读译Emacs Tutorial

Emacs tutorial. See end for copying conditions.


Emacs commands generally involve the CONTROL key (sometimes labeled
CTRL or CTL) or the META key (sometimes labeled EDIT or ALT). Rather than
write that in full each time, we'll use the following abbreviations:


C-<chr> means hold the CONTROL key while typing the character <chr>
Thus, C-f would be: hold the CONTROL key and type f.

C-<chr> 意味着按住CONTROL按键的同时敲击<chr>字符键。因此C-f意味着按下CONTROL的时候敲击 f

M-<chr> means hold the META or EDIT or ALT key down while typing <chr>.
If there is no META, EDIT or ALT key, instead press and release the
ESC key and then type <chr>. We write <ESC> for the ESC key.

M-<chr> 意味着按住META、EDIT或者ALT按键的同时敲击字符键<chr>

Important note: to end the Emacs session, type C-x C-c. (Two characters.)
To quit a partially entered command, type C-g.
To stop the tutorial, type C-x k, then <Return> at the prompt.
The characters ">>" at the left margin indicate directions for you to
try using a command. For instance:

重要提示:想要结束Emacs会话,按下C-x C-c(两个字符)

[Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes. Text continues below]


Now type C-v (View next screen) to scroll down in the tutorial.
(go ahead, do it by holding down the CONTROL key while typing v).
From now on, please do this whenever you reach the end of the screen.

现在按下C-v (看下一个屏幕)在教程中来向下翻页(试试吧,按住CONTROL键然后敲击v键)。从此,你就可以在到达屏幕结束末尾时用这个快捷键翻页了

Note that there is an overlap of two lines when you scroll a whole
screenful; this provides some continuity so you can continue reading
the text.


This is a copy of the Emacs tutorial text, customized slightly for
you. Later on we will instruct you to try various commands to alter
this text. Don't worry if you change this text before we tell you to;
that is called "editing" and that's what Emacs is for.


The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from place
to place in the text. You already know how to move forward one screen,
with C-v. To move backwards one screen, type M-v (hold down the META key
and type v, or type <ESC>v if you do not have a META, EDIT, or ALT key).

首先你需要知道如何在文本中移动你已经知道向前移动一个屏幕,用的是C-v。向后移动需要按M-v(按住META键,再按v,或者按<ESC>v 当你没有META、ALT或者EDIT键时)

Try typing M-v and then C-v, a few times.

2018-07-16 01:29:04

It is ok to scroll this text in other ways, if you know how.



The following commands are useful for viewing screenfuls:


C-v Move forward one screenful
M-v Move backward one screenful
C-l Clear screen and redisplay all the text,
moving the text around the cursor
to the center of the screen.
(That's CONTROL-L, not CONTROL-1.)

C-v 向下移动一个屏幕
M-v 向上移动一个屏幕
C-l 清屏,重新显示所有的文本,

Find the cursor, and note what text is near it. Then type C-l.
Find the cursor again and notice that the same text is still near
the cursor, but now it is in the center of the screen.
If you press C-l again, this piece of text will move to the top of
the screen. Press C-l again, and it moves to the bottom.


You can also use the PageUp and PageDn keys to move by screenfuls, if
your terminal has them, but you can edit more efficiently if you use
C-v and M-v.



Moving from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
move to a specific place within the text on the screen?


There are several ways you can do this. You can use the arrow keys,
but it's more efficient to keep your hands in the standard position
and use the commands C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n. These characters
are equivalent to the four arrow keys, like this:

                        Previous line, C-p
   Backward, C-b .... Current cursor position .... Forward, C-f
                            Next line, C-n


               C-p 上一行
   C-b 后退 ....当前位置 .... C-f 前进
                C-n 下一行

Move the cursor to the line in the middle of that diagram
using C-n or C-p. Then type C-l to see the whole diagram
centered in the screen.


You'll find it easy to remember these letters by words they stand for:
P for previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward. You
will be using these basic cursor positioning commands all the time.


Do a few C-n's to bring the cursor down to this line.

按几次C-n 来向下移动几行

Move into the line with C-f's and then up with C-p's.
See what C-p does when the cursor is in the middle of the line.


Each line of text ends with a Newline character, which serves to
separate it from the following line. (Normally, the last line in
a file will have a Newline at the end, but Emacs does not require it.)


Try to C-b at the beginning of a line. It should move to
the end of the previous line. This is because it moves back
across the Newline character.


C-f can move across a Newline just like C-b.


Do a few more C-b's, so you get a feel for where the cursor is.
Then do C-f's to return to the end of the line.
Then do one more C-f to move to the following line.

然后使用C-f 到达到行尾,再按一次C-f就能移动到下一行了

When you move past the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
the edge shifts onto the screen. This is called "scrolling". It
enables Emacs to move the cursor to the specified place in the text
without moving it off the screen.


Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n, and
see what happens.


If moving by characters is too slow, you can move by words. M-f
(META-f) moves forward a word and M-b moves back a word.


Type a few M-f's and M-b's.


When you are in the middle of a word, M-f moves to the end of the word.
When you are in whitespace between words, M-f moves to the end of the
following word. M-b works likewise in the opposite direction.


Type M-f and M-b a few times, interspersed with C-f's and C-b's
so that you can observe the action of M-f and M-b from various
places inside and between words.


Notice the parallel between C-f and C-b on the one hand, and M-f and
M-b on the other hand. Very often Meta characters are used for
operations related to the units defined by language (words, sentences,
paragraphs), while Control characters operate on basic units that are
of what you are editing (characters, lines, etc).


This parallel applies between lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to
the beginning or end of a line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning
or end of a sentence.


Try a couple of C-a's, and then a couple of C-e's.
Try a couple of M-a's, and then a couple of M-e's.


See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving one
more sentence. Although these are not quite analogous, each one seems


The location of the cursor in the text is also called "point". To
paraphrase, the cursor shows on the screen where point is located in
the text.


Here is a summary of simple cursor-moving operations, including the
word and sentence moving commands:
C-f Move forward a character
C-b Move backward a character
M-f Move forward a word
M-b Move backward a word
C-n Move to next line
C-p Move to previous line
C-a Move to beginning of line
C-e Move to end of line
M-a Move back to beginning of sentence
M-e Move forward to end of sentence

C-f 向前移动一个字符

Try all of these commands now a few times for practice.
These are the most often used commands.


