Day 14丨第二周复盘

【注:对前两个Topic的词汇复盘(比较两种不同的主被动储备分类方法)后,决定还是按两大类分:1.主动储备;2.被动储备。至于之前是否认识、在阅读文章时是否影响理解,在那项的词条里显示出来。例如:如果理解某词条的含义,只是想眼熟表达(不论转为主被动)则不标注释义。之后不再特别把认识的分为一大类,感觉没有多大意义。】

本周两篇的词汇积累需求略不同,本日复盘文章把词汇稍微整合一下。

1.主动储备

▲manage the risk

▲take over

A takeoveris the act of gaining control of a company by buying more of its shares than anyone else. (公司的) 收购[商业]

▲was nearly derailed by two data breaches

◇ derail 基本含义为出轨,此处作“被...打乱”解。

To derail something such as a plan or a series of negotiations means to prevent it from continuing as planned. 打乱 (原定计划)[journalism]

◇ data breach 数据泄露

interfere in/with干涉

Don't interfere in other's private concerns.

▲hacking-for-hire 黑客出租服务

car for hire 汽车租赁

▲booming 迅速发展的,繁荣的

其它释义:(声音等)低沉而有回响的,浑厚的;激增的;(价格)暴涨的。

▲There is little evidence that (sth.) will be any more trustworthy than...

▲It's tempting to believe that...

yetmore technical wizardry /ˈwɪzədrɪ/(魔法,奇迹)

▲vulnerabilities 缺陷

▲illicit entry 非法入境

◇ illicit = illega,l illegitamate, unlawful

▲spark calls for

◇ If one thing sparks another, the first thing cause the second thing to start happening. 引发

My teacher organized a unit on space exploration that really sparked my interest.

我的老师编排了一个关于太空探测的单元,它真正激发了我的兴趣。

▲eliminate the risk from...

▲hamper the ability of...

▲in force

1.大规模地,以压倒优势地[亦作 in great force]

2.精力充沛;活跃(尤指谈话)[亦作 in great force]

文中作:3.(政府法令、法律、协议等)有效,实施中

▲be infected with 染上、患病

~ the virus

▲has for decades disclaimed liability for

◇ for decades 几十年来

for ages 很久;很长时间;for years 好几年

◇ disclaim liability for 拒绝承认对...的责任;不负担责任

She is asked by anassistant to sign a receipton which there are conditions by which the cleaners disclaim liability for damage however it may arise.

商店一名助理要求她签一张收据,条件是无论出现任何损坏,洗衣店不负任何责任。

▲give free rein to

If you give free rein tosomeone, you give them a lot of freedom to do what they want. 给 (某人) 充分的自由

The government continued to believe it should give free rein to the private sector in transportation.

政府继续认为应该给私营运输部门充分的自由。

▲prod

If you prod someone into doing something, you remind or persuade them to do it. 敦促

The question is intended to prod students into examining the concept of freedom.

这个问题旨在敦促学生探究自由这个概念。

▲have recourse to 依靠;求助于

▲One reason computersecurity is so bad today is that...

▲there is no excuse for repeating the mistake...


▲get going  开始、着手做某事

▲find evidence for找到关于……的证据

▲be pushed back 把……推到……之前;提前……

另,=be moved/put back 推迟(做某事)

▲Intriguingly 有趣地;有魅力地

▲a millionth of a metre 一百万分之一米

▲sit up 端坐;熬夜

▲intrigue sb.

The novelty of the situation intrigued him.

那种新奇的情景激起了他的好奇心。

▲bear a passing resemblance to只有很少的相似之处非常相似

passing指的是过关,及格线,more than a passing resemblance指远超及格线,非常相似。

▲spurt up from beneath the seabed  从海底喷涌出来

▲a plausible candidate for the cradle of 很有可能是……的发祥地

▲go about (its biochemical business) 着手做、处理、四处走动

▲play host to 作为(寄生虫)的寄主;主持、邀请、招待

▲a strike in the theory's favour在理论方面是个大发现是支撑该理论的有力依据

▲derive their energy from photosynthesis  它们通过光合作用获取能量

▲convert sunlight into sugar      把阳光转换成糖分

▲no sunlight penetrates so deep into the oceans 没有阳光照射到深海

▲food chains 食物链

▲well up from the crust  从地壳涌出

◇I nodded back and felt the tears begin to well up. 

我回应地点了点头,感觉眼泪开始涌出。

◇流露、萌发

▲laws of chemistry 化学的基本原理

▲confined to 只限于...


