L11 U6 What you read

Module 1 Talking about a book you've read

1. Talking about a story

  • Once upon a time, there was a … 从前,有一个……
  • full of pride 充满自豪
  • It's about … 故事是关于……;故事讲的是……
  • an honest, lively, witty girl 一位诚实、活泼而聪明的女孩
  • first impression 第一印象;初次印象
  • The funny thing is … 奇怪的是……
  • bringing them together 让他们结合;让他们走到一起
  • get over their initial impressions 改变他们最初的看法
  • perfect ending 圆满的结局;皆大欢喜的结局

谈论故事 使用类似表达引入故事:

  • I've just finished reading a really good book. 我刚刚看完了一本很不错的书。
  • It's about Elizabeth, an honest, lively, witty girl. 书中讲的是一个诚实、活泼而聪明的女孩 Elizabeth 的故事。
  • It's my favorite book of all time. 这是我目前最喜欢的一本书。

你可以使用类似表达来讲述故事:

  • Once upon a time, there was a proud young woman. 从前,有一位骄傲的年轻女子。
  • Their first impressions of each other are not very good. 他们对彼此之间的第一印象不算很好。
  • The funny thing is, they keep running into each other. 有趣的是,他们老是相遇。
  • Something is bringing them together. 天意让他们走到了一起。
  • It has the perfect ending – they fall in love and live happily ever after. 故事有着圆满的结局 - 他们相爱,从此快乐地生活在一起。
    语言点:Once upon a time 和 live happily ever 是讲故事的传统手法。你经常可以在童话和寓言等类型的故事中看到它们。在电影中,说话人用它们来营造效果。

2. Tense shifting for narratives

  • She almost missed her opportunity. 她差点错过了机会。
  • who insists on choosing her own path 她坚持选择自己的人生道路
  • They are meant to be together. 他们注定在一起。
  • They both tend to judge people. 他们两人都比较爱评判人。
  • able to get over 能够改变/克服
  • Who wouldn't want the perfect ending? 谁不喜欢圆满的结局?

故事讲述中的时态变换
一般来说,在讲故事时,你应该努力保持时态的一致。如果开始用过去时,那么从一个从句或句子到下一个从句或句子,都继续使用过去时。

  • He heard a knock at the door, so he opened it. 他听到敲门声,于是开了门。
  • He couldn't believe what he saw. 他不敢相信自己看到的一切。

但是,有时你可能希望变换时态。例如,讲述故事时,常常会使用进行时或过去完成时。然后你想改用一般现在时,让故事显得更接近现在。

  • All of the characters have eaten way too much. Suddenly, one of them burps. 所有人物都吃得太撑了,突然一个人打起了饱嗝。
  • He was crossing the ocean in a small boat. Suddenly, there's a huge storm. 他搭乘一条小船,横渡大洋。这时突然碰到了一场巨大的暴风雨。
  • I've been reading an amazing book. Right now, the characters are lost in a mysterious, dark forest. 我在读一本很有意思的书。现在,书中人物在黑暗神秘的森林中迷路了。

你可以改用现在进行时或现在完成时,表示故事中一个正在发生的转折点或复杂情况。

  • They fall in love. Something bigger than them is bringing them together. 他们相爱了。一种巨大的力量正让他们走到一起。
  • He said that they were meant to be together. Now he has proposed marriage. 他说他们注定要在一起。现在他已经求婚了。

当你想表达自己的看法时,常常从过去时变为现在时。

  • So he found love and his lost dog, too. Isn't that the perfect ending? 于是他找到了爱情,还有他走失的狗。那可不是皆大欢喜的结局吗?
  • She missed her opportunity. I think that she just tends to hesitate too much. 她错过了机会。我认为她就是太过犹豫了。

3. Explaining a book 解释书籍

title 是书的名称。使用类似表达谈论书名:

  • A: What's the book called? 这本书的名字叫什么?
  • B: It's called 'The Catcher in the Rye.' 书名叫'The Catcher in the Rye'。
  • A: What's the title of the book? 这本书的标题是什么?
  • B: 'To Kill a Mockingbird.' To Kill a Mockingbird'。

author 是写书的人。使用这些表达谈论一本书的作者:

