Okhttp 访问自签名证书 HTTPS 地址解决方案

Okhttp 访问 HTTPS 链接问题

HTTPS 即以安全为目的的 HTTP 通道,即 HTTP 下加入 SSL 层,HTTPS 的安全基础是 SSL,因此加密的详细内容就需要 SSL。一般情况下 CA 颁发的 https 证书是默认受浏览器信任的。okhttp框架也能直接访问这些网站拿到数据,但对于自签名证书,okhttp 默认是拒绝访问通过的。一般能直接访问的网站 Chrome 浏览器打开后会是一把绿色的锁,使用 okhttp 访问也能正常访问。使用自签名 https 的网站不会被浏览器信任,访问会提示危险。使用 okhttp 进行访问时会提示

java.security.cert.CertPathValidatorException: Trust anchor for certification path not found.

解决办法

解决办法有两种

  • 信任所有的证书(开发测试使用)
  • 导入自签名证书

信任所有的证书

信任所有的证书后可以成功解决掉不能访 https 自签名地址的问题,但这样也就失去了使用自签名的意义。开发过程中可以使用这种方式屏蔽掉自签名,需要使用到无法获得证书的地址的资源时也可以使用这种方式。

实现代码

import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;

import javax.net.ssl.HostnameVerifier;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSession;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;

import okhttp3.OkHttpClient;

/**
 * Created by PandaQ on 2016/11/10.
 * 封装的支持Https连接的Okhttp客户端
 * email : 767807368@qq.com
 */

public class HttpsUtils {

private MyTrustManager mMyTrustManager;

    private SSLSocketFactory createSSLSocketFactory() {
        SSLSocketFactory ssfFactory = null;
        try {
            mMyTrustManager = new MyTrustManager();
            SSLContext sc = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            sc.init(null, new TrustManager[]{mMyTrustManager}, new SecureRandom());
            ssfFactory = sc.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (Exception ignored) {
            ignored.printStackTrace();
        }

        return ssfFactory;
    }

    //实现X509TrustManager接口
    public class MyTrustManager implements X509TrustManager {
        @Override
        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {
        }

        @Override
        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {
        }

        @Override
        public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
            return new X509Certificate[0];
        }
    }

    //实现HostnameVerifier接口
    private class TrustAllHostnameVerifier implements HostnameVerifier {
        @Override
        public boolean verify(String hostname, SSLSession session) {
            return true;
        }
    }

    public OkHttpClient getTrustAllClient() {
        OkHttpClient.Builder mBuilder = new OkHttpClient.Builder();
        mBuilder.sslSocketFactory(createSSLSocketFactory(), mMyTrustManager)
                .hostnameVerifier(new TrustAllHostnameVerifier());
        return mBuilder.build();
    }
}

实现步骤:
①创建实现 HostnameVerifier 接口的类并重写他的verify方法使其直接返回true;
②创建实现 X509TrustManager 接口的类并重写getAcceptedIssuers()使其返回 new X509Certificate[0];
③构建 SSL 工厂SSLSocketFactory即上面代码中的createSSLSocketFactory()方法;
④使用:OkHttpClient.Builder 中设置 sslSocketFactory(构建的工厂,实现的 TrustManager 类),此处的 TurstManager 需要保持跟 Factory 中使用的 TrustManager 是同一个实例。设置 hostnameVerifier 为构建的 HostnameVerifier;

使用 OkhttpClientUtils.trustAll 得到的 okhttpClient 进行网络请求即可信任所有的 https 证书。

导入自签名证书

信任所有证书虽然能解决不能访问 https 服务器地址的问题,但安全性被忽视掉了。显然是不符合要求的,用 https 就是为了安全性跳过 验证也就失去了他的意义了。好在我们还有其他的方法来解决----导入自签名的证书。

自签证书导入流程
自签证书导入流程

自签证书的导入流程如上图所示最终目的是为 okhttp 客户端设置一个包含自签证书信息的 sslsocketFactory。具体实现代码如下:

