Netty4实战 - TCP粘包&拆包解决方案

Netty是目前业界最流行的NIO框架之一,它的健壮性、高性能、可定制和可扩展性在同类框架中都是首屈一指。它已经得到了成百上千的商业项目的验证,例如Hadoop的RPC框架Avro就使用了Netty作为底层通信框架,其他的业界主流RPC框架,例如:Dubbo、Google 开源的gRPC、新浪微博开源的Motan、Twitter 开源的 finagle也使用Netty来构建高性能的异步通信能力。另外,阿里巴巴开源的消息中间件RocketMQ也使用Netty作为底层通信框架。

TCP黏包/拆包

TCP是一个“流”协议,所谓流,就是没有界限的一长串二进制数据。TCP作为传输层协议并不不了解上层业务数据的具体含义,它会根据TCP缓冲区的实际情况进行数据包的划分,所以在业务上认为是一个完整的包,可能会被TCP拆分成多个包进行发送,也有可能把多个小的包封装成一个大的数据包发送,这就是所谓的TCP粘包和拆包问题。

粘包问题的解决策略

由于底层的TCP无法理解上层的业务数据,所以在底层是无法保证数据包不被拆分和重组的,这个问题只能通过上层的应用协议栈设计来解决。业界的主流协议的解决方案,可以归纳如下:

  1. 消息定长,报文大小固定长度,例如每个报文的长度固定为200字节,如果不够空位补空格;
  2. 包尾添加特殊分隔符,例如每条报文结束都添加回车换行符(例如FTP协议)或者指定特殊字符作为报文分隔符,接收方通过特殊分隔符切分报文区分;
  3. 将消息分为消息头和消息体,消息头中包含表示信息的总长度(或者消息体长度)的字段;
  4. 更复杂的自定义应用层协议。

Netty粘包和拆包解决方案

Netty提供了多个解码器,可以进行分包的操作,分别是:

  • LineBasedFrameDecoder
  • DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder(添加特殊分隔符报文来分包)
  • FixedLengthFrameDecoder(使用定长的报文来分包)
  • LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder

LineBasedFrameDecoder解码器

LineBasedFrameDecoder是回车换行解码器,如果用户发送的消息以回车换行符作为消息结束的标识,则可以直接使用Netty的LineBasedFrameDecoder对消息进行解码,只需要在初始化Netty服务端或者客户端时将LineBasedFrameDecoder正确的添加到ChannelPipeline中即可,不需要自己重新实现一套换行解码器。

Netty依赖

        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.netty</groupId>
            <artifactId>netty-all</artifactId>
            <version>4.1.9.Final</version>
        </dependency>

1.1 Server端

import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.LineBasedFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 *
 * @author Ricky
 *
 */
public class LineBasedServer {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    public void bind(int port) throws Exception {

        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
            .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
            .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 1024)
            .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                    ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                    p.addLast(new LineBasedFrameDecoder(1024));
                    p.addLast(new StringDecoder());
                    p.addLast(new StringEncoder());

                    p.addLast(new LineServerHandler());
                }
            });

            // Bind and start to accept incoming connections.
            ChannelFuture f = b.bind(port).sync(); // (7)

            logger.info("server bind port:{}", port);

            // Wait until the server socket is closed.
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();

        } finally {
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new LineBasedServer().bind(Constants.PORT);
    }
}
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

public class LineServerHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    private int count = 0;
    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg)
            throws Exception {

        count++;
        String body = (String) msg;
        logger.info("server read msg:{}, count:{}", body, count);

        String response = "hello from server"+System.getProperty("line.separator");
        ctx.writeAndFlush(response);
    }

    @Override
    public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause)
            throws Exception {
        logger.error("server caught exception", cause);
        ctx.close();
    }

}

1.2 Client

import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.LineBasedFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;

public class LineBasedClient {

    public void connect(String host, int port) throws InterruptedException {

        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(group)
            .channel(NioSocketChannel.class)
            .option(ChannelOption.TCP_NODELAY, true)
            .handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                    ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                    p.addLast(new LineBasedFrameDecoder(1024));
                    p.addLast(new StringDecoder());
                    p.addLast(new StringEncoder());

                    p.addLast(new LineClientHandler());
                }
            });

            ChannelFuture future = b.connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT).sync();

            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new LineBasedClient().connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT);
    }
}
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

public class LineClientHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    private int count =0;

    @Override
    public void channelActive(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {
        // Send the message to Server
       for(int i=0; i<100; i++){

           String msg = "hello from client "+i;
           logger.info("client send message:{}", msg);

           ctx.writeAndFlush(msg+System.getProperty("line.separator"));
       }

    }

    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg)
            throws Exception {
        String body = (String) msg;
        count++;
        logger.info("client read msg:{}, count:{}", body, count);
    }

    @Override
    public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause)
            throws Exception {
        logger.error("client caught exception", cause);
        ctx.close();
    }
}

DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder解码器

DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder是分隔符解码器,用户可以指定消息结束的分隔符,它可以自动完成以分隔符作为码流结束标识的消息的解码。回车换行解码器实际上是一种特殊的DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder解码器。

import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.buffer.Unpooled;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 * 
 * @author Ricky
 *
 */
public class DelimiterServer {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());


    public void bind(int port) throws Exception {

        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup(1);
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
            .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
            .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 1024)
            .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                    ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                    p.addLast(new DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder(1024, Unpooled.copiedBuffer(Constants.DELIMITER.getBytes())));
                    p.addLast(new StringDecoder());
                    p.addLast(new StringEncoder());

                    p.addLast(new DelimiterServerHandler());
                }
            });

            // Bind and start to accept incoming connections.
            ChannelFuture f = b.bind(port).sync(); // (7)

            logger.info("server bind port:{}", port);

            // Wait until the server socket is closed.
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();

        } finally {
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new DelimiterServer().bind(Constants.PORT);
    }
}

Client:

import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.buffer.Unpooled;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;

public class DelimiterClient {
    
    public void connect(String host, int port) throws InterruptedException {

        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(group)
            .channel(NioSocketChannel.class)
            .option(ChannelOption.TCP_NODELAY, true)
            .handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                    ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                    p.addLast(new DelimiterBasedFrameDecoder(1024, Unpooled.copiedBuffer(Constants.DELIMITER.getBytes())));
                    p.addLast(new StringDecoder());
                    p.addLast(new StringEncoder());

                    p.addLast(new DelimiterClientHandler());
                }
            });

            ChannelFuture future = b.connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT).sync();

            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new DelimiterClient().connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT);
    }
}

FixedLengthFrameDecoder解码器

FixedLengthFrameDecoder是固定长度解码器,它能够按照指定的长度对消息进行自动解码,开发者不需要考虑TCP的粘包/拆包等问题,非常实用。

对于定长消息,如果消息实际长度小于定长,则往往会进行补位操作,它在一定程度上导致了空间和资源的浪费。但是它的优点也是非常明显的,编解码比较简单,因此在实际项目中仍然有一定的应用场景。

import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.buffer.Unpooled;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.FixedLengthFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;
import io.netty.handler.logging.LogLevel;
import io.netty.handler.logging.LoggingHandler;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class NettyServer {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    public void bind(int port) throws InterruptedException {

        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup(1);
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            //配置服务器启动类
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
                    .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 100)
                    .handler(new LoggingHandler(LogLevel.INFO))//配置日志输出
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
                        protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch)
                                throws Exception {
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new FixedLengthFrameDecoder(1<<5));
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new StringDecoder());
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new StringEncoder());

                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new ServerHandler());
                        }
                    });

            ChannelFuture f = b.bind(port).sync();
            //等待服务器退出
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            //释放线程资源
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    private class ServerHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
        private int counter = 0;

        @Override
        public void channelActive(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {
            super.channelActive(ctx);
        }

        @Override
        public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {

            logger.info("接收客户端msg:{}", msg);

            ByteBuf echo = Unpooled.copiedBuffer(String.format("Hello from server:", counter).getBytes());
            ctx.writeAndFlush(echo);
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {

        new NettyServer().bind(Constants.PORT);
    }
}
import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import io.netty.handler.codec.FixedLengthFrameDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringDecoder;
import io.netty.handler.codec.string.StringEncoder;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class NettyClient {

    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    public void connect(String host, int port) throws InterruptedException {
        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(group)
                    .channel(NioSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.TCP_NODELAY, true)
                    .handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
                        protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new FixedLengthFrameDecoder(1<<5));
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new StringDecoder());
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new StringEncoder());

                            ch.pipeline().addLast(new ClientHandler());
                        }
                    });

            ChannelFuture future = b.connect(host, port).sync();

            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    private class ClientHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {

        @Override
        public void channelActive(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) throws Exception {

            for(int i=0; i<100; i++){

                String msg = "hello from client "+i;
                logger.info("client send message:{}", msg);

                ctx.writeAndFlush(msg);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg)
                throws Exception {

            logger.info("接收服务端msg:{}", msg);
        }

        @Override
        public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause)
                throws Exception {
            cause.printStackTrace();
            ctx.close();
        }

    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {

        new NettyClient().connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT);
    }
}

LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder解码器

大多数的协议(私有或者公有),协议头中会携带长度字段,用于标识消息体或者整包消息的长度,例如SMPP、HTTP协议等。由于基于长度解码需求的通用性,以及为了降低用户的协议开发难度,Netty提供了LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder,自动屏蔽TCP底层的拆包和粘包问题,只需要传入正确的参数,即可轻松解决“读半包“问题。