  • A: Who wrote the book? 谁写了这本书?
  • B: It was written by J.D. Salinger. 是 J.D. Salinger 写的。
  • A: Who's the author? 作者是谁?
  • B: Harper Lee. Harper Lee。

genre 一词是指书的具体类型 – 例如,science fiction。使用这些表达描述书籍的类型:

  • A: What kind of book is it? 书是哪种类型?
  • B: It's social commentary. 社会评论。
  • A: Is it a romance? 它是爱情小说吗?
  • B: No. Actually, it's part fantasy, part comedy. 不是,其实半奇幻,半喜剧。

使用类似表达谈论书的情节和背景。plot 是故事的梗概, setting 则指时间和地点。

  • A: What's the book about? 这本书是关于什么的?
  • B: The setting is Oklahoma during the Great Depression. It's about a farming family that leaves its home to look for a better future in California. 背景是经济大萧条时期的俄克拉荷马州,故事讲的是一个农民家庭背井离乡,前往加利福尼亚寻找更加美好的未来。
  • A: What kind of story is it? 这是哪种故事?
  • B: It's a love story about a young woman, but it's really about human behavior. It takes place in Alabama in the mid-1930s. 故事写的是一位年轻女子的爱情,但实际上是关于人类行为的小说。故事发生在二十世纪三十年代的阿拉巴马州。

使用类似表达提供关于书籍的更多信息。theme 是指一本书的重要主题,比如 finding love 或 helping your family。

  • The main character, Holden Caulfield, tells the story from a psychiatric hospital. 主要人物 Holden Caulfield 讲述了一个从精神病院听说的故事。
  • One of the themes is how your family can save you from the difficulties of daily life. 其中一个主题是你的家庭如何能够帮你度过日常生活的难关。
  • It's part social commentary, part fantasy. 这是一本半社会评论半奇幻的书。
  • The main character is Holden Caulfield. 主人公是 Holden Caufield。
  • It's about an Italian who marries a rich American. 书写的是一个意大利人嫁给美国有钱人的故事。
  • One of the themes is man against nature. 主题之一是人类与自然的抗衡。
  • It was written by Henry James. 书由 Henry James 所著。
  • It's set in Alabama in the 1930s. 故事发生在 20 世纪 30 年代的阿拉巴马州。

Module 2 Explaining what you read and why

1. What people read

  • literature 文学
  • historical fiction 历史小说
  • crime 罪案小说
  • romance 爱情小说
  • trashy 垃圾的;无价值的;质量极差的
  • murder mystery 凶杀悬疑小说
  • scary story 惊悚小说

人们读书的种类:fiction(小说)分为许多流行的 genres(种类)。以下一些例子:

  • historical fiction 历史小说
  • satire 讽刺小说
  • fantasy 奇幻小说
  • crime 犯罪小说
  • graphic novels 图画小说

与 fiction 相对的是 nonfiction。该类型包括 books、newspapers、magazines 和 blogs。以下是一些 nonfiction genres:

  • business journals 商业期刊
  • trade publications 行业出版物
  • self-help books 自助书籍
  • how-to books 指导书籍

以下是一些谈论不同文学风格的方法:

  • Some people say crime fiction is trashy. I don't agree. I think it tells us about the society we live in. 有人说犯罪小说不值得看,我不同意。我认为它讲述了我们生活的社会。
  • Historical fiction, if it's well-written, can be absolutely gripping. 历史小说如果写得好,那一定能扣人心弦。
  • I'm reading this amazing political satire. It's very smart and sophisticated. 我正在看这本优秀的政治讽刺小说。作品非常巧妙,内涵深刻。
  • Not all graphic novels are for kids. Some of the drawings can be gritty and realistic. 图画小说不是只适合儿童。有些图画也可以画得逼真写实。
  • It's called The Economy. It's a business journal. 书名叫 The Economy,是一本商业期刊。
  • She's reading a self-help book. 她正在读一本自助书籍。
  • I'm reading some gripping historical fiction. 我正在读一些扣人心弦的历史小说。
  • Some authors mix science fiction and fantasy. 有些作家将科幻小说和奇幻小说混在一起。
  • I just bought a how-to book on plumbing. 我刚买了一本关于管道方面的指导书。
  • This graphic novel is really gritty and realistic. 这本图画小说非常逼真写实。

