读译Emacs Tutorial

Emacs tutorial. See end for copying conditions.

Emacs教程。复制条件请参阅文末。

Emacs commands generally involve the CONTROL key (sometimes labeled
CTRL or CTL) or the META key (sometimes labeled EDIT or ALT). Rather than
write that in full each time, we'll use the following abbreviations:

Emacs命令通常包含Control键(有时候标注为CTRL或者CTL)或者META键(有时标注为EDIT或者ALT),每次我们使用以下简写代替全称

C-<chr> means hold the CONTROL key while typing the character <chr>
Thus, C-f would be: hold the CONTROL key and type f.

C-<chr> 意味着按住CONTROL按键的同时敲击<chr>字符键。因此C-f意味着按下CONTROL的时候敲击 f

M-<chr> means hold the META or EDIT or ALT key down while typing <chr>.
If there is no META, EDIT or ALT key, instead press and release the
ESC key and then type <chr>. We write <ESC> for the ESC key.

M-<chr> 意味着按住META、EDIT或者ALT按键的同时敲击字符键<chr>

Important note: to end the Emacs session, type C-x C-c. (Two characters.)
To quit a partially entered command, type C-g.
To stop the tutorial, type C-x k, then <Return> at the prompt.
The characters ">>" at the left margin indicate directions for you to
try using a command. For instance:

重要提示:想要结束Emacs会话,按下C-x C-c(两个字符)

[Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes. Text continues below]

出于教学目的,此页中间部分留空。内容下面继续。

Now type C-v (View next screen) to scroll down in the tutorial.
(go ahead, do it by holding down the CONTROL key while typing v).
From now on, please do this whenever you reach the end of the screen.

现在按下C-v (看下一个屏幕)在教程中来向下翻页(试试吧,按住CONTROL键然后敲击v键)。从此,你就可以在到达屏幕结束末尾时用这个快捷键翻页了

Note that there is an overlap of two lines when you scroll a whole
screenful; this provides some continuity so you can continue reading
the text.

注意整屏翻页时有两行重叠,这保证了连续性,便于你继续读文章

This is a copy of the Emacs tutorial text, customized slightly for
you. Later on we will instruct you to try various commands to alter
this text. Don't worry if you change this text before we tell you to;
that is called "editing" and that's what Emacs is for.

这是为你稍微定制的Emacs教程的一份拷贝。待会我们会指导你尝试不同命令来更改这篇文章。不要在我们让你做之前担心文本内容会被改变,这就是编辑,也是Emacs存在的意义。

The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from place
to place in the text. You already know how to move forward one screen,
with C-v. To move backwards one screen, type M-v (hold down the META key
and type v, or type <ESC>v if you do not have a META, EDIT, or ALT key).

首先你需要知道如何在文本中移动你已经知道向前移动一个屏幕,用的是C-v。向后移动需要按M-v(按住META键,再按v,或者按<ESC>v 当你没有META、ALT或者EDIT键时)

Try typing M-v and then C-v, a few times.

尝试按M-v然后C-v,多试几次
2018-07-16 01:29:04

It is ok to scroll this text in other ways, if you know how.

如果你知道的话,还可以使用其他方法翻页

* SUMMARY总结


The following commands are useful for viewing screenfuls:

下列命令在屏幕切换时十分有用

C-v Move forward one screenful
M-v Move backward one screenful
C-l Clear screen and redisplay all the text,
moving the text around the cursor
to the center of the screen.
(That's CONTROL-L, not CONTROL-1.)

C-v 向下移动一个屏幕
M-v 向上移动一个屏幕
C-l 清屏,重新显示所有的文本,
围绕光标移动文本至屏幕中间
(注意是CONTROL-L不是CONTROL-1)

Find the cursor, and note what text is near it. Then type C-l.
Find the cursor again and notice that the same text is still near
the cursor, but now it is in the center of the screen.
If you press C-l again, this piece of text will move to the top of
the screen. Press C-l again, and it moves to the bottom.

找到光标,注意附近的文本。按C-l。
再次找到光标,注意同样的文本依然在光标附近,但是现在已经到屏幕中间了。
如果你再次按C-l,这段文本将会到达屏幕顶部
再次按C-l,它将会移动到屏幕底部

You can also use the PageUp and PageDn keys to move by screenfuls, if
your terminal has them, but you can edit more efficiently if you use
C-v and M-v.

如果你的设备有PageUp或者PageDn按键,你也可以使用它们进行屏幕间的移动,但是你可以使用C-v和M-v更加高效地编辑

* BASIC CURSOR CONTROL 基本的光标控制


Moving from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
move to a specific place within the text on the screen?

屏幕之间的移动十分有用,但是怎么移动到屏幕上的文本内部指定位置处呢?

There are several ways you can do this. You can use the arrow keys,
but it's more efficient to keep your hands in the standard position
and use the commands C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n. These characters
are equivalent to the four arrow keys, like this:


                        Previous line, C-p
                                  :
                                  :
   Backward, C-b .... Current cursor position .... Forward, C-f
                                  :
                                  :
                            Next line, C-n

有几种方法可以实现。你可以使用箭头按键,但是把你的手保持在键盘的标准位置,使用命令C-p,C-b,C-f,C-n更高效。这些字符等价于四个方向键,像这样

               C-p 上一行
                  :
                  :
   C-b 后退 ....当前位置 .... C-f 前进
                  :
                  :
                C-n 下一行

Move the cursor to the line in the middle of that diagram
using C-n or C-p. Then type C-l to see the whole diagram
centered in the screen.

使用C-n和C-p将光标移动到图表的中间行。按C-l将会发现图表已经在屏幕中央

You'll find it easy to remember these letters by words they stand for:
P for previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward. You
will be using these basic cursor positioning commands all the time.

你会发现通过字母所代表的单词记住这些字母十分容易:p代表Previous,N代表Next,B代表backward,F代表Forward。
你将会频繁使用这些基本的光标移动命令

Do a few C-n's to bring the cursor down to this line.

按几次C-n 来向下移动几行

Move into the line with C-f's and then up with C-p's.
See what C-p does when the cursor is in the middle of the line.

在行中使用C-f使光标前进几个位置,然后使用C-p后退几个位置

Each line of text ends with a Newline character, which serves to
separate it from the following line. (Normally, the last line in
a file will have a Newline at the end, but Emacs does not require it.)

每一行文本均以一个用于与下一行分离的换行符结尾。(通常来说,文件的末尾应该有一个新行,但是emacs不需要)

Try to C-b at the beginning of a line. It should move to
the end of the previous line. This is because it moves back
across the Newline character.

在行首试试C-b,光标将会移动到上一行末尾,这是因为它跨过了换行符。

C-f can move across a Newline just like C-b.

C-f可以像C-b一样跨过一个新行

Do a few more C-b's, so you get a feel for where the cursor is.
Then do C-f's to return to the end of the line.
Then do one more C-f to move to the following line.

尝试几次C-b,你就能感受到光标的位置。
然后使用C-f 到达到行尾,再按一次C-f就能移动到下一行了

When you move past the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
the edge shifts onto the screen. This is called "scrolling". It
enables Emacs to move the cursor to the specified place in the text
without moving it off the screen.

当你移动的光标经过屏幕顶部和底部,边缘外的将会移动到屏幕内,这就是滚动。滚动机制使得Emacs可以移动光标到文本指定的位置而不离开屏幕。

Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n, and
see what happens.

尝试使用C-n移动光标直至越过屏幕底部边缘,看看会发生什么

If moving by characters is too slow, you can move by words. M-f
(META-f) moves forward a word and M-b moves back a word.

如果觉得逐字符移动太慢,你可以逐个单词移动。M-f向前移动一个单词,M-b向后移动一个单词
(中文里面是移动到下一个标点符号的位置)

Type a few M-f's and M-b's.

按几次M-f和M-b

When you are in the middle of a word, M-f moves to the end of the word.
When you are in whitespace between words, M-f moves to the end of the
following word. M-b works likewise in the opposite direction.

如果你在一个词语的中央

Type M-f and M-b a few times, interspersed with C-f's and C-b's
so that you can observe the action of M-f and M-b from various
places inside and between words.

按几次M-f和M-b,穿插使用C-f和C-b你就会发现M-f和M-b从多个位置表现出来的不同行为。

Notice the parallel between C-f and C-b on the one hand, and M-f and
M-b on the other hand. Very often Meta characters are used for
operations related to the units defined by language (words, sentences,
paragraphs), while Control characters operate on basic units that are
of what you are editing (characters, lines, etc).

注意C-f,C-b和M-f,M-b之间的对比关系,可以发现,Meta字符通常用于语言定义的单元操作(单词,句子,段落),而Control字符用于你正在编辑的基本的单元操作(字符,行,等等)

This parallel applies between lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to
the beginning or end of a line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning
or end of a sentence.