Message.java

import java.nio.charset.Charset;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class Message {

    private final Charset charset = Charset.forName("utf-8");

    private byte magicType;
    private byte type;//消息类型  0xAF 表示心跳包    0xBF 表示超时包  0xCF 业务信息包
    private long requestId; //请求id
    private int length;
    private String body;

    public Message(){

    }

    public Message(byte magicType, byte type, long requestId, byte[] data) {
        this.magicType = magicType;
        this.type = type;
        this.requestId = requestId;
        this.length = data.length;
        this.body = new String(data, charset);
    }

    public Message(byte magicType, byte type, long requestId, String body) {
        this.magicType = magicType;
        this.type = type;
        this.requestId = requestId;
        this.length = body.getBytes(charset).length;
        this.body = body;
    }
    ...setter/getter
}

MessageDecoder.java

import com.mindflow.netty4.unpack.model.Message;
import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class MessageDecoder extends LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

    //头部信息的大小应该是 byte+byte+int = 1+1+8+4 = 14
    private static final int HEADER_SIZE = 14;

    public MessageDecoder(int maxFrameLength, int lengthFieldOffset, int lengthFieldLength) {
        super(maxFrameLength, lengthFieldOffset, lengthFieldLength);
    }

    @Override
    protected Object decode(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, ByteBuf in) throws Exception {
        if (in == null) {
            return null;
        }

        if (in.readableBytes() <= HEADER_SIZE) {
            return null;
        }

        in.markReaderIndex();

        byte magic = in.readByte();
        byte type = in.readByte();
        long requestId = in.readLong();
        int dataLength = in.readInt();

        // FIXME 如果dataLength过大,可能导致问题
        if (in.readableBytes() < dataLength) {
            in.resetReaderIndex();
            return null;
        }

        byte[] data = new byte[dataLength];
        in.readBytes(data);

        String body = new String(data, "UTF-8");
        Message msg = new Message(magic, type, requestId, body);
        return msg;
    }
}

MessageEncoder.java

import com.mindflow.netty4.unpack.model.Message;
import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.MessageToByteEncoder;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class MessageEncoder extends MessageToByteEncoder<Message> {
    private final Charset charset = Charset.forName("utf-8");

    @Override
    protected void encode(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Message msg, ByteBuf out) throws Exception {

        //
        out.writeByte(msg.getMagicType());
        out.writeByte(msg.getType());
        out.writeLong(msg.getRequestId());

        byte[] data = msg.getBody().getBytes(charset);
        out.writeInt(data.length);
        out.writeBytes(data);
    }
}

服务端:

import com.mindflow.netty4.unpack.model.Message;
import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class NettyServer {
    private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(this.getClass());

    public void bind(int port) throws InterruptedException {

        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup(1);
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
                    .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 128)
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
                        public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                            ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                            p.addLast(new MessageDecoder(1<<20, 10, 4));
                            p.addLast(new MessageEncoder());
                            p.addLast(new ServerHandler());
                        }
                    });

            // Bind and start to accept incoming connections.
            ChannelFuture future = b.bind(port).sync(); // (7)

            logger.info("server bind port:{}", port);

            // Wait until the server socket is closed.
            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();

        } finally {
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    private class ServerHandler extends SimpleChannelInboundHandler<Message> {

        @Override
        protected void channelRead0(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Message msg) throws Exception {

            logger.info("server read msg:{}", msg);

            Message resp = new Message(msg.getMagicType(), msg.getType(), msg.getRequestId(), "Hello world from server");
            ctx.writeAndFlush(resp);
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new NettyServer().bind(Constants.PORT);
    }
}

客户端:

import com.mindflow.netty4.unpack.model.Message;
import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.*;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

/**
 * @author Ricky Fung
 */
public class NettyClient {

    public void connect(String host, int port) throws InterruptedException {
        EventLoopGroup group = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(group)
                    .channel(NioSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.TCP_NODELAY, true)
                    .handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
                        protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {

                            ChannelPipeline p = ch.pipeline();
                            p.addLast(new MessageDecoder(1<<20, 10, 4));
                            p.addLast(new MessageEncoder());

                            p.addLast(new ClientHandler());
                        }
                    });

            ChannelFuture future = b.connect(host, port).sync();

            future.awaitUninterruptibly(2000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
            if(future.channel().isActive()){

                for(int i=0; i<100; i++) {

                    String body = "Hello world from client:"+ i;
                    Message msg = new Message((byte) 0XAF, (byte) 0XBF, i, body);

                    future.channel().writeAndFlush(msg);
                }
            }

            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            group.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    private class ClientHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
        private Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());

        @Override
        public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg)
                throws Exception {

            logger.info("client read msg:{}, ", msg);

        }

        @Override
        public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause)
                throws Exception {
            logger.error("client caught exception", cause);
            ctx.close();
        }
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        new NettyClient().connect(Constants.HOST, Constants.PORT);
    }
}

参考资料

Netty API Reference

Netty系列之Netty编解码框架分析

源码下载

https://github.com/TiFG/netty4-in-action/tree/master/netty4-unpack-demo

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