    /**
     * 对外提供的获取支持自签名的okhttp客户端
     *
     * @param certificate 自签名证书的输入流
     * @return 支持自签名的客户端
     */
    public OkHttpClient getTrusClient(InputStream certificate) {
        X509TrustManager trustManager;
        SSLSocketFactory sslSocketFactory;
        try {
            trustManager = trustManagerForCertificates(certificate);
            SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            //使用构建出的trustManger初始化SSLContext对象
            sslContext.init(null, new TrustManager[]{trustManager}, null);
            //获得sslSocketFactory对象
            sslSocketFactory = sslContext.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (GeneralSecurityException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
        return new OkHttpClient.Builder()
                .sslSocketFactory(sslSocketFactory, trustManager)
                .build();
    }

    /**
     * 获去信任自签证书的trustManager
     *
     * @param in 自签证书输入流
     * @return 信任自签证书的trustManager
     * @throws GeneralSecurityException
     */
    private X509TrustManager trustManagerForCertificates(InputStream in)
            throws GeneralSecurityException {
        CertificateFactory certificateFactory = CertificateFactory.getInstance("X.509");
        //通过证书工厂得到自签证书对象集合
        Collection<? extends Certificate> certificates = certificateFactory.generateCertificates(in);
        if (certificates.isEmpty()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("expected non-empty set of trusted certificates");
        }
        //为证书设置一个keyStore
        char[] password = "password".toCharArray(); // Any password will work.
        KeyStore keyStore = newEmptyKeyStore(password);
        int index = 0;
        //将证书放入keystore中
        for (Certificate certificate : certificates) {
            String certificateAlias = Integer.toString(index++);
            keyStore.setCertificateEntry(certificateAlias, certificate);
        }
        // Use it to build an X509 trust manager.
        //使用包含自签证书信息的keyStore去构建一个X509TrustManager
        KeyManagerFactory keyManagerFactory = KeyManagerFactory.getInstance(
                KeyManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        keyManagerFactory.init(keyStore, password);
        TrustManagerFactory trustManagerFactory = TrustManagerFactory.getInstance(
                TrustManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        trustManagerFactory.init(keyStore);
        TrustManager[] trustManagers = trustManagerFactory.getTrustManagers();
        if (trustManagers.length != 1 || !(trustManagers[0] instanceof X509TrustManager)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected default trust managers:"
                    + Arrays.toString(trustManagers));
        }
        return (X509TrustManager) trustManagers[0];
    }

    private KeyStore newEmptyKeyStore(char[] password) throws GeneralSecurityException {
        try {
            KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
            InputStream in = null; // By convention, 'null' creates an empty key store.
            keyStore.load(null, password);
            return keyStore;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new AssertionError(e);
        }
    }

上述代码中的证书的 InputStream 可通过两种方式获得

  • 将证书放到工程中例如 assets 目录中,然后通过如下代码获得输入流
InputStream inputStream = context.getAssets().open("srca.cer");
  • 通过命令行在证书所在目录运行
    keytool -printcert -rfc -file srca.cer srca.cer换成自己的证书名
    得到证书内的字符串内容,将字符串内容通过如下代码转换成 InputStream
InputStream ins = new Buffer()
        .writeUtf8(comodoRsaCertificationAuthority)
        .writeUtf8(entrustRootCertificateAuthority)
        .inputStream();

使用时通过 httpsUtils.getTrusClient(InputStream certificate)得到okhttpClient即可

仅供参考

没有 demo !贴上HttpUtils类的全部代码供大家参考

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.cert.Certificate;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.CertificateFactory;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collection;

import javax.net.ssl.HostnameVerifier;
import javax.net.ssl.KeyManagerFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSession;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManagerFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;

import okhttp3.OkHttpClient;