这样的类比关系应用与行和句子时:C-a和C-e分别可以将光标移动到行首和行尾,而M-a和M-e可以将光标移动到行句首和句尾。

Try a couple of C-a's, and then a couple of C-e's.
Try a couple of M-a's, and then a couple of M-e's.

尝试几次C-a然后使用几次C-e
尝试几次M-a然后使用几次M-e

See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving one
more sentence. Although these are not quite analogous, each one seems
natural.

看重复的C-a没有起作用,而重复的M-a却可以使光标可以不断向上逐句移动。尽管这些不是完全相似,但是十分自然。(规律之中总是有例外)

The location of the cursor in the text is also called "point". To
paraphrase, the cursor shows on the screen where point is located in
the text.

文本中光标的位置叫做点,也就是屏幕上的光标在文本中的位置

Here is a summary of simple cursor-moving operations, including the
word and sentence moving commands:
C-f Move forward a character
C-b Move backward a character
M-f Move forward a word
M-b Move backward a word
C-n Move to next line
C-p Move to previous line
C-a Move to beginning of line
C-e Move to end of line
M-a Move back to beginning of sentence
M-e Move forward to end of sentence

以下是一个简单的光标移动操作的总结,包括了单词和句子移动命令。
C-f 向前移动一个字符
C-b向后移动一个字符
M-f向前移动一个单词(注意中文的特别之处,是移动一个标点)
M-b向后移动一个单词
C-n向下移动一行
C-p向上移动一行
C-a移动到行首
C-e移动到行尾
M-a移动到段落的行首
M-e移动到段落的行尾



Try all of these commands now a few times for practice.
These are the most often used commands.

尝试练习所有的命令几次,这些是最频繁使用的命令。

Two other important cursor motion commands are M-< (META Less-than),
which moves to the beginning of the whole text, and M-> (META
Greater-than), which moves to the end of the whole text.

另外两个重要的光标移动命令是M-<(Meta 小于号)移动到整段文档的开始;M->(Meta 大于号)移动到整个文章的结尾

On most terminals, the "<" is above the comma, so you must use the
shift key to type it. On these terminals you must use the shift key
to type M-< also; without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.

多数中终端,< 在逗号上面,所以你必须同时使用shift,不然你使用的就是M-,了。

Try M-< now, to move to the beginning of the tutorial.
Then use C-v repeatedly to move back here.

现在尝试M-<移动到教程的开始地方,然后多次使用C-v移动回来。

Try M-> now, to move to the end of the tutorial.
Then use M-v repeatedly to move back here.

现在尝试M->移动到教程的结束地方,然后多次使用M-v移动回来。

You can also move the cursor with the arrow keys, if your terminal has
arrow keys. We recommend learning C-b, C-f, C-n and C-p for three
reasons. First, they work on all kinds of terminals. Second, once
you gain practice at using Emacs, you will find that typing these Control
characters is faster than typing the arrow keys (because you do not
have to move your hands away from touch-typing position). Third, once
you form the habit of using these Control character commands, you can
easily learn to use other advanced cursor motion commands as well.

如果你的终端有箭头键,你也可以使用它们移动光标。我们推荐学习C-b,C-f,C-n,和C-p有一下三点理由。一,所有终端均适用。第二,如果你熟练使用emacs你会发现使用这些控制键比使用箭头更快。(因为你你的手不需要从打字区域离开)第三,一旦你养成使用组合按键的习惯,你也可以轻松学习使用其他高级的光标移动命令。

Most Emacs commands accept a numeric argument; for most commands, this
serves as a repeat-count. The way you give a command a repeat count
is by typing C-u and then the digits before you type the command. If
you have a META (or EDIT or ALT) key, there is another, alternative way
to enter a numeric argument: type the digits while holding down the
META key. We recommend learning the C-u method because it works on
any terminal. The numeric argument is also called a "prefix argument",

because you type the argument before the command it applies to.

大多数Emacs命令可以接受数字参数;对于大多数命令,这代表重复次数。给出命令重复次数的方法是,在你输入命令之前,输入一个C-u加上数字。如果你有Meta按键,还有一个用于输入数字参数的可选的方法:按住Meta按键然后输入数字。我们推荐使用C-u方法因为任何终端均可用。数字参数也叫“前缀变量”,因为这个参数是在命令执行之前输入的。

For instance, C-u 8 C-f moves forward eight characters.

例如:C-u 8 C-f 向前移动8个字符

Try using C-n or C-p with a numeric argument, to move the cursor
to a line near this one with just one command.

尝试仅仅使用结合数字参数的C-n或者C-p一个命令来移动光标到达该行附近的行。

Most commands use the numeric argument as a repeat count, but some
commands use it in some other way. Several commands (but none of
those you have learned so far) use it as a flag--the presence of a
prefix argument, regardless of its value, makes the command do
something different.

多数命令使用数字参数作为重复的次数,但是一些命令将数字用作其他方式。一些命令(但不在你目前已经学到的命令之列)使用前缀参数作为标志--只要给出前缀参数,不管值是多少,它都会使命令做不同的事情。

C-v and M-v are another kind of exception. When given an argument,
they scroll the text up or down by that many lines, rather than by a
screenful. For example, C-u 8 C-v scrolls by 8 lines.

C-v 和 M-v 是另外一种特例,当给出一个参数,他们会上下移动相应行数而不是移动多个屏幕。例如C-u 8 C-v 向下移动8行

Try typing C-u 8 C-v now.
现在尝试,输入C-u 8 C-v

This should have scrolled the text up by 8 lines. If you would like
to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.
这个命令将会使文字向上滚动8行。如果希望再向下滚动,你可以把参数传递给M-v。

If you are using a graphical display, such as X or MS-Windows, there
should be a tall rectangular area called a scroll bar on one side of
the Emacs window. You can scroll the text by clicking the mouse in
the scroll bar.

如果你正在使用图形化相显示,例如X 或者MS-Windows,Emacs窗口 的边缘应该有一个长方形区域叫做滚动条。你可以在滚动条点击来滚动 文本。

If your mouse has a wheel button, you can also use this to scroll.
如果你的鼠标有一个滚轮,你也可以使用滚轮来滚动文本

* IF EMACS STOPS RESPONDING (如果Emacs无响应)


If Emacs stops responding to your commands, you can stop it safely by
typing C-g. You can use C-g to stop a command which is taking too
long to execute.

如果Emacs对你的按键无相应,你可以通过输入C-g安全地停止。你可以使用C-g停止执行太久的命令。

You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
a command that you do not want to finish.

你也可以在你想放弃一个命令的时候,使用C-g来丢弃一个数字参数或者已经输入的部分命令

Type C-u 100 to make a numeric argument of 100, then type C-g.
Now type C-f. It should move just one character, because you
canceled the argument with C-g.
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it with a C-g.

输入C-u 100来添加一个数字参数,然后输入C-g。现在输入C-f,光标只移动一个字符,因为你使用C-g取消了参数

*DISABLED COMMANDS(禁用命令)


Some Emacs commands are "disabled" so that beginning users cannot use
them by accident.

为了防止新手误触,一些Emacs命令是禁用的

If you type one of the disabled commands, Emacs displays a message
saying what the command was, and asking you whether you want to go
ahead and execute the command.
If you really want to try the command, type <SPC> (the Space bar) in
answer to the question. Normally, if you do not want to execute the
disabled command, answer the question with "n".

如果你输入一个禁用的命令,Emacs会告诉你命令的详情,并询问你是否继续执行命令。如果你真的想执行命令输入SPACE响应询问。如果你不想执行禁用命令,使用n回复询问即可。

Type C-x C-l (which is a disabled command),
then type n to answer the question.
输入C-x C-l (这是一条禁用命令),然后输入n回答问题
编辑 2018-7-17 16:08:52

  • WINDOWS(窗格)

Emacs can have several "windows", each displaying its own text. We
will explain later on how to use multiple windows. Right now we want
to explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
one-window editing. It is simple:
C-x 1 One window (i.e., kill all other windows).

Emacs可以有多个窗格(参考 孙一江 sunyijiang@gmail.com的翻译,frame将会被翻译为窗口,frame可以有多个窗格),每个显示自己的内容。我们稍后解释如何使用多个窗格。现在我们打算解释如何避免多余的窗格和返回基本的单个窗格的编辑状态。这很简单:
C-x 1 一个窗格,关闭其余的窗格

That is CONTROL-x followed by the digit 1. C-x 1 expands the window
which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen. It deletes all
other windows.

这个命令是Control-x 加上数字1,C-x 1将包含光标的窗格拓展至全屏。这将会删除其他的窗格。

Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
Type C-h k C-f.
See how this window shrinks, while a new one appears
to display documentation on the C-f command.

移动光标到这一行输入C-u 0 C-l (这里显然是零不是字母o)
输入C-h k C-f
看窗格收缩了,C-f 命令之后出现一个显示文档内容的新窗格

Type C-x 1 and see the documentation listing window disappear.

