5月5日 学习方法论整理

Working memory And non-working memory

Non-working memory :easy to forget, alppy in the shallow layer, low efficiency.

Working memory: hard to forget, flexible application, highly efficiency.

Turn the non-working memory area into the working memory area, which need a process of solidify, mind model, expand.


认知获取+认知消化

1/获取新概念和信息

2/了解能解决什么问题

3/了解为什么能解决问题

Congnitive acquisition + Cognitive digest

1.access the new concepts and information . 2.learn the problem which will be solved . 3. Learn why the problem will be solved.  

认知固化:将掌握的新概念,信息知识,从非工作记忆区往工作记忆区推动的过程。

如何固化:1/反复大量的练习。通过实际操作,不断解决问题。

2/背诵记忆。 3/持续学习关联知识。通过不断将各种知识点结网,把这个点固定住。

Congnitive solidify: 1. The process to promote the new concepts and information ,knowledge that learned well from the non working memory into the working memory.

How to solidify?1. Continued to Solving the problems by the practical operation and repeated practice. 2. Memorization . 3. Continuous learn the related knowledge. Solidify the knowledge points by netting a variety of knowledge constantly .  


模式建立 And 模式拓展

模式建立:根据掌握的知识,构建的知识网,用老知识解决新问题,建立一个解决新问题的模式。

模式拓展:把已经学到的新知识以及构造出来的新模式,和我们的老网络,老模式,老知识融为一体,进行横向,纵向的拓展,使知识网络越来越庞大,最终同类旁通,融会贯通,使掌握的知识量,能解决的问题越来越多。

The model established and the model expanded .

The model established:  The model which is established to solved the new problems using the old knowledge , according to the knowledge mastered , the knowledge network constructed.      

The model expanded:The new mode of developing knowledge has been learned and new model constructed, and our old network, old old model, knowledge integration, horizontal and vertical expansion of the knowledge network more and more large, the final similar bypass, mastery, make knowledge grasp, can solve the problem more and more.


Three / three / 1 step fast learning method to quickly establish overall cognition. 2 / solve the problem oriented, perceptual knowledge, constructs the network. 3 / deliberate practice, of implicit knowledge. Four / 1 / principle: deliberate practice from human adaptation. The brain has strong ability to adapt to the human body. Always tend to stay in the steady state, the external changes, they will follow the change. For example; hard work often, to adapt to changes, grow on hand The cocoon /.2 after exercise, and expansion of the biceps.3 / in order to meet the needs of long-distance runners, thin. The quality and quantity of heart characterization is the biggest difference between expert and ordinary people. 2 / do. Requirements continue to break the steady state, forcing their own progress. The construction and improvement of the heart (characterization of feedback, continue to optimize 1) find a scientific and effective training methods to break.2. comfort zone, continue to challenge their moderate.3. constantly split the task easier.4. good sense of purpose.5. feedback.6. generating and improving mental representation (practice) important guidance teacher: 1 split goal, easier.2. plan,.3. provides a scientific and effective feedback, adjustment and improvement. How to design their own deliberate training system? 1 split tasks must be less than.2. for.1. feedback mechanism to check the cause.3..4. to correct. Five data collection / learning learning The classification of data form: 1 / base class.2 /.3 / application materials. The data access features: 1 / system knowledge, mainly in the form of books.2. application content, mainly in the form of access to reflect the.3. content, mainly in the paper form. How to find textbooks: 1 Laoniao recommended.2.KUL recommended high quality.3..4..5. list Q & a site directed search. How to get.1. quality public number.2. to create your own web site favorites. Field and structure, six / knowledge. Learning is a process of association.1 / concept and object behavior, the relationship between.2 / domain knowledge strong links. Knowledge structure of Pyramid type and mesh the structure of knowledge. The field as a whole. According to the structure and domain knowledge, we can learn that knowledge are interrelated, obtaining new knowledge is established based on the prior knowledge of learning. The method includes the following aspects: 1 /.2 / I integrated learning method. 1 learning method which is based on the known knowledge, step by step to learn English. In the case of I 1. I 1 English learning. The first step is to test vocabulary and reading ability. To determine their English is at that level. The second step, according to their level, find the classification of reading materials. The third step, step by step to read. 3 / Feynman method of learning. This learning process method is as follows. A multi solution 4 / seven / study method. The construction and management of external knowledge system of human brain and external tools to human Division: brain: analysis, processing, working memory, mental representation. The external brain: classification storage, high-speed calls. So learning knowledge is not limited to you. Remember: the brain is formed inside the internal network, into working memory. External: storage, at any time convenient to call. How to construct The construction and management of the knowledge system? Internal knowledge system: the theme of learning, extended learning, deliberate practice. External knowledge system: Tools: one note, known for the notes, ethics cloud notes. Usage: review, search, access, curing to working memory, important knowledge to the high frequency of the learning habit of finishing: every day. Organize, create notes, classification, scanning and archiving, clean up redundancy.