Two other important cursor motion commands are M-< (META Less-than),
which moves to the beginning of the whole text, and M-> (META
Greater-than), which moves to the end of the whole text.

另外两个重要的光标移动命令是M-<(Meta 小于号)移动到整段文档的开始;M->(Meta 大于号)移动到整个文章的结尾

On most terminals, the "<" is above the comma, so you must use the
shift key to type it. On these terminals you must use the shift key
to type M-< also; without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.

多数中终端,< 在逗号上面,所以你必须同时使用shift,不然你使用的就是M-,了。

Try M-< now, to move to the beginning of the tutorial.
Then use C-v repeatedly to move back here.


Try M-> now, to move to the end of the tutorial.
Then use M-v repeatedly to move back here.


You can also move the cursor with the arrow keys, if your terminal has
arrow keys. We recommend learning C-b, C-f, C-n and C-p for three
reasons. First, they work on all kinds of terminals. Second, once
you gain practice at using Emacs, you will find that typing these Control
characters is faster than typing the arrow keys (because you do not
have to move your hands away from touch-typing position). Third, once
you form the habit of using these Control character commands, you can
easily learn to use other advanced cursor motion commands as well.


Most Emacs commands accept a numeric argument; for most commands, this
serves as a repeat-count. The way you give a command a repeat count
is by typing C-u and then the digits before you type the command. If
you have a META (or EDIT or ALT) key, there is another, alternative way
to enter a numeric argument: type the digits while holding down the
META key. We recommend learning the C-u method because it works on
any terminal. The numeric argument is also called a "prefix argument",

because you type the argument before the command it applies to.


For instance, C-u 8 C-f moves forward eight characters.

例如:C-u 8 C-f 向前移动8个字符

Try using C-n or C-p with a numeric argument, to move the cursor
to a line near this one with just one command.


Most commands use the numeric argument as a repeat count, but some
commands use it in some other way. Several commands (but none of
those you have learned so far) use it as a flag--the presence of a
prefix argument, regardless of its value, makes the command do
something different.


C-v and M-v are another kind of exception. When given an argument,
they scroll the text up or down by that many lines, rather than by a
screenful. For example, C-u 8 C-v scrolls by 8 lines.

C-v 和 M-v 是另外一种特例,当给出一个参数,他们会上下移动相应行数而不是移动多个屏幕。例如C-u 8 C-v 向下移动8行

Try typing C-u 8 C-v now.
现在尝试,输入C-u 8 C-v

This should have scrolled the text up by 8 lines. If you would like
to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.

If you are using a graphical display, such as X or MS-Windows, there
should be a tall rectangular area called a scroll bar on one side of
the Emacs window. You can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in
the scroll bar.

如果你正在使用图形化相显示,例如X 或者MS-Windows,Emacs窗口 的边缘应该有一个长方形区域叫做滚动条。你可以在滚动条点击来滚动 文本。

If your mouse has a wheel button, you can also use this to scroll.


If Emacs stops responding to your commands, you can stop it safely by
typing C-g. You can use C-g to stop a command which is taking too
long to execute.


You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
a command that you do not want to finish.


Type C-u 100 to make a numeric argument of 100, then type C-g.
Now type C-f. It should move just one character, because you
canceled the argument with C-g.
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it with a C-g.

输入C-u 100来添加一个数字参数,然后输入C-g。现在输入C-f,光标只移动一个字符,因为你使用C-g取消了参数


Some Emacs commands are "disabled" so that beginning users cannot use
them by accident.


If you type one of the disabled commands, Emacs displays a message
saying what the command was, and asking you whether you want to go
ahead and execute the command.
If you really want to try the command, type <SPC> (the Space bar) in
answer to the question. Normally, if you do not want to execute the
disabled command, answer the question with "n".


Type C-x C-l (which is a disabled command),
then type n to answer the question.
输入C-x C-l (这是一条禁用命令),然后输入n回答问题
编辑 2018-7-17 16:08:52

  • WINDOWS(窗格)

Emacs can have several "windows", each displaying its own text. We
will explain later on how to use multiple windows. Right now we want
to explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
one-window editing. It is simple:
C-x 1 One window (i.e., kill all other windows).

Emacs可以有多个窗格(参考 孙一江 sunyijiang@gmail.com的翻译,frame将会被翻译为窗口,frame可以有多个窗格),每个显示自己的内容。我们稍后解释如何使用多个窗格。现在我们打算解释如何避免多余的窗格和返回基本的单个窗格的编辑状态。这很简单:
C-x 1 一个窗格,关闭其余的窗格

That is CONTROL-x followed by the digit 1. C-x 1 expands the window
which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen. It deletes all
other windows.

这个命令是Control-x 加上数字1,C-x 1将包含光标的窗格拓展至全屏。这将会删除其他的窗格。

Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
Type C-h k C-f.
See how this window shrinks, while a new one appears
to display documentation on the C-f command.

移动光标到这一行输入C-u 0 C-l (这里显然是零不是字母o)
输入C-h k C-f
看窗格收缩了,C-f 命令之后出现一个显示文档内容的新窗格

Type C-x 1 and see the documentation listing window disappear.

There is a whole series of commands that start with CONTROL-x; many of
them have to do with windows, files, buffers, and related things.
These commands are two, three or four characters long.



If you want to insert text, just type the text. Ordinary characters,
like A, 7, *, etc., are inserted as you type them. To insert a
Newline character, type <Return> (this is the key on the keyboard
which is sometimes labeled "Enter").


To delete the character immediately before the current cursor
position, type <DEL>. This is the key on the keyboard usually labeled
"Backspace"--the same one you normally use, outside Emacs, to delete
the last character typed.


There may also be another key on your keyboard labeled <Delete>, but
that's not the one we refer to as <DEL>.


Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them by
typing <DEL> a few times. Don't worry about this file
being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial.

This is your personal copy of it.


When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line. If you're using a
graphical display, little curved arrows appear in the narrow spaces on
each side of the text area (the left and right "fringes"), to indicate
where a line has been continued. If you're using a text terminal, the
continued line is indicated by a backslash ('') on the rightmost
screen column.


Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
You'll see a continuation line appear.


Use <DEL>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
line again. The continuation line goes away.


You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
one line. If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.


Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <DEL>. This
merges that line with the previous line.


Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.

输入<Return> 插入你删除的新行

The <Return> key is special, in that pressing it may do more than
just insert a Newline character. Depending on the surrounding text,
it may insert whitespace after the Newline character, so that when
you start typing on the newly created line, the text lines up with
that on the previous line. We call this behavior (where pressing a
key does more than simply inserting the relevant character) "electric".