There is a whole series of commands that start with CONTROL-x; many of
them have to do with windows, files, buffers, and related things.
These commands are two, three or four characters long.

emacs有一系列的以Control-x开始的命令。许多都和窗格,文件,缓冲,以及相关的东西。这些命令往往有2,3,或者4个字符。

* INSERTING AND DELETING(插入和删除)


If you want to insert text, just type the text. Ordinary characters,
like A, 7, *, etc., are inserted as you type them. To insert a
Newline character, type <Return> (this is the key on the keyboard
which is sometimes labeled "Enter").

如果你想插入文本,那输入就行了。普通的字符如A,7,*等等,会原封不动地插入。如果想输入一个换行符,按一下<ENTER>即可

To delete the character immediately before the current cursor
position, type <DEL>. This is the key on the keyboard usually labeled
"Backspace"--the same one you normally use, outside Emacs, to delete
the last character typed.

如果要立即删除光标前的字符,按<DEL>键。这个键在键盘上通常标注为Backspace--这个键和你在Emacs外通常使用的用于删除最后输入的字符的按键是一样的。

There may also be another key on your keyboard labeled <Delete>, but
that's not the one we refer to as <DEL>.

键盘上可能有另外一个键标注为<Delete>,但是这个按键不是我们所说的<DEL>

Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them by
typing <DEL> a few times. Don't worry about this file
being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial.

This is your personal copy of it.

试试这个:
输入一些字符,然后通过多次按<DEL>删除它们。不要担心文件内容被改变;这个是一份你的个人拷贝。

When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line. If you're using a
graphical display, little curved arrows appear in the narrow spaces on
each side of the text area (the left and right "fringes"), to indicate
where a line has been continued. If you're using a text terminal, the
continued line is indicated by a backslash ('') on the rightmost
screen column.

当一行文本过长超出屏幕上的一行时,之后的文本将会被屏幕上的第二行“继续”。如果你正在使用图形化的显示,一个表示一行被中继的弯曲的小箭头将会出现在文本区域的两边的狭窄区域(文本和屏幕边界的空白区域)。如果你使用的是文本终端,中继行将会在最末尾使用反斜杠("")标注。

Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
You'll see a continuation line appear.

插入文本直到右边的边缘,继续插入你会看到一个中继行的出现。

Use <DEL>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
line again. The continuation line goes away.

使用<Del>删除文本直至行完全充满屏幕中的一行,中继行就消失了

You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
one line. If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.

你可以像删除任意字符一样删除一个换行符。删除两行之间的换行符将会合并两行。如果合并导致行超过屏幕的最大行长度,将会以中继行的形式显示。

Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <DEL>. This
merges that line with the previous line.

将光标移动到行的开始然后输入<Del>.这将合并该行和之前的行。

Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.

输入<Return> 插入你删除的新行

The <Return> key is special, in that pressing it may do more than
just insert a Newline character. Depending on the surrounding text,
it may insert whitespace after the Newline character, so that when
you start typing on the newly created line, the text lines up with
that on the previous line. We call this behavior (where pressing a
key does more than simply inserting the relevant character) "electric".

<Return>键比较特殊,按下将会不止插入一个换行符。取决于周围的文本内容,它可能在换行符后插入空白内容,这样一来你输入的时候行会自动与上一行对齐。我们把这种行为(按下一个键输入的不只相关字符)叫做自动缩进。

Here is an example of <Return> being electric.
Type <Return> at the end of this line.

这是一个<Return>自动缩进的例子。尝试行尾按下<Return>。

You should see that after inserting the Newline, Emacs inserts spaces
so that the cursor moves under the "T" of "Type".

你应该发现了,在插入新行之后,Emacs插入空格,所以光标移动到了‘TYPE’的‘T’下面。

Remember that most Emacs commands can be given a repeat count;
this includes text characters. Repeating a text character inserts
it several times.

记住大多数的Emacs命令可以添加重复次数,这也包含文本字符。重复插入几次文本字符

Try that now -- type C-u 8 * to insert ********.

尝试输入C-u 8 * 插入 ********

You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
Emacs and correcting errors. You can delete by words or lines
as well. Here is a summary of the delete operations:

<DEL>        Delete the character just before the cursor
C-d          Delete the next character after the cursor

M-<DEL>      Kill the word immediately before the cursor
M-d      Kill the next word after the cursor

C-k      Kill from the cursor position to end of line
M-k      Kill to the end of the current sentence

你已经学习了使用Emacs最基本的编辑方法以及检错方法。你可以按词删除也能按行删除。下面是一些删除的操作总结。
del 删除光标前的一个字符
C-d移除光标后一个字符
M-del 移除光标前一个词
M-d 移除光标后一个词
C-k从光标处移除至行尾
M-k从光标处移除至当前句子尾

Notice that <DEL> and C-d vs M-<DEL> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <DEL> is not really a control character,
but let's not worry about that). C-k and M-k are like C-e and M-e,
sort of, in that lines are paired with sentences.

注意<Del>和C-d与M-<del>和M-d延续了C-f和M-f开启的类比关系(虽然del不是一个真正的控制字符,但是请忽略这点)C-k和M-k有点像C-e和M-e,都是一个针对行操作,一个针对句子操作。

You can also kill a segment of text with one uniform method. Move to
one end of that part, and type C-<SPC>. (<SPC> is the Space bar.)
Next, move the cursor to the other end of the text you intend to kill.
As you do this, Emacs highlights the text between the cursor and the
position where you typed C-<SPC>. Finally, type C-w. This kills all
the text between the two positions.

你可以使用通用的方法杀掉一段文本(清除缓冲区中的内容)。将光标移动到目标文本的一端,输入C-SPACE。然后将光标移动到你想删除的文本的另外一端。之后,Emacs会着重标记你按C-SPACE的地方到当前光标位置之间的文本内容。然后输入C-W即可清空至你输入C-SPACE位置的内容。

Move the cursor to the Y at the start of the previous paragraph.
移动光标到段落开始处的Y字母
Type C-<SPC>. Emacs should display a message "Mark set"
at the bottom of the screen.

输入C-space emacs会在屏幕底部显示一条"Mark Set"的信息。

Move the cursor to the n in "end", on the second line of the
paragraph.

移动光标到段落第二行的"end"中的"n"处

Type C-w. This will kill the text starting from the Y,
and ending just before the n.

然后输入C-w。这将会移除从Y开始直到n前面一个字符的文本。

The difference between "killing" and "deleting" is that "killed" text
can be reinserted (at any position), whereas "deleted" things cannot
be reinserted in this way (you can, however, undo a deletion--see
below). Reinsertion of killed text is called "yanking". (Think of it
as yanking back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.)
Generally, the commands that can remove a lot of text kill the text
(they are set up so that you can yank the text), while the commands
that remove just one character, or only remove blank lines and spaces,
do deletion (so you cannot yank that text). <DEL> and C-d do deletion
in the simplest case, with no argument. When given an argument, they
kill instead.

移除和删除的区别在于移除的文本可以再次插入而删除的文本无法插入,除非你撤销删除的操作。重新插入移除的文本叫做召回。通常能够清除大量文本的命令都只是移除文本,而清除单个字符或者空行、空格的命令是真正的删除.<Del>和C-d没有参数,是最简单的删除方式。如果加上参数,他们将变成移除操作。

Move the cursor to the beginning of a line which is not empty.
Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.

将光标移动到一个非空行的开头,输入C-k以清除该行的内容。

Type C-k a second time. You'll see that it kills the Newline
which follows that line.

再输入一次C-k。你会发现它移除了上一行之后的一行内容。

Note that a single C-k kills the contents of the line, and a second
C-k kills the line itself, and makes all the other lines move up. C-k
treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
their contents. This is not mere repetition. C-u 2 C-k kills two
lines and their Newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.

注意单个C-k移除整行的内容,第二个C-k清除换行符,下文的行均依次上移。C-k命令对待数字参数比较特殊:它移除很多行和他们的内容。但是这不仅仅是重复操作。C-u 2 C-k移除两行,但是输入两次C-k效果可不是这样。

You can yank the killed text either at the same place where it was
killed, or at some other place in the text you are editing, or even in
a different file. You can yank the same text several times; that
makes multiple copies of it. Some other editors call killing and
yanking "cutting" and "pasting" (see the Glossary in the Emacs
manual).

你可以在移除文本的地方或者在其他地方:如文本中的其他位置甚至其他文件里面,召回移除的文本。你可以召回同样的文本多次;这将会将文本做多份拷贝。一些别的编辑器把移除和召回叫做剪切和粘贴。

The command for yanking is C-y. It reinserts the last killed text,
at the current cursor position.

召回的命令是C-y。这个命令会将移除的文本插入到当前光标所在位置。

Try it; type C-y to yank the text back.

试试用C-y把文本召回。

If you do several C-k's in a row, all of the killed text is saved
together, so that one C-y will yank all of the lines at once.

