学习词根---Unit 6.4


1. S   2. D   3. S   4. S   5. D   6. D   7. D   8. S


ERR, from the Latin verb errare, means "to wander" or "to stray." The root is seen in the word error, meaning a wandering or straying from what is correct or true. Erratum (plural(复数形式), errata) is Latin for "mistake"; so an errata(勘误表) page is a book page that lists mistakes found too late to correct before the books publication.

errant. (1) Wandering or moving about aimlessly. (2) Straying outside proper bounds, or away from an accepted pattern or standard.

例句:Modern-day cowboys have been known to use helicopters to spot errant calves.

Errant means both "wandering" and "mistaken." A knight-errant was a wandering knight who went about slaying dragons or rescuing damsels in distress (at least when he was on good behavior). Arrant is an old-fashioned spelling of errant; an arrant knave (the phrase comes from Shakespeare) is an extremely untrustworthy individual. An errant sock might be one that's gotten lost; and an errant cloud might be one that floats by all alone in a deep-blue sky on a summer day.

aberrant. Straying or differing from the right, normal, or natural type.

例句:Sullivan's increasingly aberrant behavior was leading his friends to question his mental stability.

Something aberrant has wandered away from the usual path or form. The word is generally used in a negative way; aberrant behavior, for example, may be a symptom of other problems. But the discovery of an aberrant variety of a species can be exciting news to a biologist, and identifying an aberrant gene has led the way to new treatments for diseases.

erratic. (1) Having no fixed course. (2) Lacking in consistency.

例句:In the 1993 World Series, the Phillies weren't helped by the erratic performance of their ace relief pitcher, "Wild Thing."

Erratic can refer to literal "wandering." A missile that loses its guidance system may follow an erratic path, and a river with lots of twists and bends is said to have an erratic course. Erratic can also mean "inconsistent" or "irregular." So a stock market the often changes direction is said to be acting erratically; an erratic heartbeat can be cause for concern; and if your car idles erratically it may mean that something's wrong with the spark-plug wiring.

erroneous. Mistaken, incorrect.

例句:For years her parents had had an erroneous idea of her intelligence, because she didn't begin to talk until the age of six.

Erroneous basically means "containing errors," and, since most of us are constantly suffering from mistaken notions, the word is often used in front of words such as "assumption" and "idea." It's also used to describe the kind of mistaken information that can lead to erroneous theories, erroneous conclusions, and erroneous decisions.

CED comes from the Latin verb cedere, meaning "to proceed" or "to yield." Proceed itself employs the root, as does recede, and their related nouns procession and recession employ another form of the Latin verb.

cede. To give up, especially by treaty; yield.

例句:Their 88-year-old father reluctantly ceded control over his finances to two of the children this year.

Cede is often a formal term used in discussing territory and rights, but is also used less formally. So, for example, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the U.S. in 1898, following the Spanish-American War, and the U.S. ceded control of the Panama Canal to Panama in 1999. Critics warn that we are ceding leadership in alternative-energy technology to China. Citizens of one European country or another are always worrying that their own country is ceding too much power to the European Union. A tennis player doesn't have any choice when she cedes her no. 1 ranking to a rival.

concede. To admit grudgingly; yield.

例句:To his friends, Senator Beasley concedes that his reelection campaign was badly run and that he made several damaging errors.

After the votes have been counted, one candidate traditionally concedes the election to his or her opponent by giving a concession speech. If you're lucky, your boss will concede that she was wrong the last time she criticized you. But in the middle of an argument, we're not all so good at conceding that the other guy might have a good point.

accede. (1) To give in to a request or demand. (2) To give approval or consent.

例句:This time Congress refused to accede to the demands of the president, and began cutting the funding for the war.

To accede usually means to yield, often under pressure and with some reluctance, to the needs or requests of others. Voters usually accede to a tax increase only when they're convinced it's the only real solution to a shortfall in government funding. A patient may accede to surgery only after the doctor assures him it's better than the alternatives. If you accede to your spouse's plea to watch the new reality show at 9.00, you may get to choose something better at 10.00.

precedent. Something done or said that may be an example or rule to guide later acts of a similar kind.

例句:When Judy bought Christmas presents for all her relatives one year, she claimed that it set no precedent, but it did.

A precedent is something that precedes, or comes before. The Supreme Court relies on precedents--that is, earlier laws or decisions that provide some example or rule to guide them in the case they're actually deciding. When hostages are being held for ransom, a government may worry about setting a bad precedent if it gives in. And a company might "break with precedent" by naming a foreigner as its president for the first time.


Complete the analogy:

1. descending : ascending :: errant : _______

    a. moving   b. wandering   c. fixed   d. straying

2. grab : seize :: cede : _______

    a. hang on   b. hand over   c. hang up   d. head out

3. fruitful : barren :: erroneous : ______

    a. productive   b. pleasant   c. targeted   d. correct

4. disagree : argue :: concede : ______

    a. drive   b. hover   c. yield   d. refuse

5. stable : constant :: erratic : ______

    a. fast   b. invisible   c. mistaken   d. unpredictable

6. swerve : veer :: accede : ______

    a. agree   b. descent   c. reject   d. demand

7. typical : normal :: aberrant : ______

    a. burdened   b. roving   c. odd   d. missing

8. etiquette : manners :: precedent : _____

    a. courtesy   b. tradition   c. rudeness   d. behavior