2. Paired comparatives 成对的比较级

你可以使用一对比较级,描述两件相关的事物如何变化。在两个比较级前都加 the。

  • The sooner I read this how-to book, the easier it'll be for me to fix the sink. 这本指导书我看得越早,水槽修理对我来说也越简单。
  • The more dangerous things get, the more courageous the hero gets. 情况越危险,主人公越勇敢。
  • The longer you wait, the less likely it is you'll read that journal. 你等得越久,就越不可能看那份报纸。

此外,还有一些成对使用比较级的习语。请看下面两例:

  • A: Should I send you a link to that business blog? 要我把那个商业博客的链接发给你吗?
  • B: Absolutely. The sooner, the better! 当然,越快越好!
  • A: Is it okay if I bring my brother to your party? 我可以把我兄弟带来参加你的聚会吗?
  • B: Sure. The more, the merrier. 没问题。人越多越开心。

3. Talking about your reading preferen...

  • I don't read because … 因为……,所以我不看。
  • show off how much they know 炫耀他们的知识
  • Reading's my escape. 读书是我逃离现实的方法。
  • I love getting lost in a good story. 我喜欢沉浸在精彩的故事中。
  • getting so pulled in 让人非常入迷
  • I'll read anything if it hooks me. 只要吸引我的,我都会看。
  • I'll be home alone. 我会独自呆在家里。
  • I'll curl up on the sofa. 我会蜷缩在沙发上。
  • If it's raining outside, even better. 要是外面下雨的话就更好了。

谈论你的阅读爱好
使用类似表达,解释你觉得阅读轻松有趣的原因:

  • For me, reading is an escape. 对我而言,读书是逃离现实的方法。
  • Personally, I love getting lost in a good historical fiction. 个人来说,我喜欢沉浸在优秀的历史小说中。
  • The story has to pull me in, or I'll stop reading. 故事必须吸引我,不然我读不下去。
  • Sometimes I get hooked on a graphic novel, and I can't put it down till I've finished it. 有时我会被一本图画小说吸引住,恨不得一口气读完。

使用类似表达,谈论阅读获知新闻或信息:

  • I read The Economy to keep on top of business news. 我阅读 The Economy,了解最新财经新闻。
  • It helps me stay current on developments in the industry. 它帮助我了解行业当前的发展情况。
  • Computing Today is a rich source of information. Computing Today 是一个丰富的信息资源。

解释习惯做某事的时间和方式时,你可以使用 will + 动词。

  • I'll turn on my tablet, turn out the lights and read in bed until I fall asleep. 我会把平板电脑打开,关上灯,在床上看书,直到睡着为止。
  • Whenever I find time, I'll get a blanket, curl up on the couch and just read. 只要有时间,我就会拿一条毛毯,蜷在沙发上看书。
  • Every morning, my kids will grab a bowl of cereal and read graphic novels at the table. 每天早上,我的小孩都会抓一碗麦片,坐在桌子旁边看图画小说。
  • The more I read, the better the story gets. 越往后看,故事也越精彩。
  • Personally, I like getting lost in historical fiction. 个人来说,我喜欢沉浸在历史小说中。
  • So, you'll curl up on the couch with a graphic novel? 那么说,你会蜷缩在沙发上看图画小说。
  • Political satire really pulls her in. 对她来说,政治讽刺小说非常具有吸引力。
  • It helps me stay current on news and developments. 它有助于让我掌握当前发生的新闻和发展状况。
  • I'll grab some breakfast and read the news online. 我会随便吃点早餐,浏览网上新闻。

Module 3 Recommending something to read

1. Nonfiction

  • travel book 游记
  • history section 历史书籍区域
  • autobiography 自传
  • truth 真理,真相
  • quest 寻求;追求
  • universe 宇宙
  • enlightenment 启发,教化
  • deep 深奥的;深刻的
  • be lost on 对……不起作用,不能引起……的注意
  • biography 传记