如果你在一行中多次输入C-k命令,所有的移除文本都保存在一起,所以C-y将会把这些行一次性全部召回。

Do this now, type C-k several times.

试试几次C-k吧,
Now to retrieve that killed text:

Type C-y. Then move the cursor down a few lines and type C-y
again. You now see how to copy some text.

输入C-y。然后将光标下移几行再次输入C-y。你现在看到的就是如何复制文本。

What do you do if you have some text you want to yank back, and then
you kill something else? C-y would yank the more recent kill. But
the previous text is not lost. You can get back to it using the M-y
command. After you have done C-y to get the most recent kill, typing
M-y replaces that yanked text with the previous kill. Typing M-y
again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills. When you have
reached the text you are looking for, you do not have to do anything to
keep it. Just go on with your editing, leaving the yanked text where
it is.

如果你有一些内容想召回,然后移除一些别的内容,你会怎么做?C-y将会召回更多近期的移除内容。但是以前的文本没有丢失。你可以使用M-y返回。当你使用C-y召回最近的移除时,输入M-y代替可以召回上一次移除的内容。再次反复输入M-y可以将此前一次次的移除召回。但你召回了你想要的文本时,你不需要做任何的保存操作,让召回的文本在原处,继续编辑即可。

If you M-y enough times, you come back to the starting point (the most
recent kill).

如果你M-y连续使用很多次,你可以回到最近移除的起点。(环形)

Kill a line, move around, kill another line.
Then do C-y to get back the second killed line.
Then do M-y and it will be replaced by the first killed line.
Do more M-y's and see what you get. Keep doing them until
the second kill line comes back, and then a few more.
If you like, you can try giving M-y positive and negative
arguments.

移除一行,移动光标,移除另外一行。然后使用C-y召回第二次被移除的行,使用M-y将会替换成为第一次移除的行。多试几次看看你的效果。继续操作直至第二次移除的文本回来。如果你喜欢,你可以给M-y一个正的或者负的参数。

  • UNDO(撤销)

If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-/.

如果你在对文本做了更改之后发现误操作了,你可以使用撤销命令 C-/

Normally, C-/ undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
C-/ several times in a row, each repetition undoes one more command.

C-/ 可以撤销一个命令造成的改变。如果你在一行中多次使用C-/,以前的命令也会相继撤销。

But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text
don't count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
commands), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
of up to 20. (This is to reduce the number of C-/'s you have to type
to undo insertion of text.)

但是有两个例外:不改变文本的命令不算(包括光标移动和滚动命令);键盘输入的字符通常以组的形式存在--每组的命令为20个(减少你在撤销插入操作时候 的输入)

Kill this line with C-k, then type C-/ and it should reappear.

使用C-k移除行,然后输入C-/,行将会恢复

C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works exactly the same as C-/.
On some text terminals, typing C-/ actually sends C-_ to Emacs.
Alternatively, C-x u also works exactly like C-/, but is a little less
convenient to type.

C-_ 是一个可选的撤销命令;它和C-/基本一致。在某些文本终端里,输入C-/通常会向Emacs发送C-_。此外,C-u x和C-/基本也一样,但是不好按。

A numeric argument to C-/, C-_, or C-x u acts as a repeat count.

数字参数对于C-/,C-_或者C-x u意味着重复。

You can undo deletion of text just as you can undo killing of text.
The distinction between killing something and deleting it affects
whether you can yank it with C-y; it makes no difference for undo.

你可以撤销文本的删除操作正如你撤销移除文本的命令。移除和删除影响你能否使用C-y召回;但是对于撤销来说没有区别。

  • FILES(文件)

In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
file. Otherwise, it will go away when you exit Emacs. In order to
put your text in a file, you must "find" the file before you enter the
text. (This is also called "visiting" the file.)

为了创建你可以持续编辑的文本,你必须把它放到一个文件里面。否则,你离开emacs之后文本将不会被保存。为了把文本放到文件里面,你必须在你输入文本之前找到文件。(这个也叫访问文件)

Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
Emacs. In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
However, the changes you make using Emacs do not become permanent
until you "save" the file. This is so you can avoid leaving a
half-changed file on the system when you do not want to. Even when
you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
you later decide that your changes were a mistake.

找到文件意味着你能在emacs里面看到文件的内容。很多情况下好像你在编辑文本本身。然而你所做的改变在你保存之前都不会被输出到文件。这样你就能避免在系统中留存一个你不想的临时文件。即便在你保存的时候,emacs会留下一个改变名称的原始文件以防止你之后发现之前的修改是错误的,为你留下后悔药。

If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
begins with dashes, and starts with " -:--- TUTORIAL" or something
like that. This part of the screen normally shows the name of the
file that you are visiting. Right now, you are visiting your personal
copy of the Emacs tutorial, which is called "TUTORIAL". When you find
a file with Emacs, that file's name will appear in that precise spot.

屏幕底部附近有一行以短横开始的如以 “--:--- TUTORIAL” 或者 别的其他内容。这部分屏幕内容 显示了你正在访问的文件名称 。现在你正在访问叫做TUTORIAL的Emacs教程的一个 副本 。当你发现使用Emacs访问一个文件时,文件名称将会出现在那个位置。

One special thing about the command for finding a file is that you
have to say what file name you want. We say the command "reads an
argument" (in this case, the argument is the name of the file). After
you type the command
关于访问文件命令,你必须指明文件名称。我们将这个命令称作读取参数(此时参数是文件名)。在你输入命令:
C-x C-f Find a file( C-x C-f访问一个 文件)

Emacs asks you to type the file name. The file name you type appears
on the bottom line of the screen. The bottom line is called the
minibuffer when it is used for this sort of input. You can use
ordinary Emacs editing commands to edit the file name.

Emacs 将会让你输入文件名称

While you are entering the file name (or any minibuffer input),
you can cancel the command with C-g.

当你输入文件名(或者进行其他任何小缓冲区的输入时)你可以使用C-g取消输入

Type C-x C-f, then type C-g. This cancels the minibuffer,
and also cancels the C-x C-f command that was using the
minibuffer. So you do not find any file.

输入C-x C-f,然后输入C-g。这将清空小缓冲区的内容同时取消正在使用小缓冲区C-x C-f命令。所以你看不到任何文件

When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
terminate it. The minibuffer disappears, and the C-x C-f command goes
to work to find the file you chose.

当你输完文件名称,按下回车键结束输入。小缓冲区消失啦,C-x C-f命令开始访问你输入的文件。

The file contents now appear on the screen, and you can edit the
contents. When you wish to make your changes permanent, type the
command
C-x C-s Save the file

屏幕上开始显示文件的内容,你可以编辑它。如果想让更改生效,输入C-x C-s 命令

This copies the text within Emacs into the file. The first time you
do this, Emacs renames the original file to a new name so that it is
not lost. The new name is made by adding "~" to the end of the
original file's name. When saving is finished, Emacs displays the
name of the file written.

这将会把Emacs的内容写入文件中。你第一次这样做的时候,emacs将会把原文件更名为原名称尾部加上~以确保文件内容不会丢失。当保存完成,emacs将会显示写入的文件名。

Type C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>.
This should save this tutorial to a file named TUTORIAL, and show
"Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.

输入C-x C-s TUTORIAL <Return>. 这个命令将会把这个教程保存到一个名为 TUTORIAL的文件中然后在屏幕底部显示写入...TUTORIAL。

You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it. You can also
find a file which does not already exist. This is the way to create a
file with Emacs: find the file, which starts out empty, and then begin
inserting the text for the file. When you ask to "save" the file,
Emacs actually creates the file with the text that you have inserted.
From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an already
existing file.

你可以访问一个已经存在的文件,查看或者编辑它。你也能访问一个不存在的文件。使用Emacs创建新文件的方法:访问一个空文件,然后为其插入内容。当你请求保存文件时,Emacs才用你插入的文本内容创建文件。以后你就能考虑编辑一个已经存在的文件了。

  • BUFFERS(缓冲)

If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
inside Emacs. You can switch back to it by finding it again with
C-x C-f. This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.

如果你想使用C-x C-f再打开一个文件,第一个文件将会保存在缓冲区里面。你可以用C-x C-f再次访问它。这种方法使你能够在Emacs里面获取很多文件

Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer".
Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs. To see a list of the
buffers that currently exist, type
C-x C-b List buffers

Emacs 将每个文件的文本存放在一个叫缓冲区的区域内。访问一个新的文件将会在Emacs中创建新的缓冲区。想要查看现存的缓冲区列表,输入命令
C-x C-b 列出缓冲区

Try C-x C-b now.

现在就来试试C-x C-b吧

See how each buffer has a name, and it may also have a file name for
the file whose contents it holds. ANY text you see in an Emacs window
is always part of some buffer.

每个缓冲区都有自己的名字,还可能有一个对应内容的目标文件名称。你在Emacs里面看到的任何文本都是某个缓冲区的一部分。

Type C-x 1 to get rid of the buffer list.