三/三步式快速学习法

1/快速建立领域整体认知。

2/解决问题为导向,感性了解知识点,初步构建网络。

3/刻意练习,补充隐知识。


四/刻意练习

1/原理:源自于人类超强的适应能力。大脑也有适应能力。人体总倾向于待在稳态,外部变化了,自己也会跟着变。比如;经常干重活,为适应变化,手上长了茧子。2/经过锻炼,壮大的肱二头肌。3/为适应长跑的需要,长跑选手变瘦了。

心里表征的质量和数量是牛人和普通人的最大区别。

2/怎么做。要求不断打破稳态,迫使自己不断进步。构建和改进心里表征(反馈、继续优化)

1.找套科学有效的训练方法。2.突破舒适区,不断适度挑战自己。3.不断拆分任务,化难为易。4.良好的目标感。5.反馈。6.产生和改进心理表征(大量练习)

指导老师的重要性:1.拆分目标,化难为易。2.制定计划,科学有效。3.提供反馈,调整改进。

如何设计自己的刻意训练体系?1.拆分大任务

一定要有反馈机制。1.找不足。2.查原因。3.想办法。4.必改正。


五/学习资料的搜集

学习资料形式的分类:1/基础类教材。2/应用类。3/查阅类。

资料的特点:1/体系化知识,主要以书籍形式体现。2.应用性内容,主要以文章形式体现。3.查阅类内容,主要以论文形式体现。

如何查找教材:1.老鸟推荐。2.KUL推荐。3.高质量书单。4.问答网站。5.定向搜索。

如何获得。1.优质公众号。2.打造自己的网站收藏夹。


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六/知识的领域和结构。

学习是关联的过程。1/概念和物体,行为之间的关联。2/领域内部知识强链接。

知识的结构有金字塔型和网状结构。

知识的领域成为一个整体。

根据知识的结构和领域,可以得知:知识都是相互关联的,新知识的获得都是建立在原有知识的基础上。学习方法有以下方面:1/整体性学习法。2/i+1学习法。也就是在已知的知识的基础上,逐级的往上学习。以英语i+1为例。英语i+1学习。第一步是测试词汇和阅读能力。确定自己的英语是处于那个层次。第二步,根据自己所处的层次,寻找分级阅读材料。第三步,逐级往上阅读。

3/费曼学习法。这个学习法的过程是这样的。

4/一题多解学习法。


七/构建和管理外部知识体系

人类大脑和外部工具如何分工:人类大脑:分析、处理、工作记忆、心理表征。外部大脑:分类存储、高速调用。所以学习知识不局限于你记住的。

内部:大脑内部形成网络,进入工作记忆。

外部:妥善存储,随时方便调用。

如何构建和管理知识体系?

内部知识体系:主题学习、扩展学习、刻意练习。

外部知识体系:工具:one note,为知笔记,有道云笔记。使用方法:复习、搜索、查阅、固化到工作记忆里,重要的知识要高频度的学习。整理习惯:每天整理,分类创建,记录笔记,扫描归档,清理冗余。

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