mysql主从复制读写分离

实现主从复制的读写分离

ProxySQL官网及下载地址 http://www.proxysql.com/

架构角色

mysql-slave2    172.16.252.92
mysql-slave1    172.16.252.82
ProxySQL        172.16.253.105
mysql-master    172.16.252.30

准备阶段:

各节点服务端都需提前同步时间及安装mariadb数据库
    [root@mysql-master ~]# ntpdate 172.16.0.1
    [root@mysql-slave1 ~]# yum -y install mariadb-server 
关闭防火墙
    [root@mysql-master ~]# iptables -F
下载ProxySQL程序包
    http://www.proxysql.com/

mysql-master

[root@mysql-master ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf 
[mysqld]
server_id=1
log_bin = master-log
skip_name_resolve = ON
innodb_file_per_table = ON  \\每表使用单独的表文件存储
[root@mysql-master ~]# systemctl start mariadb 

[root@mysql-master ~]# mysql

创建用户并授权连接主节点复制数据的权限
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE,REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'repluser'@'172.16.252.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'replpass'; 
MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
显示master节点的状态,记录当前节点的位置
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW MASTER STATUS;
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File              | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| master-log.000004 |      498 |              |                  |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+

创建连接ProxySQL代理的用户和密码,并同步到各节点主机
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'proxysql'@'172.16.%.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'proxypass';

mysql-slave1

[root@mysql-slave1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf 
[mysqld]
server_id = 2
relay-log = relay-log
skip_name_resolve = ON
innodb_file_per_table = ON
read_only = ON     \\普通用户在slave节点上只有只读权限
[root@mysql-slave1 ~]# systemctl start mariadb

[root@mysql-slave1 ~]# mysql
从master的当前节点开始同步复制数据
MariaDB [(none)]> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='172.16.252.30',MASTER_USER='repluser',MASTER_PASSWORD='replpass',MASTER_LOG_FILE='master-log.000004',MASTER_LOG_POS=498;  
开启复制进程
MariaDB [(none)]> START SLAVE;
显示slave节点的状态信息
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
    Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
    Master_Host: 172.16.252.30
    Master_User: repluser
    Master_Port: 3306
    Connect_Retry: 60
    Master_Log_File: master-log.000004
    Read_Master_Log_Pos: 498
    Relay_Log_File: relay-log.000002
    Relay_Log_Pos: 530
    Relay_Master_Log_File: master-log.000004
    Slave_IO_Running: Yes
    Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
    Replicate_Do_DB: 
    Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
    Replicate_Do_Table: 
    Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
    Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
    Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
    Last_Errno: 0
    Last_Error: 
    Skip_Counter: 0
    Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 498
    Relay_Log_Space: 818
    Until_Condition: None
    Until_Log_File: 
    Until_Log_Pos: 0
    Master_SSL_Allowed: No
    Master_SSL_CA_File: 
    Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
    Master_SSL_Cert: 
    Master_SSL_Cipher: 
    Master_SSL_Key: 
    Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
    Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
    Last_IO_Errno: 0
    Last_IO_Error: 
    Last_SQL_Errno: 0
    Last_SQL_Error: 
    Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
    Master_Server_Id: 1

mysql-slave2

[root@mysql-slave1 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf.d/server.cnf 
[mysqld]
server_id = 3
relay-log = relay-log
skip_name_resolve = ON
innodb_file_per_table = ON
read_only = ON      
[root@mysql-slave2 ~]# systemctl start mariadb

[root@mysql-slave2 ~]# mysql
从master的当前节点开始同步复制数据
MariaDB [(none)]> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='172.16.252.30',MASTER_USER='repluser',MASTER_PASSWORD='replpass',MASTER_LOG_FILE='master-log.000004',MASTER_LOG_POS=498;  
开启复制进程
MariaDB [(none)]> START SLAVE;
显示slave节点的状态信息
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
    Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
    Master_Host: 172.16.252.30
    Master_User: repluser
    Master_Port: 3306
    Connect_Retry: 60
    Master_Log_File: master-log.000004
    Read_Master_Log_Pos: 498
    Relay_Log_File: relay-log.000002
    Relay_Log_Pos: 530
    Relay_Master_Log_File: master-log.000004
    Slave_IO_Running: Yes
    Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
    Replicate_Do_DB: 
    Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
    Replicate_Do_Table: 
    Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
    Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
    Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
    Last_Errno: 0
    Last_Error: 
    Skip_Counter: 0
    Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 498
    Relay_Log_Space: 818
    Until_Condition: None
    Until_Log_File: 
    Until_Log_Pos: 0
    Master_SSL_Allowed: No
    Master_SSL_CA_File: 
    Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
    Master_SSL_Cert: 
    Master_SSL_Cipher: 
    Master_SSL_Key: 
    Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
    Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
    Last_IO_Errno: 0
    Last_IO_Error: 
    Last_SQL_Errno: 0
    Last_SQL_Error: 
    Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
    Master_Server_Id: 1