输入C-x 1 来还原一个窗格的页面

When you have several buffers, only one of them is "current" at any
time. That buffer is the one you edit. If you want to edit another
buffer, you need to "switch" to it. If you want to switch to a buffer
that corresponds to a file, you can do it by visiting the file again
with C-x C-f. But there is an easier way: use the C-x b command.
In that command, you have to type the buffer's name.

如果拥有几个缓冲区,同一时刻只能有一个是你当前正在被编辑的缓冲区。如果想编辑另外一个缓冲区,你需要切换。如果想切换至对应某个文件的缓冲区,你可以通过输入C-x C-f访问那个文件。但是有一个更简单的方法:使用C-x b命令,这一命令中你必须输入缓冲区的名称。

Create a file named "foo" by typing C-x C-f foo <Return>.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.

通过C-x C-f foo <Return>命令创建一个名为foo的文件。然后输入C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> 即可返回该教程。

Most of the time, the buffer's name is the same as the file name
(without the file directory part). However, this is not always true.
The buffer list you make with C-x C-b shows you both the buffer name
and the file name of every buffer.

通常缓冲区的名称和文件名相同,不包括文件的路径部分。然而,也不总是这样。使用C-x C-b列出的缓冲区表会显示缓冲区的名字和文件名。

Some buffers do not correspond to files. The buffer named
"Buffer List", which contains the buffer list that you made with
C-x C-b, does not have any file. This TUTORIAL buffer initially did
not have a file, but now it does, because in the previous section you
typed C-x C-s and saved it to a file.

某些缓冲区没有文件与之对应。缓冲区叫做缓冲区表,包含使用C-x C-b创建的缓冲区,但是没有任何文件。这个教程的缓冲区一开始没有文件,但是现在有了,因为上一节里面你使用C-x C-s来存盘了。

The buffer named "Messages" also does not correspond to any file.
This buffer contains the messages that have appeared on the bottom
line during your Emacs session.

名为Messages的缓冲区也不对应任何文件,在Emacs会话中,这个缓冲区的缓冲区将会在最后一行显示信息。

Type C-x b Messages <Return> to look at the buffer of messages.
Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.

输入C-x b Messages <Return> 查看消息的缓冲区。然后输入Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return>返回该教程。

If you make changes to the text of one file, then find another file,
this does not save the first file. Its changes remain inside Emacs,
in that file's buffer. The creation or editing of the second file's
buffer has no effect on the first file's buffer. This is very useful,
but it also means that you need a convenient way to save the first
file's buffer. Having to switch back to that buffer, in order to save
it with C-x C-s, would be a nuisance. So we have
C-x s Save some buffers

如果你对一个文件的文本做了改动,然后去访问另外一个文件,第一个文件将不会保存。文件内容的变动依然在Emacs里面的那个文件的缓冲区里。第二个文件的创建和编辑对第一个文件缓冲区的内容毫无影响。这种机制十分有用,但是也意味着你需要一个更加便捷的方法去保存第一个文件的缓冲区。切换到那个缓冲区之后,用C-x C-s保存文件有些累赘,所以我们使用C-x s保存缓冲区。

C-x s asks you about each buffer which contains changes that you have
not saved. It asks you, for each such buffer, whether to save the
buffer.

C-x 将会询问你哪些缓冲区保存,以及对应的缓冲区是否需要保存。

Insert a line of text, then type C-x s.
It should ask you whether to save the buffer named TUTORIAL.
Answer yes to the question by typing "y".

插入一行然后输入C-x s 。Emacs会询问你是否需要把缓冲区保存到TUTORIAL。如果是请输入一个y。

  • EXTENDING THE COMMAND SET (拓展命令集)

There are many, many more Emacs commands than could possibly be put
on all the control and meta characters. Emacs gets around this with
the X (eXtend) command. This comes in two flavors:
C-x Character eXtend. Followed by one character.
M-x Named command eXtend. Followed by a long name.

Emacs 有很多很多可以放在control和meta键上的命令。Emacs使用拓展命令解决这个问题。拓展命令有一下两种形式:
C-x 字符拓展,命令后紧跟一个字符
M-x 名称拓展,命令后紧跟一个长名字

These are commands that are generally useful but are used less than the commands you have already learned about. You have already seen a few of them: the file commands C-x C-f to Find and C-x C-s to Save, for
example. Another example is the command to end the Emacs
session--this is the command C-x C-c. (Do not worry about losing
changes you have made; C-x C-c offers to save each changed file before
it kills Emacs.)

有一些十分有用的命令,但是使用频率低于你已经学到的命令。你已经涉及到了一些,比如:
文件查找命令 C-x C-f
文件保存命令C-x C-s
另外的例子如:结束Emacs会话的命令C-x C-c(不要担心丢失你做出的更改,C-x C-c会在关闭之前询问是否保存更改的文件)

If you are using a graphical display, you don't need any special
command to move from Emacs to another application. You can do this
with the mouse or with window manager commands. However, if you're
using a text terminal which can only show one application at a time,
you need to "suspend" Emacs to move to any other application.

如果你正在使用图形化显示,你不需要任何特别的命令从Emacs移动到另一个应用,你可以使用鼠标或者窗口管理命令。可是如果你使用的是每次只能展示一个应用的文本终端,你需要挂起Emacs以便能够切换到其他应用。

C-z is the command to exit Emacs temporarily--so that you can go
back to the same Emacs session afterward. When Emacs is running on a
text terminal, C-z "suspends" Emacs; that is, it returns to the shell
but does not destroy the Emacs job. In the most common shells, you
can resume Emacs with the "fg" command or with "%emacs".

C-z 是临时退出Emacs的命令,这样之后你就能回到同一个Emacs会话。当Emacs运行于文本终端的时候C-z挂起Emacs

The time to use C-x C-c is when you are about to log out. It's also
the right thing to use to exit an Emacs invoked for a quick edit, such
as by a mail handling utility.

当你打算退出,正是时候使用C-x C-c了。这也是退出为快速编辑如邮件处理应用而调用的Emacs正确的方法
There are many C-x commands. Here is a list of the ones you have learned:
C-x开始的命令有很多。下面是你已经学到的命令的列表。
C-x C-f Find file 访问文件
C-x C-s Save file 保存文件
C-x s Save some buffers 保存缓冲区
C-x C-b List buffers 列出缓冲区
C-x b Switch buffer 切换缓冲区
C-x C-c Quit Emacs 退出Emacs
C-x 1 Delete all but one window 删除其余窗格,只留一个
C-x u Undo 撤销

Named eXtended commands are commands which are used even less
frequently, or commands which are used only in certain modes. An
example is the command replace-string, which replaces one string with
another in the buffer. When you type M-x, Emacs prompts you at the
bottom of the screen with M-x and you should type the name of the
command; in this case, "replace-string". Just type "repl s<TAB>" and
Emacs will complete the name. (<TAB> is the Tab key, usually found
above the CapsLock or Shift key near the left edge of the keyboard.)
Submit the command name with <Return>.

命名的拓展命令的使用通常不那么频繁或者仅仅用于某些模式下。一个例子是替换字符串命令,就是在缓冲区里面将一个字符串替换成另一个。当你输入M-x,Emacs会在屏幕底部显示M-x,提醒你应该输入命令的名称。;这时替换字符串,只需要输入repl s<Tab>,Emacs 将会自动补全命令。使用<Return>使命令生效。

The replace-string command requires two arguments--the string to be
replaced, and the string to replace it with. You must end each
argument with <Return>.

替换字符串命令需要两个参数--源字符串和目标字符串。你必须使用<Return>终结每个参数的输入。

Move the cursor to the blank line two lines below this one.
Then type M-x repl s<Tab>changed<Return>altered<Return>.

移动光标到该行下两行的空行,依次输入M-x repl s<Tab> changed<Return> altered <Return>

Notice how this line has changed: you've replaced the word
"changed" with "altered" wherever it occurred, after the
initial position of the cursor.

注意行怎么改变的:将文章中所有的在最初光标位置之后出现的单词Changed 改成altered

  • AUTO SAVE(自动保存)

When you have made changes in a file, but you have not saved them yet,
they could be lost if your computer crashes. To protect you from
this, Emacs periodically writes an "auto save" file for each file that
you are editing. The auto save file name has a # at the beginning and
the end; for example, if your file is named "hello.c", its auto save
file's name is "#hello.c#". When you save the file in the normal way,
Emacs deletes its auto save file.

当你在文件中做了更改,但是还没保存的时候,如果电脑崩溃,更改可能就丢失了。为了防止这种事情的发生,Emacs 周期性地将你正在编辑的文件写入一个自动保存的文件。自动保存的文件名首尾均有一个#符号。例如你的"hello.c"文件,自动保存的文件名就是"#hello.c#"。如果使用常规保存,临时文件将会被删除

If the computer crashes, you can recover your auto-saved editing by
finding the file normally (the file you were editing, not the auto
save file) and then typing M-x recover-this-file <Return>. When it
asks fo confirmation, type yes<Return> to go ahead and recover the
auto-save data.