非小说类作品
两种大众喜欢的 nonfiction genres 分别是 biography 和 autobiography。通过单词的构成,你对它们的意思有一个大致的认知。前缀 bio 意为'life', 后缀 graph 意为'to write or record'。换而言之, biography 则意为'a written record of a life'。

  • I just finished a biography of Jane Austen. She had a very interesting life. 我刚读完了一本关于 Jane Austen 的传记。她的人生非常多姿多彩。

前缀 auto 的意思是'by oneself',加上前缀就是 autobiography 或 'a record of a life, written by that person'。

  • Gandhi's autobiography is genuinely inspiring. 甘地的自传非常激励人心。

只用加上 book 一词,你就能构成许多非文学类型的名称。

  • cookbook 烹饪书
  • textbook 教科书
  • travel book 游记
  • guidebook 旅行指南

在影片中,Emma 和 Leo 在谈论 spirituality(灵性)和 beliefs(信仰)。这种文学形式越来越流行。以下是他们使用的一些表达:

  • personal enlightenment 个人开悟
  • search for truth 寻求真理
  • set off on a quest 开始探求
  • a deep belief 坚定的信仰

2. Nouns and prepositions

  • autobiography for his birthday 作为他的生日礼物的自传
  • a quest for understanding 寻求理解
  • biography of Winston Churchill Winston Churchill 的传记

名词和介词:有些名词,尤其 love 或 solution 等抽象名词,需后接介词短语才合理。请看例子,第一句并无介词短语,因此不正确,第二句更佳。

  • He has a great admiration.
  • He has a great admiration for the inventor Thomas Edison.

以下是一些需后接含有 for 的介词短语的名词:

  • My quest for enlightenment begins today. 我从今天开始寻求开悟。
  • In this country, there's room for different beliefs. 在这个国家,人们可以有不同的信仰。
  • There's a great demand for self-help books at the moment. 目前自助类图书的需求很大。

以下是一些后接含有 to 的介词短语的名词:

  • Her contribution to literature and the arts has been outstanding. 她在文学和艺术上做出了杰出的贡献。
  • His response to the criticism was to keep writing. 他应对批评的方法是继续写作。
  • Some people think Hardy's novels have no relevance to the modern world. 有人认为哈代的小说跟现代世界毫无关联。

以下是一些后接特定介词的名词例子:

  • Rivera writes about the power of the human spirit. Rivera 写的是有关人类的精神力量。
  • Krystal has a strong belief in science. Krystal 对科学深信不疑。
  • She will be reading an excerpt from her new novel. 她将选读一段她的新小说。
  • My meeting with the publisher went very well. 我和出版商的会面非常顺利。

3. Making indirect recommendations

  • I bet your father would like … 我敢说你父亲会喜欢……
  • This is possibly the greatest story … 这也许是最精彩的故事……
  • If you want to understand the world … 如果你想了解这个世界……

提出间接建议:使用类似表达间接地提出建议。相比直接建议,这些表达更加巧妙。

  • I bet you'd love this crime thriller. 我敢说你会喜欢这本犯罪惊悚小说。
  • I have the perfect book for you. 我有一本非常适合你的书。
  • There's nothing like a good guidebook when you're traveling. 在你旅行时,没有什么能比旅行指南的帮助更大。
  • You can't go wrong with anything written by L.J. Gibbs. 只要是 L.J. Gibbs 写的书,就不会让你失望。

赞美常常被解读为一种建议。

  • It's the greatest piece of nonfiction I've read in years. 这是我多年来看过的最出色的作品。
  • Nothing beats the biography of Rousseau. 卢梭的传记没什么比得上。
  • It's amazing. I haven't read anything like it before. 非常棒。我以前就没读过这样的作品。

