我们生来渴望任务完成后的奖励。一项关于肥胖的研究发现,那些设定目标、敦促自己执行并在改变了不健康的习惯后奖励自己的人,最可能减肥成功。尽管肥胖和睡眠不是一回事,改变习惯的行为机制是类似的,也有多项研究表明目标和奖励之间关联紧密。

Plan a few small and healthy rewards to treat yourself as you reach your better sleep goals. Think about small motivators that will encourage you. Examples might include saving episodes of a favorite show on DVR, having a small piece of dark chocolate, listening to your favorite song in the morning, indulging in a new book or new workout gear, or a spa treat.

设计一些健康的小奖励,用于你实现了更健康的睡眠目标时奖励自己。想想那些能鼓励你的动力源,比如你最爱看的电视,吃一小块黑巧克力,早晨听你最爱的音乐,畅读一本新书,或者享受一套新的运动装备,或者来一次Spa。

7. Stay Consistent 坚持到底

Consistent routines and sleep/wake times are an important part of good sleep hygiene and of developing new habits, as well.

坚持日常习惯不变,以及固定入睡和起床时间,对于良好的睡眠卫生和建立新习惯很重要。

Your internal sleep clock operates best with consistency, and studies even show consistent sleep wake times with healthier body weight. When you plan your sleep schedule, pick times that you can stick to within one hour all week long, even on the weekends.

习惯固定不变时体内的睡眠生物钟运转最佳,同时,有研究表明坚持固定作息时间的人身体更健康苗条。你做作息计划时,选择你每天(包括周末)都能坚持的时间,前后不超过一小时误差。

Stick with your goals and the new routine, but don’t get discouraged if you slip up for a day or two – you can always jump back in.

坚持新作息习惯,坚守目标。如果有一两天没做到也不必沮丧——你总是可以重新开始。

Remember, focus on the benefits of rest and make a conscious effort to prioritize sleep. Seek ways to deal with stress, and make better rest a reality by planning and sticking to a consistent schedule, with goals and rewards to motivate you along the way.

你需牢记,要聚焦于休息的益处,致力于将睡眠作为重中之重。寻求应对压力的各种办法,用计划和坚持固定作息来创造更好的睡眠,设定目标,并在目标实现的过程中以奖励激励自己。

What encourages you to sleep better? How do you make a rest a priority in your routine?

你受何影响想改善睡眠?你如何把休息提到日程重点?

——想法——

1. 自从关于早起的话题流行起来以后,大量文章都鼓励我们把起床的时间提前再提前,仿佛一个人要是不能早上5点起床学习、工作,他就和一条咸鱼没有什么区别了。然而早起的前提是充足的睡眠,否则即便是早上成功的离开被窝,一个睡眠不足、精神恍惚的人,恐怕也不会有什么学习效率或者创新的建树。就算是《吉田医生哈佛求学记》作者吉田穗波(书评点这里),为了错开带孩子和上班的时间,早上3点起床学习,最后冲刺进了哈佛就读,她可是前一天晚上9点就睡觉的人哦,到了早上3点其实已经休息了6个小时了。

对我本人而言,我每天睡眠7小时左右就足够了,每天大概晚上10点到11点休息,因此,早上6点左右起床是合适的。深度睡眠、休息充分的前提下,5点起床也是可以实现的。偶尔有睡眠状态不太好,可能会顺应身体的需求推到7点,或者8点才起床。总而言之,充足的休息才是高效学习或工作的前提。早起不过是充分休息的副产品,通过早起,获得更多学习或工作的时间资源。所以,早起既不是原因,也不是目的。

2. 在完成一项长期项目的过程中,每个人都需要给自己一点奖励。无论是逐渐调整作息,习惯早起,还是每天持续学英语,或者坚持运动以期减肥。人性是趋利避害的,是贪图安逸的。当我们主动放弃了安逸,规划自己向更高阶迈进时,就需要阶段性的给自己奖励。我就是采用每减5公斤给自己买一件小礼物的办法,从3月到现在已经减了13公斤。虽然进度不算快,但胜在持续不反弹,采用的方法也比较健康,不激进,而且成本相对较低。

3. 当计划被打乱,或者预期目标没实现时,不要抓狂,也不要自暴自弃。这一点在长期减肥过程中尤其重要,因为身体并不遵循简单的加减法规则,也许一段时间的限制饮食和运动之后,体重并没有变化,甚至还有可能出现上涨。这种时候最需要保持冷静,客观观察,究竟是时间尚短,努力还未发挥作用,还是采用的方法并不适合自己,或不适合这个阶段。从而针对性的采取行动,或者持续执行原计划,或者增加一些新的内容,或者干脆全盘取消,采取新的计划和行动。

读完本文全部内容,你们有什么想法呢?请告诉我。


原文:How to Rewire Your Brain for Better Sleep

作者:ROSIE OSMUN

“本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转载及用于任何商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本人承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关著作权人的通知后,删除文章。”

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