张鑫友:英语语法之“定语从句”(五)

对于老师们来说

英语课堂上

“从句”

是一个必讲的重要知识点

外语教师联盟每周一

“专项语法难题探微”栏目

(以下简称“探微”)

首期知识点为大家带来了

定语从句

(共八讲)

前四期内容为(可点击查看)

1.并列成分公共后置定语

2.中心词与其后置定语的分隔现象

3.多重定语从句的种类和特点

4.引导定语从句的 “ 介词 + 关系代词 ” 结构

本期第四讲——

定语从句与分词短语的转换

定于

本期内容导图(点击查看大图)

英语的表达方式是非常灵活而又多种多样的。人们常常用各种不同的形式、措辞去表示同一个意思。

英语定语从句与分词短语的转换就是其中之一,这就是说,在表达同一个意思时常可用定语从句和分词短语两种不同的表达方式。

然而,我们不能见到定语从句,就可随意将其改为分词短语作定语的句子,而要视情况而定。

以下从三个方面对定语从句与分词短语的转换作些介绍。

A

主动式定语从句与分词短语的转换

在主动式定语从句中,如关系代词作从句中的主语,其谓语是一个行为动词时,在以下情况下,一般都可转换为相应的分词短语。

a.定语从句的谓语动词和主句的谓语动词在时间上是一致的,这主要见于两种情况:

一是主从句的谓语动词都是一般过去时

二是主从句的谓语动词都是一般现在时

例如 :

He used to live in the house which faced south.

→ He used to live in the house facing south .

他过去常常住在面向南里的那间房

The students who study here are mostly from peasant families.

→ The students studying here are mostly from peasant families.

在这里学习的学生大部分是农民家庭出身。

b.从句的谓语动词是进行时态,主句的谓语动词可以是一般现在时、过去时或其他时态。

例如 :

The man that is talking with Mary is my brother.

→ The man talking with Mary is my brother .

跟玛丽谈话的那个人是我哥哥

Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man who will be at that desk.

→ Come tomorrow and show your visa to the man sitting at that desk .

你明天来,把你的签证给坐在那个桌子边的那个人看看。

c.从句和主句的动作的时间都是泛指的。

例如 :

China is a developing socialist country which belongs to the third world.

→China is a developing socialist country belonging to the third world .

中国是一个属于第三世界的发展中的社会主义国家。

Astronomers are those who study these heavenly bodies.

→Astronomers are those studying these heavenly bodies .

天文学家就是那些研究天体的人。

d.如果从句的谓语动词后没有作状语的介词短语,或者从句中衹有谓语动词,转换后,现在分词常置于中心词之前。

例如:

The countries which are developing should get united.

→ The developing countries should get united .

发展中的国家应该团结起来

Dogs that bark seldom bite.

→ Barking dogs seldom bite .

爱叫的狗很少咬人。

e.如果定语从句的谓语有表示程度、时间和方式的副词或副词短语修饰语,这时可转换为带这种副词的现在分词作中心词的前置修饰语,其副词和现在分词之间必须用连字号连结起来。

例如:

This is a river which flows fast.

→ This is a fast-flowing river.

这是一条急流的河。

The peasants who work hard deserve such rewards.

→  The hard-working peasants deserve such rewards.

这些辛勤劳动的农民应该得到这样的报酬。

We must decrease the costs which always increase.

→ We must decrease the always-increasing costs .

我们必须减少那些总是上升的费用。

f.如定语从句中的谓语动词只带一个普通名词作宾语,这时从句除可直接转换为分词短语作后置定语外,还可转换为带这種名词的现在分词作定语,其名词和现在分词之间必须用连字符。

试比较:

He spent his childhood in the old society which ate men.

→ He spent his childhood in the old society eating men.

/He spent his childhood in the men-eating old society.

他在吃人的旧社会度 过了他的童年 。

The south of Jiangsu is an area which grows rice.

→ The south of Jiangsu is rice-growing area. /The south of Jiangsu is an area growing rice ,

江苏南部是产稻区。

B

被动式定语从句与分词短语的转换

a.如果被动式定语从句中含有作状语的介词短语,这种定语从句可转换为过去分词作原定语从句中心词的后置定语,过去分词所表示的时间一般在谓语动词之前,其动作具有完成意义。

例如 :

Do you know the student who was praised by the teacher?

→ Do you know the student Praised by the teacher?

你认识那位受 过老师表扬的学生吗 ?

The Fengqing was a freighter that was built in China and was fitted entirely with Chinese- made equipment.

→ The Fengqing was a freighter built in China and fitted entirely with Chinese-made equipment

风庆轮是中国制造的并且完全是中国装备的一艘轮船。

在定语从句表示一种反复出现的经常性动作或状态时 , 也可转换为过去分词短语作后置定语 , 这时过去分词 只是单纯表示被动意义。

例如 :

Many kin of ants milk little bugs that are called ant cows.