mysql-master

创建连接ProxySQL代理的用户和密码,并同步到各节点主机
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'proxysql'@'172.16.%.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'proxypass';

ProxySQL

下载ProxySQL程序包到本地并安装
[root@ProxySQL ~]# ls proxysql-1.4.2-1-centos7.x86_64.rpm 
proxysql-1.4.2-1-centos7.x86_64.rpm
[root@ProxySQL ~]# yum -y install ./proxysql-1.4.2-1-centos7.x86_64.rpm 
[root@ProxySQL ~]# rpm -ql proxysql 
/etc/init.d/proxysql  \\启动脚本文件
/etc/proxysql.cnf     \\配置文件
/usr/bin/proxysql 
/usr/share/proxysql/tools/proxysql_galera_checker.sh
/usr/share/proxysql/tools/proxysql_galera_writer.pl

配置Proxy
[root@ProxySQL ~]# vim /etc/proxysql.cnf
datadir="/var/lib/proxysql"

admin_variables=
{
    admin_credentials="admin:admin"
    mysql_ifaces="127.0.0.1:6032;/tmp/proxysql_admin.sock" \\若本机mysql服务没有启用,则使用/tmp/proxysql_admin.sock套接字文件连接管理通信
}

mysql_variables=
{
    threads=4                   \\开启的线程数
    max_connections=2048
    default_query_delay=0
    default_query_timeout=36000000
    have_compress=true
    poll_timeout=2000
    interfaces="0.0.0.0:3306;/tmp/proxysql.sock"  \\若本机mysql服务没有启用,则使用/tmp/proxysql.sock套接字文件连接通信
    default_schema="hidb"
    stacksize=1048576
    server_version="5.5.30"
    connect_timeout_server=3000
}

mysql_servers =
(
    {
        address = "172.16.253.105"
        port = 3306
        hostgroup = 0          
            status = "ONLINE"     
            weight = 1           
            compression = 0
    },
    {
        address = "172.16.252.82"
        port = 3306
        hostgroup = 0          
            status = "ONLINE"     
            weight = 1           
            compression = 0
    },
    {
        address = "172.16.252.82"
        port = 3306
        hostgroup = 0          
            status = "ONLINE"     
            weight = 1           
            compression = 0
    }
)

mysql_users:
(
    {
        username = "proxysql"  # no default , required
        password = "proxypass" # default: ''
        default_hostgroup = 0  # default: 0
        active = 1             # default: 1
    }
)

mysql_replication_hostgroups=
(
   {
        writer_hostgroup=0
        reader_hostgroup=1
        comment="repl cluster 1"
   }
)

[root@ProxySQL ~]# service proxysql start
[root@ProxySQL ~]# ss -ntl
State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port              
LISTEN     0      128             *:3306                        *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128             *:3306                        *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128             *:3306                        *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128             *:3306                        *:*       

测试

登录本机数据库,因为本机并没有安装mysql,故使用-S参数指定配置文件中指定的/tmp/proxysql.sock套接字文件通信,使用定义连接ProxySQL代理的账号密码登录
[root@ProxySQL ~]# mysql -S /tmp/proxysql.sock -uproxysql -pproxypass
Your MySQL connection id is 212
Server version: 5.5.30 (ProxySQL) \\显示mysql服务器的版本号

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE hidb;
MariaDB [(none)]> USE hidb;
MariaDB [hidb]> CREATE TABLE mytb(id INT,name CHAR(50));
MariaDB [hidb]> INSERT INTO mytb VALUES (1,'tom');
MariaDB [hidb]> SELECT * FROM mytb;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | tom  |
+------+------+

CLAVE服务端数据实现了同步,即ProxySQL实现了代理数据库的效果,并达到了数据分离的效果
mysql-slave1
MariaDB [(none)]> SELECT * FROM hidb.mytb;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | tom  |
+------+------+

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