Here is an example of <Return> being electric.
Type <Return> at the end of this line.


You should see that after inserting the Newline, Emacs inserts spaces
so that the cursor moves under the "T" of "Type".


Remember that most Emacs commands can be given a repeat count;
this includes text characters. Repeating a text character inserts
it several times.


Try that now -- type C-u 8 * to insert ********.

尝试输入C-u 8 * 插入 ********

You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
Emacs and correcting errors. You can delete by words or lines
as well. Here is a summary of the delete operations:

<DEL>        Delete the character just before the cursor
C-d          Delete the next character after the cursor

M-<DEL>      Kill the word immediately before the cursor
M-d      Kill the next word after the cursor

C-k      Kill from the cursor position to end of line
M-k      Kill to the end of the current sentence

del 删除光标前的一个字符
M-del 移除光标前一个词
M-d 移除光标后一个词

Notice that <DEL> and C-d vs M-<DEL> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <DEL> is not really a control character,
but let's not worry about that). C-k and M-k are like C-e and M-e,
sort of, in that lines are paired with sentences.


You can also kill a segment of text with one uniform method. Move to
one end of that part, and type C-<SPC>. (<SPC> is the Space bar.)
Next, move the cursor to the other end of the text you intend to kill.
As you do this, Emacs highlights the text between the cursor and the
position where you typed C-<SPC>. Finally, type C-w. This kills all
the text between the two positions.


Move the cursor to the Y at the start of the previous paragraph.
Type C-<SPC>. Emacs should display a message "Mark set"
at the bottom of the screen.

输入C-space emacs会在屏幕底部显示一条"Mark Set"的信息。

Move the cursor to the n in "end", on the second line of the


Type C-w. This will kill the text starting from the Y,
and ending just before the n.


The difference between "killing" and "deleting" is that "killed" text
can be reinserted (at any position), whereas "deleted" things cannot
be reinserted in this way (you can, however, undo a deletion--see
below). Reinsertion of killed text is called "yanking". (Think of it
as yanking back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.)
Generally, the commands that can remove a lot of text kill the text
(they are set up so that you can yank the text), while the commands
that remove just one character, or only remove blank lines and spaces,
do deletion (so you cannot yank that text). <DEL> and C-d do deletion
in the simplest case, with no argument. When given an argument, they
kill instead.


Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.


Type C-k a second time. You'll see that it kills the Newline
which follows that line.


Note that a single C-k kills the contents of the line, and a second
C-k kills the line itself, and makes all the other lines move up. C-k
treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
their contents. This is not mere repetition. C-u 2 C-k kills two
lines and their Newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.

注意单个C-k移除整行的内容,第二个C-k清除换行符,下文的行均依次上移。C-k命令对待数字参数比较特殊:它移除很多行和他们的内容。但是这不仅仅是重复操作。C-u 2 C-k移除两行,但是输入两次C-k效果可不是这样。

You can yank the killed text either at the same place where it was
killed, or at some other place in the text you are editing, or even in
a different file. You can yank the same text several times; that
makes multiple copies of it. Some other editors call killing and
yanking "cutting" and "pasting" (see the Glossary in the Emacs


The command for yanking is C-y. It reinserts the last killed text,
at the current cursor position.


Try it; type C-y to yank the text back.


If you do several C-k's in a row, all of the killed text is saved
together, so that one C-y will yank all of the lines at once.


Do this now, type C-k several times.

Now to retrieve that killed text:

Type C-y. Then move the cursor down a few lines and type C-y
again. You now see how to copy some text.


What do you do if you have some text you want to yank back, and then
you kill something else? C-y would yank the more recent kill. But
the previous text is not lost. You can get back to it using the M-y
command. After you have done C-y to get the most recent kill, typing
M-y replaces that yanked text with the previous kill. Typing M-y
again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills. When you have
reached the text you are looking for, you do not have to do anything to
keep it. Just go on with your editing, leaving the yanked text where
it is.


If you M-y enough times, you come back to the starting point (the most
recent kill).


Kill a line, move around, kill another line.
Then do C-y to get back the second killed line.
Then do M-y and it will be replaced by the first killed line.
Do more M-y's and see what you get. Keep doing them until
the second kill line comes back, and then a few more.
If you like, you can try giving M-y positive and negative


  • UNDO(撤销)

If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-/.

如果你在对文本做了更改之后发现误操作了,你可以使用撤销命令 C-/

Normally, C-/ undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
C-/ several times in a row, each repetition undoes one more command.

C-/ 可以撤销一个命令造成的改变。如果你在一行中多次使用C-/,以前的命令也会相继撤销。

But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text
don't count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
commands), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
of up to 20. (This is to reduce the number of C-/'s you have to type
to undo insertion of text.)

但是有两个例外:不改变文本的命令不算(包括光标移动和滚动命令);键盘输入的字符通常以组的形式存在--每组的命令为20个(减少你在撤销插入操作时候 的输入)

Kill this line with C-k, then type C-/ and it should reappear.


C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works exactly the same as C-/.
On some text terminals, typing C-/ actually sends C-_ to Emacs.
Alternatively, C-x u also works exactly like C-/, but is a little less
convenient to type.

C-_ 是一个可选的撤销命令;它和C-/基本一致。在某些文本终端里,输入C-/通常会向Emacs发送C-_。此外,C-u x和C-/基本也一样,但是不好按。

A numeric argument to C-/, C-_, or C-x u acts as a repeat count.

数字参数对于C-/,C-_或者C-x u意味着重复。

You can undo deletion of text just as you can undo killing of text.
The distinction between killing something and deleting it affects
whether you can yank it with C-y; it makes no difference for undo.


  • FILES(文件)

In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
file. Otherwise, it will go away when you exit Emacs. In order to
put your text in a file, you must "find" the file before you enter the
text. (This is also called "visiting" the file.)


Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
Emacs. In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
However, the changes you make using Emacs do not become permanent
until you "save" the file. This is so you can avoid leaving a
half-changed file on the system when you do not want to. Even when
you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
you later decide that your changes were a mistake.


If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
begins with dashes, and starts with " -:--- TUTORIAL" or something
like that. This part of the screen normally shows the name of the
file that you are visiting. Right now, you are visiting your personal
copy of the Emacs tutorial, which is called "TUTORIAL". When you find
a file with Emacs, that file's name will appear in that precise spot.