→ Many kinds of ants milk little bugs called ant cows.

许多种蚂蚁会吮吸一种称为蚁牛的小虫子的液汁吃。

b.如果被动式定语从句中的谓语动词是进行时可转换为现在分词被动形式作后置定语。

例如:

The matter which is being discussed is of importance.

→ The matter being discussed is of importance . 正在讨论的那种事情是很重要的。

The house which was being built has been completed.

→ The house being built has been completed .

当时在建的那幢房子现在已完工了。

如果被动式定语从句中的动词是完成时态,既可改为过去分词作后置定语,亦可改为现在分词的完成式作后置定语。

例如:

Here is an experiment which has been done this year.

→ Here is an experiment done this year.

/Here is an experiment having been done this year.

这是今年已完成的一次的实验。

如果被动式定语从句的动词是将来时,则用不定式的被动式来表示.

c.如果被动式定语从句中只有"be+过去分词",转换后的过去分词在大多数情况下既可位于它所修饰的名词之前,亦可位于所修饰的名词之后,前者比后者常见。

例如:

He has memorized the words which were underlined.

→ He has memorized the underlined words .

/ He has memorized the words underlined .

他已经记住了那些划线的单词。

从所收集的例句来看,在定语从句中的谓语动词被动式状态意义较强时,转换后的过去分词一般要前置;若其动作意义较强,或者是由于习惯的原因,则转换后的过去分词要后置。

试比较:

Soon our leaders who are respected and beloved entered the banquet hall.

→ Soon our respected and beloved leaders entered the banquet hall .

不久我们敬爱的领导人走进了宴会厅。

The mistakes which were found have been corrected.

→ The mistakes found have been corrected.

发现的错误已经得到了纠正。

d.如果被动式定语从句是一个否定结构,可转换为一个带否定前缀的过去分词作前置定语。

例如:

The substance which is not known is going to be tasted

→ The unknown substance is going to be tasted.

对不知道的那种物质将 要尝试一下。

The problem which was not solved has been solved.

→ The un-solved problem has been solved .

那个未曾解决的问题现在已经解决了。

如被动式定语从句中有副词,可把副词放在过去分词之前,二者作为一个整体作中心词的前置定语。

例如:

You must follow the motion which was unanimously adopted.

→ You must follow the unanimously adopted motion .

你应该遵循那个被一致采纳的提议。

e.如果被动式定语从句中含有“by+表示一般概念的普通名词”的短语,这种by短语后的名词常同词构成复合词作原从句中心词的前置定语。

例如:

The satellite which was made by man is going round the earth.

→ The man-made satellite is going round the earth.

人造卫星在绕着地球运转。

This is the machine which is controlled by radio. → This is the radio - controlled machine.

这是一台由无线电控制的机器。

C

定语从句不能转换为分词短语的情况

a.关系代词在定语从句中作主语以外的其他成分时其定语从句不能改为分词短语。

例如 :

You've forgotten most of the words that you learned last year.

你已忘记了你去年所学的大部分单词 。

(that在从句中作宾语,从句不能用分词来表示)

Do you know the man whose family is in Hubei? 你认识那个家在湖北的人吗?

( whose在从句中作定语,不能转换)

b.定语从句中含有情态动词,不能改成分词短语作定语。这是因为分词短语没有情态意义,不能表达说话人的感情、态度。如果转换成分词短语,则意义大不相同。

例如:

Is there anyone who can do it?

有谁个能做这件事吗?

( 比较 : Is there anyone doing it ?

有谁个在做那件事吗 ? )

Do you know the girl who can speak four foreign languages?

你认识会讲四门外语的那位姑娘吗 ?

( 比较 : Do you know the girl speaking four foreign languages ?

你认识讲四门外语的那位姑娘吗 ? )

c. 以关系代词引导的非限定性定语从句,当关系代词指的是前面整个句子,或者指谓语的一部分等,而不是修饰某个先行词时,不能改成分词短语作后置定语。

例如:

He finished the task in time, which was what I expected.

他按 时完成了那项任务, 这正是我们所期待的 。

( which 指整个主句 )

He can write a letter in English,which I can't. 他能用英语写信,我可不能 。

( which 指 write a letter in English )

I asked him to lend me his new bike, which he did.

我叫他把新车子借给我,他就借给我了。

( which 指 lend me his new bike )

内容来源(独家授权):

张鑫友. 英语语法难题探微词典[M]. 华中师范大学出版社.

本文编辑:Joyce

编辑助理:Jane

下期预告

英语语法之“定语从句”(六)

定语从句的非定语意义

-END-

推荐阅读更多精彩内容