89.The efficiency of microwave ovens in destroying the harmfulbacteria frequently found in common foods is diminished by the presence of saltin the food being cooked. When heated in a microwave oven, the interior ofunsalted food reaches temperatures high enough to kill bacteria that cause foodpoisoning, but the interior of salted food does not. Scientists theorize thatsalt effectively blocks the microwaves from that salt effectively blocks themicrowaves from heating the interior.
Which one of the following conclusions ismost supported by the information above?
(A) The kinds of bacteria that cause foodpoisoning are more likely to be found on the exterior of food than in theinterior of food.
(B) The incidence of serious food poisoningwould be significantly reduced if microwave ovens were not used by consumers tocook or reheat food.
(C) The addition of salt to food that hasbeen cooked or reheated in a microwave oven can increase the danger of foodpoisoning.
(D) The danger of food poisoning can belessened if salt is not used to prepare foods that are to be cooked in amicrowave oven.
(E) Salt is the primary cause of foodpoisoning resulting from food that is heated in microwave ovens.
90.Pamela: Business has an interest in enabling employees to care forchildren, because those children will be the customers, employees, and managersof the future. Therefore, businesses should adopt policies, such as day-carebenefits that facilitate parenting.
Lee: No individual company, though, will bepatronized, staffed, and managed only by its own employees' children, so itwould not be to a company's advantage to provide such benefits to employeeschildren, so it would not be to a company's advantage to provide such benefitsto employees when other companies do not.
In which one of the following pairsconsisting of argument and objection does the objection function most similarlyto the way Lee's objection functions in relation to Pamela's argument?
(A) new roads will not serve to relieve thisarea's traffic congestion, because new roads would encourage new constructionand generate additional traffic.
Objection: Failure to build new roads wouldmean that traffic congestion would strangle the area even earlier.
(B) Humanity needs clean air to breathe, soeach person should make an effort avoid polluting the air.
Objection: The air one person breathes isaffected mainly by pollution caused by others, so it makes no sense to actalone to curb air pollution.
(C) Advertised discounts on products drawcustomers' attention to the products. So advertised discounts benefit sales.
Objection: Customers already planning topurchase a product accelerate buying to take advantage of advertised discounts,and those subsequent sales suffer.
(D) If people always told lies, then no onewould know what the truth was, so people should always tell the truth.
Objection: If people always told lies, theneveryone would know that the truth was the opposite of what was said .
(E) Human social institutions have alwayschanged. So even if we do not know what those changes will be, we do know thatthe social institutions of the future will differ from those of the past.
Objection: The existence of change in the
past does not ensure that there will alwaysbe changein the future.