屏幕底部附近有一行以短横开始的如以 “--:--- TUTORIAL” 或者 别的其他内容。这部分屏幕内容 显示了你正在访问的文件名称 。现在你正在访问叫做TUTORIAL的Emacs教程的一个 副本 。当你发现使用Emacs访问一个文件时,文件名称将会出现在那个位置。

One special thing about the command for finding a file is that you
have to say what file name you want. We say the command "reads an
argument" (in this case, the argument is the name of the file). After
you type the command
C-x C-f Find a file( C-x C-f访问一个 文件)

Emacs asks you to type the file name. The file name you type appears
on the bottom line of the screen. The bottom line is called the
minibuffer when it is used for this sort of input. You can use
ordinary Emacs editing commands to edit the file name.

Emacs 将会让你输入文件名称

While you are entering the file name (or any minibuffer input),
you can cancel the command with C-g.


Type C-x C-f, then type C-g. This cancels the minibuffer,
and also cancels the C-x C-f command that was using the
minibuffer. So you do not find any file.

输入C-x C-f,然后输入C-g。这将清空小缓冲区的内容同时取消正在使用小缓冲区C-x C-f命令。所以你看不到任何文件

When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
terminate it. The minibuffer disappears, and the C-x C-f command goes
to work to find the file you chose.

当你输完文件名称,按下回车键结束输入。小缓冲区消失啦,C-x C-f命令开始访问你输入的文件。

The file contents now appear on the screen, and you can edit the
contents. When you wish to make your changes permanent, type the
C-x C-s Save the file

屏幕上开始显示文件的内容,你可以编辑它。如果想让更改生效,输入C-x C-s 命令

This copies the text within Emacs into the file. The first time you
do this, Emacs renames the original file to a new name so that it is
not lost. The new name is made by adding "~" to the end of the
original file's name. When saving is finished, Emacs displays the
name of the file written.


Type C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>.
This should save this tutorial to a file named TUTORIAL, and show
"Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.

输入C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>. 这个命令将会把这个教程保存到一个名为 TUTORIAL的文件中然后在屏幕底部显示写入...TUTORIAL。

You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it. You can also
find a file which does not already exist. This is the way to create a
file with Emacs: find the file, which starts out empty, and then begin
inserting the text for the file. When you ask to "save" the file,
Emacs actually creates the file with the text that you have inserted.
From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an already
existing file.


  • BUFFERS(缓冲)

If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
inside Emacs. You can switch back to it by finding it again with
C-x C-f. This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.

如果你想使用C-x C-f再打开一个文件,第一个文件将会保存在缓冲区里面。你可以用C-x C-f再次访问它。这种方法使你能够在Emacs里面获取很多文件

Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer".
Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs. To see a list of the
buffers that currently exist, type
C-x C-b List buffers

Emacs 将每个文件的文本存放在一个叫缓冲区的区域内。访问一个新的文件将会在Emacs中创建新的缓冲区。想要查看现存的缓冲区列表,输入命令
C-x C-b 列出缓冲区

Try C-x C-b now.

现在就来试试C-x C-b吧

See how each buffer has a name, and it may also have a file name for
the file whose contents it holds. ANY text you see in an Emacs window
is always part of some buffer.


Type C-x 1 to get rid of the buffer list.

输入C-x 1 来还原一个窗格的页面

When you have several buffers, only one of them is "current" at any
time. That buffer is the one you edit. If you want to edit another
buffer, you need to "switch" to it. If you want to switch to a buffer
that corresponds to a file, you can do it by visiting the file again
with C-x C-f. But there is an easier way: use the C-x b command.
In that command, you have to type the buffer's name.

如果拥有几个缓冲区,同一时刻只能有一个是你当前正在被编辑的缓冲区。如果想编辑另外一个缓冲区,你需要切换。如果想切换至对应某个文件的缓冲区,你可以通过输入C-x C-f访问那个文件。但是有一个更简单的方法:使用C-x b命令,这一命令中你必须输入缓冲区的名称。

Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.

通过C-x C-f foo <Return>命令创建一个名为foo的文件。然后输入C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> 即可返回该教程。

Most of the time, the buffer's name is the same as the file name
(without the file directory part). However, this is not always true.
The buffer list you make with C-x C-b shows you both the buffer name
and the file name of every buffer.

通常缓冲区的名称和文件名相同,不包括文件的路径部分。然而,也不总是这样。使用C-x C-b列出的缓冲区表会显示缓冲区的名字和文件名。

Some buffers do not correspond to files. The buffer named
"Buffer List", which contains the buffer list that you made with
C-x C-b, does not have any file. This TUTORIAL buffer initially did
not have a file, but now it does, because in the previous section you
typed C-x C-s and saved it to a file.

某些缓冲区没有文件与之对应。缓冲区叫做缓冲区表,包含使用C-x C-b创建的缓冲区,但是没有任何文件。这个教程的缓冲区一开始没有文件,但是现在有了,因为上一节里面你使用C-x C-s来存盘了。

The buffer named "Messages" also does not correspond to any file.
This buffer contains the messages that have appeared on the bottom
line during your Emacs session.


Type C-x b Messages <Return> to look at the buffer of messages.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.

输入C-x b Messages <Return> 查看消息的缓冲区。然后输入Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return>返回该教程。

If you make changes to the text of one file, then find another file,
this does not save the first file. Its changes remain inside Emacs,
in that file's buffer. The creation or editing of the second file's
buffer has no effect on the first file's buffer. This is very useful,
but it also means that you need a convenient way to save the first
file's buffer. Having to switch back to that buffer, in order to save
it with C-x C-s, would be a nuisance. So we have
C-x s Save some buffers

如果你对一个文件的文本做了改动,然后去访问另外一个文件,第一个文件将不会保存。文件内容的变动依然在Emacs里面的那个文件的缓冲区里。第二个文件的创建和编辑对第一个文件缓冲区的内容毫无影响。这种机制十分有用,但是也意味着你需要一个更加便捷的方法去保存第一个文件的缓冲区。切换到那个缓冲区之后,用C-x C-s保存文件有些累赘,所以我们使用C-x s保存缓冲区。

C-x s asks you about each buffer which contains changes that you have
not saved. It asks you, for each such buffer, whether to save the

C-x 将会询问你哪些缓冲区保存,以及对应的缓冲区是否需要保存。

Insert a line of text, then type C-x s.
It should ask you whether to save the buffer named TUTORIAL.
Answer yes to the question by typing "y".

