通过Atlas实现MySQL读写分离

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最近公司项目要求MySQL高可用,加上以前公司听过QiHoo360的Atlas,所以就尝试搭建了一个MySQL读写分离,并且高可用的。

前期准备

  1. 准备4台机器,系统为CentOS release 6.6
  2. Ip分别为192.168.20.121192.168.20.122192.168.20.123192.168.20.124
  3. 4台机器分别作为Atlas代理服务master MySQLslave MySQL 1slave MySQL 2
  4. 下载QiHoo360的Atlas 地址

安装Atlas

  1. 下载得到Atlas-XX.el6.x86_64.rpm安装文件

  2. sudo rpm –i Atlas-XX.el6.x86_64.rpm安装

  3. 安装在/usr/local/mysql-proxy

  4. 安装目录分析

    • bin
      • 可执行文件
      • encrypt用来加密密码,后面会用到
      • mysql-proxy是MySQL自己的读写分离代理
      • mysql-proxyd操作Atlas
      • VERSION
    • conf
      • test.cnf配置文件
      • 一个文件为一个实例,实例名即文件名,启动需要带上这个实例名
    • lib依赖包
    • log记录日志
  5. 启动命令:/usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/mysql-proxyd [实例名] start

  6. 停止命令:/usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/mysql-proxyd [实例名] stop

  7. 同理,restart为重启,status为查看状态

  8. 配置文件解释

    请查看官方文档

数据库配置

  1. 1台master2台slave,都要配置相同的用户名密码,且都要可以远程访问

  2. 分别进入3台服务器,创建相同的用户名密码,创建数据库test,设置权限

     CREATE USER 'test'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'test123';
     CREATE USER 'test'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'test123';
     grant all privileges on test.* to 'test'@'%' identified by 'test123';
     grant all privileges on test.* to 'test'@'localhost' identified by 'test123';
     flush privileges;
    
  3. 主从数据库配置

    1. 配置master服务器
      • 找到MySQL配置文件my.cnf,一般在etc目录下

      • 修改配置文件

          [mysqld]
          # 一些其他配置
          ... 
            
          #主从复制配置  
          innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1  
          sync_binlog=1  
          #需要备份的数据库
          binlog-do-db=test
          #不需要备份的数据库
          binlog-ignore-db=mysql  
            
          #启动二进制文件  
          log-bin=mysql-bin  
            
          #服务器ID  
          server-id=1  
            
          # Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks  
          symbolic-links=0
        
      • 重启数据库service mysql restart

      • 进入数据库,配置主从复制的权限

          mysql -uroot -p123456
          grant replication slave on *.* to 'test'@'127.0.0.1' identified by 'test123';
        
      • 查看主数据库信息,记住下面的FilePosition的信息,它们是用来配置从数据库的关键信息。

          mysql> show master status;
          +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
          | File             | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
          +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
          | mysql-bin.000002 | 17620976 | test         | mysql            |
          +------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
          1 row in set (0.00 sec)
        
    2. 配置两台salve服务器
      • 找到配置文件my.cnf

      • 修改配置文件如下

          [mysqld]
          # 一些其他配置
          ... 
          
          # 几台服务器不能一样
          server-id=2
          
          # Disabling symbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks
          symbolic-links=0
        
      • 进入数据库,配置从数据库的信息,这里输入刚才记录下来的FilePosition的信息,并且在从服务器上执行:

                  # master数据库的ip
          mysql> change master to master_host='192.168.20.122',
                  # master的用户名
              -> master_user='buck',
                  # 密码
              -> master_password='hello',
                  # 端口
              -> master_port=3306,
                  # master数据库的`File `
              -> master_log_file='mysql-bin.000002',
                  # master数据库的`Position`
              -> master_log_pos=17620976,
              -> master_connect_retry=10;
        
      • 启动进程

          mysql> start slave;
          Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
        
      • 检查主从复制状态,要看到下列Slave_IO_RunningSlave_SQL_Running的信息中,两个都是Yes,才说明主从连接正确,如果有一个是No,需要重新确定刚才记录的日志信息,停掉“stop slave”重新进行配置主从连接。

