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In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 American preschool teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents (答问卷者) listed “to give children a good start academically” as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the American respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents.

In the recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented (强调个性发展的) Americans listed group experience as one of their top three choices. An emphasis on the importance of the group seen in Japanese early childhood education continues into elementary school education.

Like in America, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary schools. Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children’s chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens.

16. We learn from the first paragraph that many Americans believe ________.

A) Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents

B) Japan’s economic success is a result of its scientific achievements

C) Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction

D) Japan’s higher education is superior to theirs(C)

17. Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to ________.

A) problem solving【外语教育&网www.for68.com

B) group experience

C) parental guidance

D) individually-oriented development(B)

18. In Japan’s preschool education, the focus is on ________.

A) preparing children academically

B) developing children’s artistic interests

C) tapping children’s potential

D) shaping children’s character(D)

19. Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to ________.

A) broaden children’s horizon

B) cultivate children’s creativity

C) lighten children’s study load

D) enrich children’s knowledge(C)

20. Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university-based kindergartens?

A) They can do better in their future studies.

B) They can accumulate more group experience there.

C) They can be individually oriented when they grow up.

D) They can have better chances of getting a first-rate education.(D)

这是一篇讲述日本学前教育的材料,因为文章是讲给美国人看的,所以附带介绍美国的学 前教育以和日本进行对比。材料一共只有三大段,第一大段指出日本学前教育的侧重点,第二段进一步说明日本学前教育侧重点中对集体主义的重视,第三段则说明 日本学前教育除集体主义外的丰富内容。

第一段开头实际上提出了研究日本学前教育的原因:low academic achievement by children in theUnited States,大意是美国的儿童教育成效不明显,这迫使人们把目光投向了教育和经济水平都很高的日本,以期得到答案(for possible answers)。这一探询的结果是出乎美国人意料的,日本学前教育很少强调功课指导(little emphasis is put on academic instruction),这也是本文的主要观点。文章接下来以问卷调查为论据对这一观点进行了论证。

问卷调查的结果是日本人更重视坚韧、专注和集体主义等素质的培养(but rather skills such as persistence,concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group),第二段继续对集体主义这一项素质做了进一步说明(可见其重要性):91%的日本人将其列为学前教育的三大目标之一(91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providingchildren with a group experience),这项教育甚至会延续到小学教育(continuesinto elementary school education)。

最后一段讨论了除去上述素质教育外,日本学前教育的其他内容和特色。其中包括早期音乐训练和潜力发掘(early musical training or potentialdevelopment),附属于大学(这一项属于特色),以及自由玩耍(have introduced free play)。

16. C

题目问从第一段可以获知许多美国人认为……

A,日本父母比美国父母更多地参与学前教育。

B,日本的经济成功是其科学成就的结果。

C,日本学前教育强调功课指导。

D,日本更高级的教育比美国的更加优越。

第一段的内容很长,几乎占全篇文章的二分之一,所以,题目虽说让我们从第一段进行推理,实际上考查的只能是第一段开头部分的内容,而不可能是全段内容。

题目的关键信息是“美国人认为”,也就需要在第一段开头部分寻找和美国人的观点有关的内容。

首先,第一句话中就出现了many Americans,和题目照应。这一句话的意思是美国人因为自身的学前教育成效不大而把目光投向日本,原因就是看到了日本的教育成就和经济成功。这里的教育成就和经济成功是并列关系,并不存在因果关系,所以可以判断B的说法是错误的。

第二句话很简短,意思是美国人发现日本的学前教育和他们预想的不一样。第三句则解释了日本学前教育的特点:日本学前教育很少强调功课指导。这一特点是美国人没有预料到的,那么美国人此前的观点就应该是日本人比较强调功课指导。C的说法与此相符。

第四句以后的内容是进一步详述日本学前教育的这一特点,可以判断第一题考查的内容应该截止到第三句话。在这三句话中,没有提到A的说法,可以排除A。D所说的higher education应该是指比学前教育更高级的教育,但从文章开头可看出,美国人教育成就较低的是儿童教育(low academic achievement by children),而非更高级的教育。