插入一行然后输入C-x s 。Emacs会询问你是否需要把缓冲区保存到TUTORIAL。如果是请输入一个y。


There are many, many more Emacs commands than could possibly be put
on all the control and meta characters. Emacs gets around this with
the X (eXtend) command. This comes in two flavors:
C-x Character eXtend. Followed by one character.
M-x Named command eXtend. Followed by a long name.

Emacs 有很多很多可以放在control和meta键上的命令。Emacs使用拓展命令解决这个问题。拓展命令有一下两种形式:
C-x 字符拓展,命令后紧跟一个字符
M-x 名称拓展,命令后紧跟一个长名字

These are commands that are generally useful but are used less than the commands you have already learned about. You have already seen a few of them: the file commands C-x C-f to Find and C-x C-s to Save, for
example. Another example is the command to end the Emacs
session--this is the command C-x C-c. (Do not worry about losing
changes you have made; C-x C-c offers to save each changed file before
it kills Emacs.)

文件查找命令 C-x C-f
文件保存命令C-x C-s
另外的例子如:结束Emacs会话的命令C-x C-c(不要担心丢失你做出的更改,C-x C-c会在关闭之前询问是否保存更改的文件)

If you are using a graphical display, you don't need any special
command to move from Emacs to another application. You can do this
with the mouse or with window manager commands. However, if you're
using a text terminal which can only show one application at a time,
you need to "suspend" Emacs to move to any other application.


C-z is the command to exit Emacs temporarily--so that you can go
back to the same Emacs session afterward. When Emacs is running on a
text terminal, C-z "suspends" Emacs; that is, it returns to the shell
but does not destroy the Emacs job. In the most common shells, you
can resume Emacs with the "fg" command or with "%emacs".

C-z 是临时退出Emacs的命令,这样之后你就能回到同一个Emacs会话。当Emacs运行于文本终端的时候C-z挂起Emacs

The time to use C-x C-c is when you are about to log out. It's also
the right thing to use to exit an Emacs invoked for a quick edit, such
as by a mail handling utility.

当你打算退出,正是时候使用C-x C-c了。这也是退出为快速编辑如邮件处理应用而调用的Emacs正确的方法
There are many C-x commands. Here is a list of the ones you have learned:
C-x C-f Find file 访问文件
C-x C-s Save file 保存文件
C-x s Save some buffers 保存缓冲区
C-x C-b List buffers 列出缓冲区
C-x b Switch buffer 切换缓冲区
C-x C-c Quit Emacs 退出Emacs
C-x 1 Delete all but one window 删除其余窗格,只留一个
C-x u Undo 撤销

Named eXtended commands are commands which are used even less
frequently, or commands which are used only in certain modes. An
example is the command replace-string, which replaces one string with
another in the buffer. When you type M-x, Emacs prompts you at the
bottom of the screen with M-x and you should type the name of the
command; in this case, "replace-string". Just type "repl s<TAB>" and
Emacs will complete the name. (<TAB> is the Tab key, usually found
above the CapsLock or Shift key near the left edge of the keyboard.)
Submit the command name with <Return>.

命名的拓展命令的使用通常不那么频繁或者仅仅用于某些模式下。一个例子是替换字符串命令,就是在缓冲区里面将一个字符串替换成另一个。当你输入M-x,Emacs会在屏幕底部显示M-x,提醒你应该输入命令的名称。;这时替换字符串,只需要输入repl s<Tab>,Emacs 将会自动补全命令。使用<Return>使命令生效。

The replace-string command requires two arguments--the string to be
replaced, and the string to replace it with. You must end each
argument with <Return>.


Move the cursor to the blank line two lines below this one.
Then type M-x repl s<Tab>changed<Return>altered<Return>.

移动光标到该行下两行的空行,依次输入M-x repl s<Tab> changed<Return> altered <Return>

Notice how this line has changed: you've replaced the word
"changed" with "altered" wherever it occurred, after the
initial position of the cursor.

注意行怎么改变的:将文章中所有的在最初光标位置之后出现的单词Changed 改成altered

  • AUTO SAVE(自动保存)

When you have made changes in a file, but you have not saved them yet,
they could be lost if your computer crashes. To protect you from
this, Emacs periodically writes an "auto save" file for each file that
you are editing. The auto save file name has a # at the beginning and
the end; for example, if your file is named "hello.c", its auto save
file's name is "#hello.c#". When you save the file in the normal way,
Emacs deletes its auto save file.

当你在文件中做了更改,但是还没保存的时候,如果电脑崩溃,更改可能就丢失了。为了防止这种事情的发生,Emacs 周期性地将你正在编辑的文件写入一个自动保存的文件。自动保存的文件名首尾均有一个#符号。例如你的"hello.c"文件,自动保存的文件名就是"#hello.c#"。如果使用常规保存,临时文件将会被删除

If the computer crashes, you can recover your auto-saved editing by
finding the file normally (the file you were editing, not the auto
save file) and then typing M-x recover-this-file <Return>. When it
asks fo confirmation, type yes<Return> to go ahead and recover the
auto-save data.

如果计算机崩溃,你可以通过正常查找文件恢复你自动保存的编辑(你过去编辑的文件不是自动保存的文件)然后输入M-x recover-this-file <Return>.当询问确认时,输入yes<Return>继续,恢复自动保存的数据。

  • ECHO AREA(回显区域)

If Emacs sees that you are typing multicharacter commands slowly, it
shows them to you at the bottom of the screen in an area called the
"echo area". The echo area contains the bottom line of the screen.


  • MODE LINE(模式行)

The line immediately above the echo area is called the "mode line".
The mode line says something like this:


-:**- TUTORIAL 63% L749 (Fundamental)

This line gives useful information about the status of Emacs and
the text you are editing.


You already know what the filename means--it is the file you have
found. NN% indicates your current position in the buffer text; it
means that NN percent of the buffer is above the top of the screen.
If the top of the buffer is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead
of " 0%". If the bottom of the buffer is on the screen, it will say
"Bot". If you are looking at a buffer so small that all of it fits on
the screen, the mode line says "All".


The L and digits indicate position in another way: they give the
current line number of point.


The stars near the front mean that you have made changes to the text.

Right after you visit or save a file, that part of the mode line shows
no stars, just dashes.