          mysql> show slave status \G;
          *************************** 1. row ***************************
                         Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                            Master_Host: 192.168.246.134
                            Master_User: buck
                            Master_Port: 3306
                          Connect_Retry: 10
                        Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
                    Read_Master_Log_Pos: 17620976
                         Relay_Log_File: mysqld-relay-bin.000002
                          Relay_Log_Pos: 251
                  Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
                       Slave_IO_Running: Yes
                      Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
                        Replicate_Do_DB: 
                    Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
                     Replicate_Do_Table: 
                 Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
                Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
            Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                             Last_Errno: 0
                             Last_Error: 
                           Skip_Counter: 0
                    Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 17620976
                        Relay_Log_Space: 407
                        Until_Condition: None
                         Until_Log_File: 
                          Until_Log_Pos: 0
                     Master_SSL_Allowed: No
                     Master_SSL_CA_File: 
                     Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
                        Master_SSL_Cert: 
                      Master_SSL_Cipher: 
                         Master_SSL_Key: 
                  Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
          Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                          Last_IO_Errno: 0
                          Last_IO_Error: 
                         Last_SQL_Errno: 0
                         Last_SQL_Error: 
          1 row in set (0.00 sec)
          
          ERROR: 
          No query specified
        

Atlas配置

  1. 使用Atlas的加密工具对上面用户的密码进行加密

     /usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/encrypt test123
     29uENYYsKLo=
    
  2. 配置atlas

    • 这是用来登录到Atlas的管理员的账号与密码,与之对应的是Atlas监听的管理接口IP和端口,也就是说需要设置管理员登录的端口,才能进入管理员界面,默认端口是2345,也可以指定IP登录,指定IP后,其他的IP无法访问管理员的命令界面。方便测试,我这里没有指定IP和端口登录。

    • 配置主数据的地址与从数据库的地址,这里配置的主数据库是122,从数据库是123、124

        #Atlas后端连接的MySQL主库的IP和端口,可设置多项,用逗号分隔
        proxy-backend-addresses = 192.168.20.122:3306
        #Atlas后端连接的MySQL从库的IP和端口,@后面的数字代表权重,用来作负载均衡,若省略则默认为1,可设置多项,用逗号分隔
        proxy-read-only-backend-addresses = 192.168.20.123:3306@1,192.168.20.124:3306@2
      
    • 这个是用来配置MySQL的账户与密码的,就是上面创建的用户,用户名是test,密码是test123,刚刚使用Atlas提供的工具生成了对应的加密密码

        pwds = buck:RePBqJ+5gI4=
      
  3. 启动Atlas

     [root@localhost /usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin]# ./mysql-proxyd test start
     OK: MySQL-Proxy of test is started
    

测试

  1. 进入atlas的管理界面

     [root@localhost ~]#mysql -h127.0.0.1 -P2345 -uuser -ppwd
     Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
     Your MySQL connection id is 1
     Server version: 5.0.99-agent-admin
     
     Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
     
     Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
     affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
     owners.
     
     Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
     
     mysql> select * from help;
     +----------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
     | command                    | description                                             |
     +----------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
     | SELECT * FROM help         | shows this help                                         |
     | SELECT * FROM backends     | lists the backends and their state                      |
     | SET OFFLINE $backend_id    | offline backend server, $backend_id is backend_ndx's id |
     | SET ONLINE $backend_id     | online backend server, ...                              |
     | ADD MASTER $backend        | example: "add master 127.0.0.1:3306", ...               |
     | ADD SLAVE $backend         | example: "add slave 127.0.0.1:3306", ...                |
     | REMOVE BACKEND $backend_id | example: "remove backend 1", ...                        |
     | SELECT * FROM clients      | lists the clients                                       |
     | ADD CLIENT $client         | example: "add client 192.168.1.2", ...                  |
     | REMOVE CLIENT $client      | example: "remove client 192.168.1.2", ...               |
     | SELECT * FROM pwds         | lists the pwds                                          |
     | ADD PWD $pwd               | example: "add pwd user:raw_password", ...               |
     | ADD ENPWD $pwd             | example: "add enpwd user:encrypted_password", ...       |
     | REMOVE PWD $pwd            | example: "remove pwd user", ...                         |
     | SAVE CONFIG                | save the backends to config file                        |
     | SELECT VERSION             | display the version of Atlas                            |
     +----------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
     16 rows in set (0.00 sec)
     
     mysql> 
    
  2. 使用工作接口来访问

     [root@localhost ~]#mysql -h127.0.0.1 -P1234 -utest -ptest123
     Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
     Your MySQL connection id is 34
     Server version: 5.0.81-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)
     
     Copyright (c) 2000, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
     
     Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
     affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
     owners.
     
     Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
     
     mysql> show databases;
     +--------------------+
     | Database           |
     +--------------------+
     | information_schema |
     | mysql              |
     | performance_schema |
     | test               |
     +--------------------+
     4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
     
     mysql> 
    

使用可视化管理工具Navicat登录

使用用户名test、密码test123、端口1234、地址192.168.20.121正常登录。注意,这里登录的是atlas服务器,不再是任何一个MySQL服务器

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