如果计算机崩溃,你可以通过正常查找文件恢复你自动保存的编辑(你过去编辑的文件不是自动保存的文件)然后输入M-x recover-this-file <Return>.当询问确认时,输入yes<Return>继续,恢复自动保存的数据。

  • ECHO AREA(回显区域)

If Emacs sees that you are typing multicharacter commands slowly, it
shows them to you at the bottom of the screen in an area called the
"echo area". The echo area contains the bottom line of the screen.

如果Emcas发现你十分缓慢地编辑多字符的命令时,它将会在屏幕底部的回显区域显他们。回显区域包含屏幕底的一行。

  • MODE LINE(模式行)

The line immediately above the echo area is called the "mode line".
The mode line says something like this:

紧邻回显区域的上面一行叫做模式行。这一行显示的信息大概如下:

-:**- TUTORIAL 63% L749 (Fundamental)

This line gives useful information about the status of Emacs and
the text you are editing.

这一行显示了Emacs的状态信息以及你正在编辑的文本的信息

You already know what the filename means--it is the file you have
found. NN% indicates your current position in the buffer text; it
means that NN percent of the buffer is above the top of the screen.
If the top of the buffer is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead
of " 0%". If the bottom of the buffer is on the screen, it will say
"Bot". If you are looking at a buffer so small that all of it fits on
the screen, the mode line says "All".

你已经知道文件名意味着:这是你正在访问的文件名。NN%表明了你当前光标在缓冲区中的位置。

The L and digits indicate position in another way: they give the
current line number of point.

L和数字表明以另外的方式显示位置:他们给出当前的行号。

The stars near the front mean that you have made changes to the text.

Right after you visit or save a file, that part of the mode line shows
no stars, just dashes.

模式行前面的星号表示你对文本已经做出了更改。你访问或者保存一个文件之后,这个星号就会消失,只显示一个短横线

The part of the mode line inside the parentheses is to tell you what
editing modes you are in. The default mode is Fundamental which is
what you are using now. It is an example of a "major mode".
模式行中的括号里面的内容告诉你所处的模式。默认的模式是你正在使用的Fundamental。这是一个Major 模式的例子
Emacs has many different major modes. Some of them are meant for
editing different languages and/or kinds of text, such as Lisp mode,
Text mode, etc. At any time one and only one major mode is active,
and its name can always be found in the mode line just where
"Fundamental" is now.

Emacs 有不同的Major模式。一些用于编辑不同的语言或者不同的文本类型,如Lisp模式,文本模式,等等。但是任何时刻只能有一个major模式处于激活状态,模式的名称将会出现在目前的Fundamental的位置。

Each major mode makes a few commands behave differently. For example,
there are commands for creating comments in a program, and since each
programming language has a different idea of what a comment should
look like, each major mode has to insert comments differently. Each
major mode is the name of an extended command, which is how you can
switch to that mode. For example, M-x fundamental-mode is a command to
switch to Fundamental mode.

每一个Major模式都有一些特别的不同命令.例如一些命令用于在程序中创建注释,而不同的编程语言的注释方式形式不一样,每一major模式不得不以不同的方式插入注释。每个major模式都是一个拓展命令的名字,因此可以通过相应命令切换至某一模式。例如,M-x fundamental-mode 是切换至Fundamental模式的命令。

If you are going to be editing human-language text, such as this file, you
should probably use Text Mode.

如果你打算编辑像这样一篇人可读的文本那你应该使用Text模式

Type M-x text-mode <Return>.

输入M-x text-mode <return>试试看吧

Don't worry, none of the Emacs commands you have learned changes in
any great way. But you can observe that M-f and M-b now treat
apostrophes as part of words. Previously, in Fundamental mode,
M-f and M-b treated apostrophes as word-separators.

不要担心(你学的命令过时了),所有你知道的Emacs命令目前为止都没有大的变化。但是可以注意到的是,现在M-f(前移动一个词)和M-b(后移动一个词)将单引号视作一个词的一部分。以前的Fundamental模式下M-f和M-b把单引号视作单词分隔符。

Major modes usually make subtle changes like that one: most commands
do "the same job" in each major mode, but they work a little bit
differently.

Major 模式通常作出了像这样的一些小变化:功能一致,但是实现方式有所变化。

To view documentation on your current major mode, type C-h m.

如果想查看当前的major模式下的文档,输入C-h m

Move the cursor to the line following this line.

将光标移动至下面一行

Type C-l C-l to bring this line to the top of screen.

输入C-l C-l使该行居屏幕中

Type C-h m, to see how Text mode differs from Fundamental mode.

输入C-h m查看Text模式和Fundamental 模式的区别在哪里

Type C-x 1 to remove the documentation from the screen.

输入C-x 1 将文档窗格从屏幕中移除。

Major modes are called major because there are also minor modes.
Minor modes are not alternatives to the major modes, just minor
modifications of them. Each minor mode can be turned on or off by
itself, independent of all other minor modes, and independent of your
major mode. So you can use no minor modes, or one minor mode, or any
combination of several minor modes.

Major模式之所以叫做主要是因为有次要模式的存在。次要模式不是主要模式的替代,而是主要模式的次要修改。每一个次要模式可以独立于其他的次要模式独立于你的主要模式地自发关闭或者开启,所以你可以不使用次要模式或者使用一个次要模式或者任意几个次要模式的组合。

One minor mode which is very useful, especially for editing
human-language text, is Auto Fill mode. When this mode is on, Emacs
breaks the line in between words automatically whenever you insert
text and make a line that is too wide.

有一种次要模式十分有用,特别是对于编辑人类语言文本,他是自动填充模式(Auto Fill)。当这种模式启动的时候,当你在插入的文本会导致正在编辑的行过长时,Emacs将会从词之间断开。

You can turn Auto Fill mode on by doing M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.
When the mode is on, you can turn it off again by doing
M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>. If the mode is off, this command turns
it on, and if the mode is on, this command turns it off. We say that
the command "toggles the mode".

你可以通过输入 M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>启用自动填充(Auto Fill)模式。模式启用以后,你可以通过再次输入M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>关闭模式。如果模式关闭,该命令可以使之启动,如果模式启动,命令可以关闭。这叫做切换模式。

Type M-x auto-fill-mode <Return> now. Then insert a line of "asdf "
over again until you see it divide into two lines. You must put in
spaces between them because Auto Fill breaks lines only at spaces.

输入M-x auto-fill-mode <Return>.然后在一行中插入“asdf ”,直到该行被分成两行。你必须在asdf之间使用空格,因为这种模式只根据空格断行。

The margin is usually set at 70 characters, but you can change it
with the C-x f command. You should give the margin setting you want
as a numeric argument.
宽度通常为70字符。但是你可以用C-x f命令改变。你要想要设置的宽度应该是一个数字参数。
Type C-x f with an argument of 20. (C-u 2 0 C-x f).
Then type in some text and see Emacs fill lines of 20
characters with it. Then set the margin back to 70 using
C-x f again.

输入C-x f ,参数为20 (C-u 20 C-x f).然后输入一些文本,你会看到Emacs的一行将会填充20个字符。然后使用C-x f把行宽度改回70

If you make changes in the middle of a paragraph, Auto Fill mode
does not re-fill it for you.
To re-fill the paragraph, type M-q (META-q) with the cursor inside
that paragraph.

如果你在段落的中间做了一些改变,自动填充模式将不会生效。如果想在段落里重新填充,将光标移动到段落里面,然后输入M-q。

Move the cursor into the previous paragraph and type M-q.

移动光标至上一段然后输入M-q

  • SEARCHING(搜索)

Emacs can do searches for strings (a "string" is a group of contiguous
characters) either forward through the text or backward through it.
Searching for a string is a cursor motion command; it moves the cursor
to the next place where that string appears.

Emacs可以向前向后搜索字符串。搜索字符串是一个光标移动命令,它会将光标移动到字符串出现的下一个位置。

The Emacs search command is "incremental". This means that the
search happens while you type in the string to search for.

Emacs搜索命令是增量的。这意味着当你输入要搜索的字符串的时候就会发生搜索。

The command to initiate a search is C-s for forward search, and C-r
for reverse search. BUT WAIT! Don't try them now.

初始化一个前向搜索的命令是C-s。反向搜索使用C-r。但是注意,先不要尝试。

When you type C-s you'll notice that the string "I-search" appears as
a prompt in the echo area. This tells you that Emacs is in what is
called an incremental search waiting for you to type the thing that
you want to search for. <Return> terminates a search.

当你输入C-s的时候,注意回显区域会出现“I-search”的提示信息。这就说明Emacs在增量搜索中等待你键入需要搜索的内容。<Return>终止搜索。

Now type C-s to start a search. SLOWLY, one letter at a time,
type the word "cursor", pausing after you type each
character to notice what happens to the cursor.
Now you have searched for "cursor", once.