二、被动储备

▲extortion n.敲诈,勒索

▲prosthetics n.外科修复

▲bake into 融入,植入

One is that smart-phones with satellite-positioning baked into them are now widely available, making it very easy for people to broadcast their whereabouts.

理由之一是内置了卫星定位的智能手机如今随处可得,使得人们非常容易将他们的位置公开。

▲insulin pump 胰岛素泵

▲desktop 工作台,桌面;台式机

▲heightened vigilance 高度警觉

▲afterthought

If you do or say something as an afterthought, you do or say it after something else as an addition, perhaps without careful thought. 事后的想法; 马后炮

▲encryption

n. 加密 the activity of converting data or information into code

▲gizmo

a device or control that is very useful for a particular job 小物件

◇Syn. widget, gadget

Botnet

也就是我们所说的僵尸网络,是指采用一种或多种传播手段,将大量主机感染bot程序(僵尸程序),从而在控制者和被感染主机之间所形成的一个可一对多控制的网络。

router 路由器

malware 恶意软件

moot

When a point is moot, it's too trivial to think about.  无实际意义的(;未决议的)

◇ moot court(法学院学生实习的)模拟法庭

butt up against the existing law

Some pension funds are also concerned that they will butt up against the limits if they have to calculate positions this way.

一些养老基金也很担心如果他们也按这种方式计算持仓也将违背新规定。

excoriated the industry’s lax attitude

◇excoriate:express strong disapproval of 严厉地责难

◇ If you say that a person's behaviour or a system is lax, you mean they are not careful or strict about maintaining high standards. 松懈的; 不严格的

▲payout 支出,花费

▲carve-out 上市 ; 分拆上市 ; 剥离


1.复合词集合

▲枕状、莲座形、螺旋形的  pillow / rosette / corkscrew -shaped ([rə(ʊ)'zet] 莲座丛、玫瑰形饰物、[建] 圆花饰;['kɔːkskruː] 螺丝锥)

▲淡红色的        reddish-coloured

▲外貌奇特、相似的      odd/similar-looking

▲富含矿物质的        mineral-laden (['leɪd(ə)n] 负载的;装满的;苦恼的)

▲保存良好的        well-presevered

▲个例(一次性的事物)    one-off

▲微生物          micro-organism

▲微米          microns ['maɪkrɒn]

▲细菌,微生物;微生物    microbes ['maɪkrob]

▲微观孔隙、微观孔喉    microscopic pores [maɪkrə'skɒpɪk pɔː]

2.其它识记词汇

▲星际气体 interstellar gas [,ɪntə'stelə]

▲叠层石  stromatolites [strə(ʊ)'mætəlaɪt]

▲分层的堆积  layered mounds

▲光合作用型的细菌 photosynthesising bacteria [,fəʊtə(ʊ)'sɪnθɪsɪs]

▲首次出现  debut ['deɪbjuː]

(土地的)一长条; 一长片  swathe [sweið]

◇That swathe of fire is centred on Texas. 

条形大火位于德克萨斯州。

◇a swathe of 一系列,一大片

▲玄武岩  basalt ['bæsɔːlt; -(ə)lt]

▲露出的碧玉  outcrops of jasper

▲石英    quartz [kwɔ:ts]

▲压缩的火山灰  compressed volcanic ash

▲(奇形怪状的)岩脉  vein [veɪn] (基本释义:静脉)

▲【地质学、矿物学】结核  nodule ['nɒdjuːl]

▲岩层    rock formations

▲中空的管子  hollow tube (['hɒləʊ] 空心的)

▲赤铁矿    haematite ['himətaɪt]

▲矿化形态的氧化铁  a mineralised form of iron oxide

▲深海热泉  hydrothermal vent [haɪdrə(ʊ)'θɜːm(ə)l,热液的;vent,出口,通风口]

▲高耸的,锯齿形的结构  towering(['taʊərɪŋ]), crenellated (['krenɪleɪted])structures

▲地壳构造板块 tectonic plate [tek'tɒnɪk]

▲化石残余  fossil remnant ['remnənt]

▲细胞壁    cell walls

▲能量梯度  energy gradient

相对地,主动运输则是指离子或其它物质与携带蛋白结合的一种运输方式,并且必须往对抗能量梯度的方向运输,例如:将物质由低浓度区运至高浓度区。这种过程除了需要物质运动所需的动能之外,还需要额外的能量。

▲古生物学者  palaeobiologist [pæli:əb'ɪɒlədʒɪst]

▲可溶性化学物质 dissolved chemicals

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