/**
 * Created by PandaQ on 2016/11/10.
 * 封装的支持Https连接的Okhttp客户端
 * email : 767807368@qq.com
 */

public class HttpsUtils {

    private MyTrustManager mMyTrustManager;

    private SSLSocketFactory createSSLSocketFactory() {
        SSLSocketFactory ssfFactory = null;
        try {
            mMyTrustManager = new MyTrustManager();
            SSLContext sc = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            sc.init(null, new TrustManager[]{mMyTrustManager}, new SecureRandom());
            ssfFactory = sc.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (Exception ignored) {
            ignored.printStackTrace();
        }

        return ssfFactory;
    }

    //实现X509TrustManager接口
    public class MyTrustManager implements X509TrustManager {
        @Override
        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {
        }

        @Override
        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) throws CertificateException {
        }

        @Override
        public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
            return new X509Certificate[0];
        }
    }

    //实现HostnameVerifier接口
    private class TrustAllHostnameVerifier implements HostnameVerifier {
        @Override
        public boolean verify(String hostname, SSLSession session) {
            return true;
        }
    }

    public OkHttpClient getTrustAllClient() {
        OkHttpClient.Builder mBuilder = new OkHttpClient.Builder();
        mBuilder.sslSocketFactory(createSSLSocketFactory(), mMyTrustManager)
                .hostnameVerifier(new TrustAllHostnameVerifier());
        return mBuilder.build();
    }

    /**
     * 对外提供的获取支持自签名的okhttp客户端
     *
     * @param certificate 自签名证书的输入流
     * @return 支持自签名的客户端
     */
    public OkHttpClient getTrusClient(InputStream certificate) {
        X509TrustManager trustManager;
        SSLSocketFactory sslSocketFactory;
        try {
            trustManager = trustManagerForCertificates(certificate);
            SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            //使用构建出的trustManger初始化SSLContext对象
            sslContext.init(null, new TrustManager[]{trustManager}, null);
            //获得sslSocketFactory对象
            sslSocketFactory = sslContext.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (GeneralSecurityException e) {
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
        }
        return new OkHttpClient.Builder()
                .sslSocketFactory(sslSocketFactory, trustManager)
                .build();
    }

    /**
     * 获去信任自签证书的trustManager
     *
     * @param in 自签证书输入流
     * @return 信任自签证书的trustManager
     * @throws GeneralSecurityException
     */
    private X509TrustManager trustManagerForCertificates(InputStream in)
            throws GeneralSecurityException {
        CertificateFactory certificateFactory = CertificateFactory.getInstance("X.509");
        //通过证书工厂得到自签证书对象集合
        Collection<? extends Certificate> certificates = certificateFactory.generateCertificates(in);
        if (certificates.isEmpty()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("expected non-empty set of trusted certificates");
        }
        //为证书设置一个keyStore
        char[] password = "password".toCharArray(); // Any password will work.
        KeyStore keyStore = newEmptyKeyStore(password);
        int index = 0;
        //将证书放入keystore中
        for (Certificate certificate : certificates) {
            String certificateAlias = Integer.toString(index++);
            keyStore.setCertificateEntry(certificateAlias, certificate);
        }
        // Use it to build an X509 trust manager.
        //使用包含自签证书信息的keyStore去构建一个X509TrustManager
        KeyManagerFactory keyManagerFactory = KeyManagerFactory.getInstance(
                KeyManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        keyManagerFactory.init(keyStore, password);
        TrustManagerFactory trustManagerFactory = TrustManagerFactory.getInstance(
                TrustManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        trustManagerFactory.init(keyStore);
        TrustManager[] trustManagers = trustManagerFactory.getTrustManagers();
        if (trustManagers.length != 1 || !(trustManagers[0] instanceof X509TrustManager)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected default trust managers:"
                    + Arrays.toString(trustManagers));
        }
        return (X509TrustManager) trustManagers[0];
    }

    private KeyStore newEmptyKeyStore(char[] password) throws GeneralSecurityException {
        try {
            KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
            InputStream in = null; // By convention, 'null' creates an empty key store.
            keyStore.load(null, password);
            return keyStore;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new AssertionError(e);
        }
    }
}

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