另一种推荐某物的方法是使用第一条件句陈述。这巧妙地暗示,你的看法是不可争辩的事实。

  • If you really want to 'get' art, this book is the one you should read. 如果你真想'get'艺术,就应该读读这本书。
  • If you're looking for a good Italian cookbook, you can't go wrong with Bella Cipollini. 如果你在找一本好的意大利烹饪书,Bella Cipollini 的书肯定错不了。
  • If you really want to understand the world, 'Siddhartha' is a great choice. 如果你真的想理解这个世界,Siddhartha 是不错的选择。
  • Nothing beats a well-written autobiography. 写得好的自传最引人入胜。
  • It's a novel about a quest to erase poverty. 这是一本探索消灭贫穷的小说。
  • You can't go wrong with that guidebook. 有那本旅游指南在手,你不会出错。
  • He has a deep belief in the power of the human spirit. 他对人类精神的力量深信不疑。
  • I bet you'd love 'Room for Enlightenment.' It's deep. 我敢说你会喜欢'Room for Enlightenment'。这本书非常深刻。

Module 4 Writing about how media has changed

1. Communications media 传播媒体

在下一活动中,你将观看一段即兴采访。受访女子谈及媒体正在改变的本质,包括书籍、新闻、演出和音乐的传播方式。

准备观看:在获知所看内容的大致话题后,开始思考有关书籍、演出和音乐的词汇。过去 25 年来,媒体发生了怎样的变化?
例如,该女子谈及使用一款名为 Kindle 的电子阅读器阅读新闻。你认为她在 25 年前使用了何种媒介?

  • coronation 加冕仪式
  • Democratic Convention 民主党大会
  • cable 有线电视
  • signal 信号
  • HD 高清
  • on demand 一经要求
  • 78 records 黑胶唱片
  • digital 数码

更多传播媒体:media 是指我们周围信息的来源,换而言之,广播电台、电视、报纸、杂志和网络。

  • There are many kinds of media in the modern world. Information is everywhere. 现代世界存在许多不同的媒体。信息无处不在。

你可能还会听到术语 mass media:

  • The relationship between politics and mass media is sometimes uncomfortable. 政治和大众传媒的关系有时并不融洽。

media 的单数是 medium,意思是'a way of communicating'。但是,你会发现 media 的单复数形式均有使用。

  • TV is still an important medium for political parties to get their messages across. 电视仍然是政党传达其政见的一种重要媒介。
    语言点:你也会看到 the media 这一术语,它是指新闻。

以下是一些谈论传播媒体的有用表达:

  • Modern communications media has totally changed my life. 现在传播媒体彻底改变我的生活。
  • On-demand media, which you can access anytime, anywhere, isn't the future – it's now. 媒体点播让你随时随地都能访问,这不是未来,就是现在。
  • Click on the link, and a pop-up window will appear. 点击链接,出现一个弹出窗口。
  • The screen font was too small, and he couldn't read the article. 屏幕字体太小,他看不清楚文章。

使用类似表达谈论你是如何使用电子阅读工具的:

  • Just swipe your finger, like this, to go to the next screen. 只用像这样刷动手指,就能转到下一页面。
  • It's amazing! You just need to blink your eye to turn the page. 太奇妙了!你只用眨眨眼就能翻页。

2. Contrasting the present and the past

  • When I was growing up … 当我长大的时候……
  • I remember … 我记得……
  • in the early '50s 五十年代初
  • a real huge difference 非常巨大的差异
  • That goes back a ways. 那是很久以前。
  • in my lifetime 在我的一生中

对比现在与过去:当你将事情与过去对比时,使用下列类似表达强调现在。

  • These days, there's just so much information everywhere. 如今,到处都充斥着大量的信息。
  • Nowadays, you can get any information on demand. 如今,你能够获得任何要求的信息。
  • Recently, they've invented technology where you can turn the page by just blinking. 最近,他们发明了只用眨眼就能翻页的技术。
  • Lately, I've been using my e-reader more than paper books. 最近,相比纸质书,我更多地使用电子阅读器。

使用 in the + 十年代指代过去。如需指明具体是年代的哪个时期,你可以使用 early、late 和 mid-。

  • In the '90s, no one was talking about e-books. 90 年代,根本没人谈论电子书。
  • In the early 1930s, families read together by the fire. 20 世纪 30 年代初,一家人围坐火炉读书。
  • In the late '70s, I watched a lot of TV instead of reading. 70 年代末,我经常看电视,很少看书。
  • In the mid-'80s, I had this huge cellphone. It was so heavy! 80 年代中期,我有一部巨大的手机,非常笨重!