现在输入C-s开始一次搜索吧。慢慢地,每次输入一个字母,输入单词Cursor,输入每一个字母之后停下来看看查看光标发生了什么变化。现在你已经搜索到了cursor一次。

Type C-s again, to search for the next occurrence of "cursor".

再次输入C-s,搜索下一个cursor出现的地方

Now type <DEL> four times and see how the cursor moves.

现在键入<Del>四次看看光标怎么移动

Type <Return> to terminate the search.

键入<Return>终止搜索

Did you see what happened? Emacs, in an incremental search, tries to
go to the occurrence of the string that you've typed out so far. To
go to the next occurrence of "cursor" just type C-s again. If no such
occurrence exists, Emacs beeps and tells you the search is currently
"failing". C-g would also terminate the search.

你看到效果了吧?Emacs在一个增量搜索的搜索模式下,尝试去查找目前你已经输入的字符串的位置。再次键入C-s去往下一个cursor出现的位置。如果已经没有下一个了,Emacs会蜂鸣告诉你搜索失败。同时C-g也能终止搜索。

If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <DEL>, the
search "retreats" to an earlier location. If you type <DEL> just
after you had typed C-s to advance to the next occurrence of a search
string, the <DEL> moves the cursor back to an earlier occurrence. If
there are no earlier occurrences, the <DEL> erases the last character
in the search string. For instance, suppose you have typed "c", to
search for the first occurrence of "c". Now if you type "u", the
cursor will move to the first occurrence of "cu". Now type <DEL>.
This erases the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back
to the first occurrence of "c".

如果你在增量搜索中键入<Del>,搜索会返回到早先的位置。如果你在键入C-s以查找下一个出现位置然后又输入<Del>,<Del>将会把光标移动到字符串上一次出现的位置。如果没有字符串之前没有出现过,<Del>会删除当前搜索字符串最后一个字符。例如,假如为了找到字符c第一次出现的地方,你输入了"c",现在如果你输入了"u",光标将会移动到"cu"第一次出现的位置。现在键入<Del>,命令将会删除“u”字符,光标将会回到“c”第一次出现的位置

If you are in the middle of a search and type a control or meta
character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in a
search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.

如果你正在搜索过程中,键入了一个Control或者Meta字符字符,搜索将会终止(除了特例C-r和C-s)

C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search string
AFTER the current cursor position. If you want to search for
something earlier in the text, type C-r instead. Everything that we
have said about C-s also applies to C-r, except that the direction of
the search is reversed.

C-s 开始前向搜索,搜索下文的内容。如果你想搜索前文的内容,使用C-r。C-s的规则同样适用于C-r,除了搜索的方向是反的。

  • MULTIPLE WINDOWS(多窗口)

One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than
one window on the screen at the same time. (Note that Emacs uses the
term "frames"--described in the next section--for what some other
applications call "windows". The Emacs manual contains a Glossary of
Emacs terms.)

Emacs 的一大特色就是你可以同时展示多个窗格。(注意Emacs使用术语:窗口(frame)描述其他用户的视窗(windows)概念,这个下文将会讲到)

Move the cursor to this line and type C-l C-l.
移动光标到这一行然后键入C-l C-l

Now type C-x 2 which splits the screen into two windows.
Both windows display this tutorial. The editing cursor stays in

the top window.

现在键入C-x 2 将屏幕分为两个窗格。两个窗格显示的均是该教程,编辑光标将位于窗格顶部。

Type C-M-v to scroll the bottom window.
(If you do not have a real META key, type <ESC> C-v.)

输入C-M-v来滚动底部的窗格.(如果你没有Meta键的话使用<ESC> C-v)

Type C-x o ("o" for "other") to move the cursor to the bottom window.

键入C-x o(o 意味着other) 移动光标到顶部的窗格里面

Use C-v and M-v in the bottom window to scroll it.
Keep reading these directions in the top window.

这样就能在底部窗格里面使用C-v和M-v啦。继续在顶部的窗格里面阅读这些指南。

Type C-x o again to move the cursor back to the top window.
The cursor in the top window is just where it was before.

再次键入C-x o将光标移动回到顶部的窗格里。光标会回到原先离开的地方。

You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows. The "selected
window", where most editing takes place, is the one with a prominent
cursor which blinks when you are not typing. The other windows have
their own cursor positions; if you are running Emacs in a graphical
display, those cursors are drawn as unblinking hollow boxes.

你可以继续使用C-x o在窗格之间进行切换。在选中的占据大部分编辑区域的窗格里面,你没有编辑的时候光标会闪烁。另一个窗格里有自己的光标位置,如果你在图形化的显示界面里面运行Emacs,这些光标将会是中空的不会闪烁的方格形态。

The command C-M-v is very useful when you are editing text in one
window and using the other window just for reference. Without leaving
the selected window, you can scroll the text in the other window with
C-M-v.

在你编辑一个窗格中的文本,同时把另外一个窗格的文本当做参考时,命令C-M-v将会是一个十分有用的命令。不用离开当前窗格即可使用该命令对其他窗格进行翻页操作。

C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character. If you have a META
(or Alt) key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META
while typing v. It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes
first," as both of these keys act by modifying the characters you
type.

C-M-v是一个Control-Meta字符。如果你有Meta键或者Alt键,你可以通过在同时按住CTRL和META和的同时输入v来键入C-M-v。至于Control和Meta谁先谁后无关紧要,因为这些键是通过修改你输入的字符起作用的。

If you do not have a META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the order
does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
CONTROL-<ESC> v will not work. This is because <ESC> is a character
in its own right, not a modifier key.

如果你没有Meta键,你可以使用<ESC>键,这时你必须注意按键的使用顺序了,你必须在Control-v按键之后输入<ESC>因为Control-<ESC>并不能工作。这是因为<ESC>不是一个修饰键,而是有自己的职责。(这里很费解)


image.png

Type C-x 1 (in the top window) to get rid of the bottom window.

在顶部窗口键入C-x 1来关闭底部窗格。

(If you had typed C-x 1 in the bottom window, that would get rid
of the top one. Think of this command as "Keep just one
window--the window I am already in.")

如果你在底部窗口输入了C-x 1,顶部窗格将会被关闭。你可以这样记忆这个命令:仅仅保留当前光标所在的一个窗口。

You do not have to display the same buffer in both windows. If you
use C-x C-f to find a file in one window, the other window does not
change. You can find a file in each window independently.

你不需要在两个窗格里面显示相同的缓冲区。如果你在一个窗格里面使用C-x C-f,别的窗格不会改变。你可以在每个窗格里面单独地访问文件。

Here is another way to use two windows to display two different things:

下面有另外一种方法在两个窗格里面显示不同的内容。

Type C-x 4 C-f followed by the name of one of your files.
End with <Return>. See the specified file appear in the bottom
window. The cursor goes there, too.

输入C-x 4 C-f,紧跟的是一个文件的名字,结束的时候输入<Return>.特定的文件将会出现在底部窗格。光标也会相应地移动到那里。

Type C-x o to go back to the top window, and C-x 1 to delete
the bottom window.

输入C-x o切换回顶部的窗格,使用C-x 1删除底部的窗格

  • MULTIPLE FRAMES(多个窗口)

Emacs can also create multiple "frames". A frame is what we call one
collection of windows, together with its menus, scroll bars, echo
area, etc. On graphical displays, what Emacs calls a "frame" is what
most other applications call a "window". Multiple graphical frames
can be shown on the screen at the same time. On a text terminal, only
one frame can be shown at a time.

Emacs 也可以创建多个窗口。窗口是我们所说的多个窗格的集合,带有菜单滚动条,回显区域等等部件。图形化的显示终端里面,Emacs的窗口和其他应用的窗口类似。多个图形化的窗口可以同时显示在屏幕上。文本终端中,同一时刻只能有一个显示窗口。

Type C-x 5 2.
See a new frame appear on your screen.

输入 C-x 5 2 。你的屏幕上将出现一个新的窗口。

You can do everything you did in the original frame in the new frame.
There is nothing special about the first frame.

你可以在新的窗口里面做任何你在以前的窗口里面做的事情。第一个窗口没有特别之处。

Type C-x 5 0.
This removes the selected frame.

键入C-x 5 0 。这将移除选中的窗口

You can also remove a frame by using the normal method provided by the
graphical system (often clicking a button with an "X" at a top corner
of the frame). If you remove the Emacs job's last frame this way,
that exits Emacs.

你也可以通过图形化的显示系统提供的正常方法移除窗口(通过点击顶部窗口角落的❌关闭窗口)如果你用这种方法关闭Emacs的最后一个窗口,Emacs将会被关闭。

  • RECURSIVE EDITING LEVELS(递归编辑级别)

Sometimes you will get into what is called a "recursive editing
level". This is indicated by square brackets in the mode line,
surrounding the parentheses around the major mode name. For
example, you might see [(Fundamental)] instead of (Fundamental).