The part of the mode line inside the parentheses is to tell you what
editing modes you are in. The default mode is Fundamental which is
what you are using now. It is an example of a "major mode".
模式行中的括号里面的内容告诉你所处的模式。默认的模式是你正在使用的Fundamental。这是一个Major 模式的例子
Emacs has many different major modes. Some of them are meant for
editing different languages and/or kinds of text, such as Lisp mode,
Text mode, etc. At any time one and only one major mode is active,
and its name can always be found in the mode line just where
"Fundamental" is now.

Emacs 有不同的Major模式。一些用于编辑不同的语言或者不同的文本类型,如Lisp模式,文本模式,等等。但是任何时刻只能有一个major模式处于激活状态,模式的名称将会出现在目前的Fundamental的位置。

Each major mode makes a few commands behave differently. For example,
there are commands for creating comments in a program, and since each
programming language has a different idea of what a comment should
look like, each major mode has to insert comments differently. Each
major mode is the name of an extended command, which is how you can
switch to that mode. For example, M-x fundamental-mode is a command to
switch to Fundamental mode.

每一个Major模式都有一些特别的不同命令.例如一些命令用于在程序中创建注释,而不同的编程语言的注释方式形式不一样,每一major模式不得不以不同的方式插入注释。每个major模式都是一个拓展命令的名字,因此可以通过相应命令切换至某一模式。例如,M-x fundamental-mode 是切换至Fundamental模式的命令。

If you are going to be editing human-language text, such as this file, you
should probably use Text Mode.


Type M-x text-mode <Return>.

输入M-x text-mode <return>试试看吧

Don't worry, none of the Emacs commands you have learned changes in
any great way. But you can observe that M-f and M-b now treat
apostrophes as part of words. Previously, in Fundamental mode,
M-f and M-b treated apostrophes as word-separators.


Major modes usually make subtle changes like that one: most commands
do "the same job" in each major mode, but they work a little bit

Major 模式通常作出了像这样的一些小变化:功能一致,但是实现方式有所变化。

To view documentation on your current major mode, type C-h m.

如果想查看当前的major模式下的文档,输入C-h m

Move the cursor to the line following this line.


Type C-l C-l to bring this line to the top of screen.

输入C-l C-l使该行居屏幕中

Type C-h m, to see how Text mode differs from Fundamental mode.

输入C-h m查看Text模式和Fundamental 模式的区别在哪里

Type C-x 1 to remove the documentation from the screen.

输入C-x 1 将文档窗格从屏幕中移除。

Major modes are called major because there are also minor modes.
Minor modes are not alternatives to the major modes, just minor
modifications of them. Each minor mode can be turned on or off by
itself, independent of all other minor modes, and independent of your
major mode. So you can use no minor modes, or one minor mode, or any
combination of several minor modes.


One minor mode which is very useful, especially for editing
human-language text, is Auto Fill mode. When this mode is on, Emacs
breaks the line in between words automatically whenever you insert
text and make a line that is too wide.

有一种次要模式十分有用,特别是对于编辑人类语言文本,他是自动填充模式(Auto Fill)。当这种模式启动的时候,当你在插入的文本会导致正在编辑的行过长时,Emacs将会从词之间断开。

You can turn Auto Fill mode on by doing M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.
When the mode is on, you can turn it off again by doing
M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>. If the mode is off, this command turns
it on, and if the mode is on, this command turns it off. We say that
the command "toggles the mode".

你可以通过输入 M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>启用自动填充(Auto Fill)模式。模式启用以后,你可以通过再次输入M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>关闭模式。如果模式关闭,该命令可以使之启动,如果模式启动,命令可以关闭。这叫做切换模式。

Type M-x auto-fill-mode <Return> now. Then insert a line of "asdf "
over again until you see it divide into two lines. You must put in
spaces between them because Auto Fill breaks lines only at spaces.

输入M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.然后在一行中插入“asdf ”,直到该行被分成两行。你必须在asdf之间使用空格,因为这种模式只根据空格断行。

The margin is usually set at 70 characters, but you can change it
with the C-x f command. You should give the margin setting you want
as a numeric argument.
宽度通常为70字符。但是你可以用C-x f命令改变。你要想要设置的宽度应该是一个数字参数。
Type C-x f with an argument of 20. (C-u 2 0 C-x f).
Then type in some text and see Emacs fill lines of 20
characters with it. Then set the margin back to 70 using
C-x f again.

输入C-x f ,参数为20 (C-u 20 C-x f).然后输入一些文本,你会看到Emacs的一行将会填充20个字符。然后使用C-x f把行宽度改回70

If you make changes in the middle of a paragraph, Auto Fill mode
does not re-fill it for you.
To re-fill the paragraph, type M-q (META-q) with the cursor inside
that paragraph.


Move the cursor into the previous paragraph and type M-q.



Emacs can do searches for strings (a "string" is a group of contiguous
characters) either forward through the text or backward through it.
Searching for a string is a cursor motion command; it moves the cursor
to the next place where that string appears.


The Emacs search command is "incremental". This means that the
search happens while you type in the string to search for.


The command to initiate a search is C-s for forward search, and C-r
for reverse search. BUT WAIT! Don't try them now.


When you type C-s you'll notice that the string "I-search" appears as
a prompt in the echo area. This tells you that Emacs is in what is
called an incremental search waiting for you to type the thing that
you want to search for. <Return> terminates a search.


Now type C-s to start a search. SLOWLY, one letter at a time,
type the word "cursor", pausing after you type each
character to notice what happens to the cursor.
Now you have searched for "cursor", once.


Type C-s again, to search for the next occurrence of "cursor".


Now type <DEL> four times and see how the cursor moves.


Type <Return> to terminate the search.


Did you see what happened? Emacs, in an incremental search, tries to
go to the occurrence of the string that you've typed out so far. To
go to the next occurrence of "cursor" just type C-s again. If no such
occurrence exists, Emacs beeps and tells you the search is currently
"failing". C-g would also terminate the search.


If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <DEL>, the
search "retreats" to an earlier location. If you type <DEL> just
after you had typed C-s to advance to the next occurrence of a search
string, the <DEL> moves the cursor back to an earlier occurrence. If
there are no earlier occurrences, the <DEL> erases the last character
in the search string. For instance, suppose you have typed "c", to
search for the first occurrence of "c". Now if you type "u", the
cursor will move to the first occurrence of "cu". Now type <DEL>.
This erases the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back
to the first occurrence of "c".


If you are in the middle of a search and type a control or meta
character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in a
search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.