17. B

题目问多数受调查的美国人认为幼儿园(学前班)也应当重视什么。

A,解决问题能力的培养

B,团队经验

C,父母指导

D,强调个性发展

A的说法在文中找不到,可见文章没有论述过problem solving,可以排除A。B和D在第二段第二句话中可以找到相应内容。其中与B相关的论述是:受访的62%的美国人把团队经验列为学前教育的三大目标之一。62%是一个较大的比例,可以看做是MostAmericans surveyed,因此可以把B选作正确答案。与D有关的词组individually oriented是Americans的修饰语,表明相对于强调集体主义的日本人来说,美国人更加重视个性发展(但即便是这样,依然有62%的受访美国人选择了团队经验)。所以,individually oriented并不是美国人对学前教育的观点。

C所说的父母指导在第一段最后一句有所提及,那一句的意思是日本孩子的阅读能力的培养是在家庭中由父母来完成的。这与本题无关。

18. D

题目问日本的学前教育的焦点在于什么。

A,功课教育准备

B,培养孩子的艺术兴趣

C,开发孩子的潜能

D,塑造孩子的性格

A所说的功课教育是这篇材料首先否定的内容(little emphasis is put on academic instruction,功课指导所受重视甚少),所以可以立即排除。B所谈的艺术兴趣和C所谈的潜能在第三段开头有所提及,Some Japanese kindergartens have specificaims, such as early musical training or potential development,这里的musical training应该属于艺术范畴,而potentialdevelopment和C的说法直接吻合。不过,句子的第一个单词some表明这种现象只存在与某些幼儿园,属个别行为,而题目问的是focus,属普遍现象。从逻辑角度讲,B和C如果某一个符合题意,那么另外一个必然也符合题意,这就会出现两个正确答案,而这是不可能的。故此可以排除B和C。

第一段后半部分有一句话道出了日本学前教育的重心所在:but rather skills such as persistence,concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group,诸如坚韧、专注、团队意识等能力应该属于D所说的性格范畴。本题应该选择D。

19. C

题目问某些日本幼儿园引入了自由玩耍,目的是什么。

A,开拓孩子的视野。

B,培养孩子的创造力。

C,减轻孩子的学习负担。

D,丰富孩子的知识。

题目里给出了关键词free play,需要在文章后半部分寻找这个词组。

它出现在了材料最后一句中:Several more progressive programs have introduced freeplay as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanesekindergartens,可以看到introduced free play as a way out for这个词组和题目基本一致,那么for后面即为引入free play的目的。Theheavy intellectualizing中的核心词intellectualizing意为知识化,实际就是文化教育。修饰词heavy表面意思是“沉重的”,用来修饰“文化教育”时,可以很容易地联想到“课业沉重”一词,这也是这个短语的本来意思。玩耍作为课业沉重的一种“解决方案”,其作用自然就是减轻孩子的学习负担。本题应该选择C。

20. D

题目问为什么有些日本父母把孩子送到大学附属的幼儿园。

A,孩子们可以在未来的学习中做得更好。

B,在这样的幼儿园里孩子们可以积累更多的团体经验。

C,长大后可以获得个性发展。

D,更有机会获得一流教育。

可以判断题目里的关键信息是university-based,这个词出现在了最后一段中:Some Japanese parents believe that if theiryoung children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children’schances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities,意思是有些父母认为,如果把孩子送入大学附属的幼儿园,将会增加孩子们最终进入顶级学校和大学的机会。

B和C提到的个性发展和团体经验都是前两段的内容,前面几道题已经考查过,本题显然和这二者无关。A和D都提到了学习,D中的gettinga first-rate education直接与最后一段being admitted to top-ratedschools and universities意思一致,应为正确答案。A虽然也提到未来教育,但do better in their future studies仅指明学习本身更好(通常指成绩好),过于空泛,不如D所述明确,可以排除。

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