有时候你会进入递归编辑级别,此时状态行中出现的方括号中的圆括号包裹的主要模式名字的形式会表明这一状态。例如你可能看见[(Fundamental)]而不是(Fundamental)

To get out of the recursive editing level, type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC>.
That is an all-purpose "get out" command. You can also use it for
eliminating extra windows, and getting out of the minibuffer.

如果想要离开递归编辑级别,输入<ESC><ESC><ESC> 。这是一个多用途的退出命令。你可以使用它消除多余的窗格和退出微型缓冲区。

Type M-x to get into a minibuffer; then type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC> to
get out.

输入M-x 进入一个微型缓冲区,然后输入三次<ESC>退出。

You cannot use C-g to get out of a recursive editing level. This is
because C-g is used for canceling commands and arguments WITHIN the
recursive editing level.

你不能使用C-g退出递归编辑级别。这是因为C-g用于取消递归编辑级别中的命令和参数。

  • GETTING MORE HELP(获取更多的帮助)

In this tutorial we have tried to supply just enough information to
get you started using Emacs. There is so much available in Emacs that
it would be impossible to explain it all here. However, you may want
to learn more about Emacs since it has many other useful features.
Emacs provides commands for reading documentation about Emacs
commands. These "help" commands all start with the character
CONTROL-h, which is called "the Help character".

这个教程里面我们尽可能提供足够的信息使你能够入门Emacs。Emacs包含的内容太多了,不可能一一具言。但是可能你想了解关于Emacs其他有用的特色,Emacs提供的关于读取文档的命令以帮助字符C-h开始。

To use the Help features, type the C-h character, and then a
character saying what kind of help you want. If you are REALLY lost,
type C-h ? and Emacs will tell you what kinds of help it can give.
If you have typed C-h and decide you do not want any help, just
type C-g to cancel it.

使用帮助的特色,首先输入C-h然后输入一个表明你想查阅的帮助类别的字符。如果你真的不知道,输入C-h ?,Emacs会给出它可以提供的帮助类型。如果你键入C-h之后发现你不需要任何的帮助,你可以使用 C-g取消命令。
(If C-h does not display a message about help at the bottom of the
screen, try typing the F1 key or M-x help <Return> instead.)

如果C-h命令没有在屏幕底部显示关于帮助的信息你可以使用F1键或者M-x help <Return>代替。

The most basic HELP feature is C-h c. Type C-h, the character c, and
a command character or sequence; then Emacs displays a very brief
description of the command.

最基本的帮助特色就是C-h c。输入C-h,然后是字符c,紧接着一个命令字符或者序列,然后Emacs将会显示一个简短的命令的描述

Type C-h c C-p.

键入C-h c C-p,提示信息将会显示:C-p运行命令:上一行
The message should be something like this:
C-p runs the command previous-line

This tells you the "name of the function". Since function names
are chosen to indicate what the command does, they can serve as
very brief documentation--sufficient to remind you of commands you
have already learned.

关于功能的名称。由于功能名称的选择是为了展现命令的用处的,所以功能的名称可以视作简洁的文档--这对于使你回想起已经学过的命令足矣。

Multi-character commands such as C-x C-s and <ESC>v (instead of M-v,
if you have no META or EDIT or ALT key) are also allowed after C-h c.

多个字符命令例如C-x C-s和<Esc> v(用于替代M-v,如果你没有Meta键),也允许出现在C-h c后面。

To get more information about a command, use C-h k instead of C-h c.

获取更多关于一个命令的信息,请不要再用C-h c而是C-h k。

Type C-h k C-p.

键入C-h k C-p

This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its name,
in an Emacs window. When you are finished reading the output, type
C-x 1 to get rid of that window. You do not have to do this right
away. You can do some editing while referring to the help text, and
then type C-x 1.

这将会在一个Emacs窗格里面显示功能的文档,包括名字。当你看完输出,输入C-x 1关闭文档的窗格。你不用立刻尝试。你可以在编辑的时候引用一些帮助文档,然后键入C-x 1,

Here are some other useful C-h options:
C-h f Describe a function. You type in the name of the
function.

下面是一些有趣的C-h选项:C-h f 描述一个功能。你需要在命令后面输入功能的名称。(到底是功能还是函数呢???)

Try typing C-h f previous-line <Return>.
This displays all the information Emacs has about the
function which implements the C-p command.

尝试键入C-h previous-line <Return>.这将会显示所有的实现C-p功能的Emacs命令。

A similar command C-h v displays the documentation of variables,
including those whose values you can set to customize Emacs behavior.
You need to type in the name of the variable when Emacs prompts for it.

一个相似的命令C-h v显示变量的文档,包括那些你可以通过设置数值来自定义Emacs行为的变量。

C-h a Command Apropos. Type in a keyword and Emacs will list
all the commands whose names contain that keyword.
These commands can all be invoked with META-x.
For some commands, Command Apropos will also list a
sequence of one or more characters which runs the same
command.

C-h a 命令关于。输入关键字,Emacs将会列出包含关键字的命令。这些命令可以使用M-x调用。对于一些命令,命令关于 会列出一系列的一个或多个字符的相同命令。

Type C-h a file <Return>.

键入C-h a file <Return>

This displays in another window a list of all M-x commands with "file"
in their names. You will see character-commands listed beside the
corresponding command names (such as C-x C-f beside find-file).

这个会在另外一个窗格里面显示名称里带有"file"的M-x命令列表。你会看到字符命令被列出,旁边就是相应的命令名称。(例如 C-x C-f beside find-file)

Type C-M-v to scroll the help window. Do this a few times.

键入C-M-v滚动帮助窗格。重复几次。

Type C-x 1 to delete the help window.

键入C-x 1 删除帮助窗格

C-h i Read included Manuals (a.k.a. Info). This command puts
you into a special buffer called "info" where you
can read manuals for the packages installed on your system.
Type m emacs <Return> to read the Emacs manual.
If you have never before used Info, type h and Emacs
will take you on a guided tour of Info mode facilities.
Once you are through with this tutorial, you should
consult the Emacs Info manual as your primary documentation.

C-h i 阅读相关手册。这个命令会把你带入一个叫info的特别缓冲区中,这里 你可以阅读系统安装的包的相关手册。键入m emacs <Return> 读取emacs的手册。如果你之前从未使用过Info,键入h和Emacs会引导你参观info模式的设施。(这里怎么翻译,有些别扭)一旦你看完这个教程,你应该将Info手册作为你的基本文档。

  • MORE FEATURES(更多的特色)

You can learn more about Emacs by reading its manual, either as a
printed book, or inside Emacs (use the Help menu or type C-h r).
Two features that you may like especially are completion, which saves
typing, and dired, which simplifies file handling.

Emacs手册可以使你加深对Emacs的了解。两个可能你特别喜欢的特色是补全和dired。

Completion is a way to avoid unnecessary typing. For instance, if you
want to switch to the Messages buffer, you can type C-x b *M<Tab>
and Emacs will fill in the rest of the buffer name as far as it can
determine from what you have already typed. Completion also works for
command names and file names. Completion is described in the Emacs
manual in the node called "Completion".

补全是避免不必要输入的一种方法。例如,如果你可以切换到Messages缓冲区,键入C-x b *M <Tab>,如果能够从已经输入的内容推断出来,Emacs就会决定缓冲区名称剩余部分。补全也试用于命令名称和文件名称。Emacs手册中的结点Completion具体描述了补全的内容。

Dired enables you to list files in a directory (and optionally its
subdirectories), move around that list, visit, rename, delete and
otherwise operate on the files. Dired is described in the Emacs
manual in the node called "Dired".

Dired 使你能够在某一目录或者子路径下列出文件,移动文件、重命名、删除以及进行其他操作。Emacs手册中的结点Dired具体描述了Dired的内容。

The manual also describes many other Emacs features.

Emacs的手册也描述了许多Emacs的其他特色。

  • CONCLUSION(总结)

To exit Emacs use C-x C-c.

退出Emacs , C-x C-c

This tutorial is meant to be understandable to all new users, so if
you found something unclear, don't sit and blame yourself - complain!

这个教程编写的初衷是所有的用户都可以理解,所以如果你发现有哪些地方说得不清楚,不要坐叹平生自怨自艾--请向我们疯狂吐槽!!!

  • COPYING(复制)

This file is part of GNU Emacs.
GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs. If not, see https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

这个文件是GNU Emacs的一部分。
GNU Emacs是自由软件:你可以在自由软件基金会的GPL3或者更新的版本协议下分发或者修改。GNU Emacs怀着让软件强大的初衷分发,但是没有任何保修服务。甚至没有售后服务和特定目的适用性服务。具体细节你可以参阅GNU 通用公开协议(GPL),GPL协议跟随GNU Emacs 分发,如果没有请点击查看GPL 协议

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