C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search string
AFTER the current cursor position. If you want to search for
something earlier in the text, type C-r instead. Everything that we
have said about C-s also applies to C-r, except that the direction of
the search is reversed.

C-s 开始前向搜索,搜索下文的内容。如果你想搜索前文的内容,使用C-r。C-s的规则同样适用于C-r,除了搜索的方向是反的。


One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than
one window on the screen at the same time. (Note that Emacs uses the
term "frames"--described in the next section--for what some other
applications call "windows". The Emacs manual contains a Glossary of
Emacs terms.)

Emacs 的一大特色就是你可以同时展示多个窗格。(注意Emacs使用术语:窗口(frame)描述其他用户的视窗(windows)概念,这个下文将会讲到)

Move the cursor to this line and type C-l C-l.
移动光标到这一行然后键入C-l C-l

Now type C-x 2 which splits the screen into two windows.
Both windows display this tutorial. The editing cursor stays in

the top window.

现在键入C-x 2 将屏幕分为两个窗格。两个窗格显示的均是该教程,编辑光标将位于窗格顶部。

Type C-M-v to scroll the bottom window.
(If you do not have a real META key, type <ESC> C-v.)

输入C-M-v来滚动底部的窗格.(如果你没有Meta键的话使用<ESC> C-v)

Type C-x o ("o" for "other") to move the cursor to the bottom window.

键入C-x o(o 意味着other) 移动光标到顶部的窗格里面

Use C-v and M-v in the bottom window to scroll it.
Keep reading these directions in the top window.


Type C-x o again to move the cursor back to the top window.
The cursor in the top window is just where it was before.

再次键入C-x o将光标移动回到顶部的窗格里。光标会回到原先离开的地方。

You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows. The "selected
window", where most editing takes place, is the one with a prominent
cursor which blinks when you are not typing. The other windows have
their own cursor positions; if you are running Emacs in a graphical
display, those cursors are drawn as unblinking hollow boxes.

你可以继续使用C-x o在窗格之间进行切换。在选中的占据大部分编辑区域的窗格里面,你没有编辑的时候光标会闪烁。另一个窗格里有自己的光标位置,如果你在图形化的显示界面里面运行Emacs,这些光标将会是中空的不会闪烁的方格形态。

The command C-M-v is very useful when you are editing text in one
window and using the other window just for reference. Without leaving
the selected window, you can scroll the text in the other window with


C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character. If you have a META
(or Alt) key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META
while typing v. It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes
first," as both of these keys act by modifying the characters you


If you do not have a META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the order
does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
CONTROL-<ESC> v will not work. This is because <ESC> is a character
in its own right, not a modifier key.



Type C-x 1 (in the top window) to get rid of the bottom window.

在顶部窗口键入C-x 1来关闭底部窗格。

(If you had typed C-x 1 in the bottom window, that would get rid
of the top one. Think of this command as "Keep just one
window--the window I am already in.")

如果你在底部窗口输入了C-x 1,顶部窗格将会被关闭。你可以这样记忆这个命令:仅仅保留当前光标所在的一个窗口。

You do not have to display the same buffer in both windows. If you
use C-x C-f to find a file in one window, the other window does not
change. You can find a file in each window independently.

你不需要在两个窗格里面显示相同的缓冲区。如果你在一个窗格里面使用C-x C-f,别的窗格不会改变。你可以在每个窗格里面单独地访问文件。

Here is another way to use two windows to display two different things:


Type C-x 4 C-f followed by the name of one of your files.
End with <Return>. See the specified file appear in the bottom
window. The cursor goes there, too.

输入C-x 4 C-f,紧跟的是一个文件的名字,结束的时候输入<Return>.特定的文件将会出现在底部窗格。光标也会相应地移动到那里。

Type C-x o to go back to the top window, and C-x 1 to delete
the bottom window.

输入C-x o切换回顶部的窗格,使用C-x 1删除底部的窗格


Emacs can also create multiple "frames". A frame is what we call one
collection of windows, together with its menus, scroll bars, echo
area, etc. On graphical displays, what Emacs calls a "frame" is what
most other applications call a "window". Multiple graphical frames
can be shown on the screen at the same time. On a text terminal, only
one frame can be shown at a time.

Emacs 也可以创建多个窗口。窗口是我们所说的多个窗格的集合,带有菜单滚动条,回显区域等等部件。图形化的显示终端里面,Emacs的窗口和其他应用的窗口类似。多个图形化的窗口可以同时显示在屏幕上。文本终端中,同一时刻只能有一个显示窗口。

Type C-x 5 2.
See a new frame appear on your screen.

输入 C-x 5 2 。你的屏幕上将出现一个新的窗口。

You can do everything you did in the original frame in the new frame.
There is nothing special about the first frame.


Type C-x 5 0.
This removes the selected frame.

键入C-x 5 0 。这将移除选中的窗口

You can also remove a frame by using the normal method provided by the
graphical system (often clicking a button with an "X" at a top corner
of the frame). If you remove the Emacs job's last frame this way,
that exits Emacs.



Sometimes you will get into what is called a "recursive editing
level". This is indicated by square brackets in the mode line,
surrounding the parentheses around the major mode name. For
example, you might see [(Fundamental)] instead of (Fundamental).


To get out of the recursive editing level, type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC>.
That is an all-purpose "get out" command. You can also use it for
eliminating extra windows, and getting out of the minibuffer.

如果想要离开递归编辑级别,输入<ESC><ESC><ESC> 。这是一个多用途的退出命令。你可以使用它消除多余的窗格和退出微型缓冲区。

Type M-x to get into a minibuffer; then type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC> to
get out.

输入M-x 进入一个微型缓冲区,然后输入三次<ESC>退出。

You cannot use C-g to get out of a recursive editing level. This is
because C-g is used for canceling commands and arguments WITHIN the
recursive editing level.


  • GETTING MORE HELP(获取更多的帮助)

In this tutorial we have tried to supply just enough information to
get you started using Emacs. There is so much available in Emacs that
it would be impossible to explain it all here. However, you may want
to learn more about Emacs since it has many other useful features.
Emacs provides commands for reading documentation about Emacs
commands. These "help" commands all start with the character
CONTROL-h, which is called "the Help character".


To use the Help features, type the C-h character, and then a
character saying what kind of help you want. If you are REALLY lost,
type C-h ? and Emacs will tell you what kinds of help it can give.
If you have typed C-h and decide you do not want any help, just
type C-g to cancel it.