使用类似表达指代过去的大致时间:

  • Somewhere along the way, Jules started reading on her smartphone. 从某个时候开始,Jules 就用智能手机阅读了。
  • I recall the pride I felt at having on my shelves all the books I'd read. 我书架上的书我全都看过了,我现在还记得当时心里的那份骄傲。
  • In the past, you couldn't change the font or the brightness of the screen. 在过去,你不能改变屏幕的字体或亮度。
  • When I was growing up, I read constantly. 在我长大的时候,我经常阅读。

3. Changes in how we read media

逗号、冒号和分号
在下一活动中,你将看到作者是如何使用逗号、冒号和分号传达重要信息的。
逗号 ( , ) 用于 and、but、or 或 so 等连词之前,连接两个主句。

  • The links are part of the electronic text, and I tap on them to go to a networking site. 这些链接存在于电子文本中,我点击链接,转到一个网站。
  • I have a tablet, so I swipe the screen to turn pages. 我有一台平板电脑,因此我刷动屏幕翻页。

你也可以在引导性单词、短语或从句之后使用逗号。

  • Ideally, new technology should make reading even more relaxing. 理想状况下,新技术应该让阅读更加轻松。
  • In the late '90s, I read my first electronic book. 90 年代末,我阅读了我的第一本电子书。
  • When I was growing up, I read two newspapers a day. 在我长大的时候,我每天看两份报纸。

使用逗号分隔三个或三个以上连续出现的项目,and 前面不用逗号。

  • I read on my phone, my tablet, my notebook and my desktop computer. 我在我的手机、平板电脑、笔记本电脑和台式电脑上阅读。
  • You swipe the screen, tap the word and follow the link. 你刷动屏幕,点击单词,然后追踪链接。

在主句后面使用冒号 ( : ),引出密切相关的信息,比如一种解释或清单内的物品。

  • An e-reader is important to me for one reason: I can carry lots of books on one small device. 电子阅读器对我来说重要的原因在于:我能够在一部小小的设备上装许许多多的书。
  • Right now, I've got four things to read on my tablet: a crime novel, a graphic novel about monsters, a newspaper and a magazine with healthy recipes. 目前,我的平板电脑有四种读物:一部犯罪小说、一本描写怪兽的图画小说、一份报纸和一本介绍健康食谱的杂志。

你可以在两个独立的句子之间,或者一个完整句和一个从句之间使用分号 ( ; ),连接两个密切相关的看法。分号可以替代诸如 but 和 and 等连词。有时,使用分号比两个独立的句子更为有效。

  • With paper media, I use my fingers to turn a page; with electronic media, I use my fingers for swiping. 用纸质媒体阅读时,我用手指翻页;用电子媒体阅读时,我用手指刷动屏幕。
  • Paper books are too heavy; e-readers, too light. 纸质书太重,电子阅读器太轻。

Just a few years ago, our reading was limited to the printed page. Digital publishing changed all that. People read on tablets, e-readers, laptops, desktop computers, phones and even wearable computers. Instead of carrying around a heavy backpack of textbooks, students can do all of their schoolwork on a tablet. What if you don't understand something in your digital textbook? Just tap on a link on your gadget; a pop-up window immediately provides you with helpful information. Even better, a video might pop up to provide an explanation. As a bonus, electronic communications media allows you to change the font size to make things easier to read.

Another huge difference with digital media is that anyone can easily and inexpensively self-publish. In other words, you are able to create your own original publications: poetry on a website, an essay for a blog or even an e-book for an online publisher or bookstore. As a result, there are millions of fascinating texts to read that were never available before. A favorite of mine is a blog called 'New Media, New Life,' where dozens of authors write about how they use new forms of media. Our personal world is becoming a bigger place because of electronic media. Between the pleasure of using convenient new reading gadgets and the flexibility that digital text offers, people have been freed from the limits of paper.


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