长难句非主干分析

句型结构(非主干)

——,S+V+O

主干前的成分常表原因或目的

  • 状语从句:When I was young, I could play football.
  • 介词结构:On Sunday morning, we go to school.
  • 分词结构:Finishing my homework, Istart to watch TV.
    • Sentenced to death, he went to prison.
    • 非主干中省略的主语与谓语的关系,被动用V-ed,主动用V-ing
  • 独立主格:He finishing his homework, I start to watch TV
    • 公式:(with) + n./pron. (不同于主干主语)+分词
    • 由于前后主语不一致,故非主干成分的主语也要保留
  • 副词:Surprisingly, he is still alive.

S,——V+O

  • 状语从句:I, when I was young, could play football.
  • 介词结构:We, on sunday moring, go to school.
  • 分词结构:I, finishing my homework, start to watch TV.
  • 独立主格:I, he finishing his homework, start to watch TV.
  • 副词:He, surprisingly, is still alive.
  • 定语从句:Shanghai, which is a moving city is my home town.
  • 名词结构:Shanghai, a moving city is my hometown.

后两种非主干成分存在主要是为了修饰前面的名词。

S+V+O,——

后面的非主干成分常表示结果或目的

  • 状语从句 I could play football, when I was young.
  • 介词结构:We go to school, on sunday morning.
  • 分词结构:I start to watch TV, finishing my homework.
  • 独立主格:I start to watch TV, he finishing his homework.
  • 副词:He is still alive, surprisingly.
  • 定语从句:I love Shanghai, which is a moving city.
  • 名词结构:I love Shanghai, a moving city.

Passage I

In the last half of the nineteenth, "capital" and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting their rival organisations on modern lines. Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company with a bureaucracy of salaried managers.

The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional elements and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

这种改变,通过聘用大量专业人员,满足了新时代的技术要求,避免了效率的下滑,而这种下滑普遍破坏了家族企业在元气满满的创始人之后的第二代和第三代的财富。

  • meet - met:过去式与过去分词一致时,要考虑到底是过去式还是分词。过去式作谓语表示一般过去时,过去分词作非谓语表示被动关系。

  • by 引导的定语从句

    • 作定语修饰名词
    • 作状语修饰动作——翻到前面
  • and: 从后向前找相同的成分

  • that后不完整的定语从句修饰谁?

    • 定从不能跨越谓语动词修饰
    • 长定从翻译时:一分为二,还原成两个句子,再把指代的内容再说一遍

The railway companies, though still private business managed for the benefit of shareholders, were very unlike old family business.

铁路公司虽然是为了股东利益而管理的私营企业,但与旧式家族企业不同。

Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an elements in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detachedfrom the responsible management of business.

如此大规模、不人道的资本和工业操纵,大大增加了股东作为一种阶级的人数和重要性,而这种阶级在国际生活中代表了不负责任的财富,这些财富脱离了土地和土地所有者的责任,几乎完全脱离了企业的责任管理。

Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their order to the management.

像XX这样的城镇涌现了大量舒适群体,这群人凭着他们的收入已经退休了,而且除了收取股息和偶尔出席一下股东大会向管理部门发出命令,与企业其他成员也没有任何关系。

The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labour was not good.

这些所谓的股东虽然持有企业的股份,却对企业雇佣的员工的生活、想法或需要没有任何了解,所以他们在资本和员工的关系间的影响力并不高。

The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the man and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.

运营公司的付费经理人和员工以及他们的需求有更直接的联系,但即使是他,也很少对工人有熟悉的个人了解,然而这些知识在如今已经消失的旧家族企业的父权制下时是经常掌握的。

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