使用帮助的特色,首先输入C-h然后输入一个表明你想查阅的帮助类别的字符。如果你真的不知道,输入C-h ?,Emacs会给出它可以提供的帮助类型。如果你键入C-h之后发现你不需要任何的帮助,你可以使用 C-g取消命令。
(If C-h does not display a message about help at the bottom of the
screen, try typing the F1 key or M-x help <Return> instead.)

如果C-h命令没有在屏幕底部显示关于帮助的信息你可以使用F1键或者M-x help <Return>代替。

The most basic HELP feature is C-h c. Type C-h, the character c, and
a command character or sequence; then Emacs displays a very brief
description of the command.

最基本的帮助特色就是C-h c。输入C-h,然后是字符c,紧接着一个命令字符或者序列,然后Emacs将会显示一个简短的命令的描述

Type C-h c C-p.

键入C-h c C-p,提示信息将会显示:C-p运行命令:上一行
The message should be something like this:
C-p runs the command previous-line

This tells you the "name of the function". Since function names
are chosen to indicate what the command does, they can serve as
very brief documentation--sufficient to remind you of commands you
have already learned.


Multi-character commands such as C-x C-s and <ESC>v (instead of M-v,
if you have no META or EDIT or ALT key) are also allowed after C-h c.

多个字符命令例如C-x C-s和<Esc> v(用于替代M-v,如果你没有Meta键),也允许出现在C-h c后面。

To get more information about a command, use C-h k instead of C-h c.

获取更多关于一个命令的信息,请不要再用C-h c而是C-h k。

Type C-h k C-p.

键入C-h k C-p

This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its name,
in an Emacs window. When you are finished reading the output, type
C-x 1 to get rid of that window. You do not have to do this right
away. You can do some editing while referring to the help text, and
then type C-x 1.

这将会在一个Emacs窗格里面显示功能的文档,包括名字。当你看完输出,输入C-x 1关闭文档的窗格。你不用立刻尝试。你可以在编辑的时候引用一些帮助文档,然后键入C-x 1,

Here are some other useful C-h options:
C-h f Describe a function. You type in the name of the

下面是一些有趣的C-h选项:C-h f 描述一个功能。你需要在命令后面输入功能的名称。(到底是功能还是函数呢???)

Try typing C-h f previous-line <Return>.
This displays all the information Emacs has about the
function which implements the C-p command.

尝试键入C-h previous-line <Return>.这将会显示所有的实现C-p功能的Emacs命令。

A similar command C-h v displays the documentation of variables,
including those whose values you can set to customize Emacs behavior.
You need to type in the name of the variable when Emacs prompts for it.

一个相似的命令C-h v显示变量的文档,包括那些你可以通过设置数值来自定义Emacs行为的变量。

C-h a Command Apropos. Type in a keyword and Emacs will list
all the commands whose names contain that keyword.
These commands can all be invoked with META-x.
For some commands, Command Apropos will also list a
sequence of one or more characters which runs the same

C-h a 命令关于。输入关键字,Emacs将会列出包含关键字的命令。这些命令可以使用M-x调用。对于一些命令,命令关于 会列出一系列的一个或多个字符的相同命令。

Type C-h a file <Return>.

键入C-h a file <Return>

This displays in another window a list of all M-x commands with "file"
in their names. You will see character-commands listed beside the
corresponding command names (such as C-x C-f beside find-file).

这个会在另外一个窗格里面显示名称里带有"file"的M-x命令列表。你会看到字符命令被列出,旁边就是相应的命令名称。(例如 C-x C-f beside find-file)

Type C-M-v to scroll the help window. Do this a few times.


Type C-x 1 to delete the help window.

键入C-x 1 删除帮助窗格

C-h i Read included Manuals (a.k.a. Info). This command puts
you into a special buffer called "info" where you
can read manuals for the packages installed on your system.
Type m emacs <Return> to read the Emacs manual.
If you have never before used Info, type h and Emacs
will take you on a guided tour of Info mode facilities.
Once you are through with this tutorial, you should
consult the Emacs Info manual as your primary documentation.

C-h i 阅读相关手册。这个命令会把你带入一个叫info的特别缓冲区中,这里 你可以阅读系统安装的包的相关手册。键入m emacs <Return> 读取emacs的手册。如果你之前从未使用过Info,键入h和Emacs会引导你参观info模式的设施。(这里怎么翻译,有些别扭)一旦你看完这个教程,你应该将Info手册作为你的基本文档。

  • MORE FEATURES(更多的特色)

You can learn more about Emacs by reading its manual, either as a
printed book, or inside Emacs (use the Help menu or type C-h r).
Two features that you may like especially are completion, which saves
typing, and dired, which simplifies file handling.


Completion is a way to avoid unnecessary typing. For instance, if you
want to switch to the Messages buffer, you can type C-x b *M<Tab>
and Emacs will fill in the rest of the buffer name as far as it can
determine from what you have already typed. Completion also works for
command names and file names. Completion is described in the Emacs
manual in the node called "Completion".

补全是避免不必要输入的一种方法。例如,如果你可以切换到Messages缓冲区,键入C-x b *M <Tab>,如果能够从已经输入的内容推断出来,Emacs就会决定缓冲区名称剩余部分。补全也试用于命令名称和文件名称。Emacs手册中的结点Completion具体描述了补全的内容。

Dired enables you to list files in a directory (and optionally its
subdirectories), move around that list, visit, rename, delete and
otherwise operate on the files. Dired is described in the Emacs
manual in the node called "Dired".

Dired 使你能够在某一目录或者子路径下列出文件,移动文件、重命名、删除以及进行其他操作。Emacs手册中的结点Dired具体描述了Dired的内容。

The manual also describes many other Emacs features.



To exit Emacs use C-x C-c.

退出Emacs , C-x C-c

This tutorial is meant to be understandable to all new users, so if
you found something unclear, don't sit and blame yourself - complain!


  • COPYING(复制)

This file is part of GNU Emacs.
GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

这个文件是GNU Emacs的一部分。
GNU Emacs是自由软件:你可以在自由软件基金会的GPL3或者更新的版本协议下分发或者修改。GNU Emacs怀着让软件强大的初衷分发,但是没有任何保修服务。甚至没有售后服务和特定目的适用性服务。具体细节你可以参阅GNU 通用公开协议(GPL),GPL协议跟随GNU Emacs 分发,如果没有请点击查看GPL 协议