1.1.常出现在助动词之后。I can do it.He should finish it.We must obey the law
1.2.原形不定式与知觉动词：表“看”、“听”、“感觉”的知觉动词之后，可接原形动词作宾语补语，表已发生的事实。看：watch,look at,observe听：hear,listen to感觉：feel。
I saw him enter the room.
Inever heard him speak English.
I felr the house shake.
I was watching the swallows fly to and fro.
Let me try it.=Allow me to try it.
I had him warsh the car.=I got to warsh the car.除have外，let ,make,bid均可用于被动语态，且要用加to不定式。
They bade him do it.=He was bidden to do it.
You should help him study the lesson.（原形不定式）
He refused to study the lesson.（置to不定式）
It is my goal to marry her.
To take a trip around the world has been my dream.
3.1.3不定式作主语之结构变化：不定式作主语时，若短语中最后一个词为宾语，该宾语可移至句首作主语。例如：To please my father is difficult.→My father is difficult to please.
He intended to visit Paris.
3.2.2作不完全及物动词的宾语时，用it作形式宾语后接补语再接真正的宾语不定式如make it a rule +to V.。
3.3.1.不定式作表语此时，主语均为表意愿、企图的名词。my plan is to see her.
3.3.2.下列句型中be动词后的to可省略：All you have to do is(to)take a good rest.All I can do (is) wait.What you should do is simply (to)appologize to him.All I did yesterday was (to)eat and sleep.
4.2.所修饰的名词要作不定式短语中动词的主语或宾语不然就是短语中介词的宾语，若是be动词就作表语。I have somthing to do.（修饰代词something）there is one thing to be done.
I have no friend to advise me.（作advise的主语）
I want something to eat.（作宾语eat）
I have no one to talk to（作介词to的宾语）
He is to come tomorrow.=He is going to come tomorrow.
You are to do it=you should do it.
Such a lazy man is to be fired=Such a lazy man should be fired.
My hat was nowhere tobe found.=My hat could not be found anywhere.
表意愿的动词如：expect,hope,intend,want等，①用一般过去时，再接to have+p.p.形成表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，等于would have+p.p.本来想……IWould have done it.but I was busy.=I intended to have done it,but I was busy.=I had intended to do it,but I was busy.②如上例，也可以把这些表意愿的动词改为过去完成时再接不定式，同样表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，句型为expected to have p.p.=had expected to+原形动词。
6.2.was/were to have+p.p.=should have+p.p.（本应该……）本结构也可表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。
They were to have started outearly,but it was raining heavily.=They should have started out early,but it was raining heavily.
7.不定式的省略：不定式短语中的动词若在前面的句中已经出现过，为避免重复，可以省略但保留to。You may go if you want to (go).
To think that such a lazy boy should have passed the exam!
He help ed me(to) do the work.
He helped me with the work.
He helped(to)do the work
He helped with the work.
10.1.do nothing but+原形动词：
He did nothing but(did) eat all day.(but是并列连词，前面的did是及物动词后面的did强调语气可省略）
10.2.choose/expect/want/desire nothing+ to+原形动词。He wanted nothing but (wanted)to sleep.
10.3.be interested in nothing but+动名词/名词。He is interested in nothing but(is interested in)singing
10.4.enjoy nothing but+名词/动名词
I enjoy nothing but(enjoy)dancing.
10.5.can't but+原形动词=can't help+动名词
When I heard the story,I couldn't but laugh=When I heard the story,I couldn't help laughing.=When I heard the story,I couldn't help but laugh.
I came to see her（作副词修饰动词came）
He rushed all the way here to catch the train.该句中 all the way和here都是副词修饰动词rushed这里副词不定式修饰he rushed all the way here整句。
注意：表“目的”的副词不定式修饰，通常置于动词之后，但也可移到主语之前，须用逗号相隔。例：he sang asong to please her.=To please her,he sang a song.
You should work very hard to win the award.=To win the award,you should work very hard.
11.3.不定式移至主语之前，一方面保持其副词特性，修饰句中动词或整个句子；但也兼有形容词功能修饰句中主语，该主语通常是表人的名词或代词。不定式在主语之前，不定式所表的动作必须是其所修饰的主语造成的动作。修饰动词的表目的之副词不定式可由下列短语取代：he sang a song to please her=He sang a song in order to please her.=he sang a song so as to please her.=he sang a song with an eye to pleasing her.=He sang a song with a view to pleasing her.
He is able to handle the problem.
He is apt to lie.
The book is good to read.
He is old enough to go swimming alone
To tell te truth,I don't like him.説真的，
To be frank with you,he is good for nothing.老实说
To do him justice,he has done his best.平心而论
To make matters worse,it began to rain.更糟的是，下雨了。
He is nice,to be sure.but i don't like him.
He is,so to speak,a rascal.
He knows French,not to mention English.
13.1.单一动词时，例如：It seems that he workes hard.→He seems to work hard.
It happened that I was there.→I happened to be there.
It is said that he is good.→He is said to be good.类似的还有（reported,rumored,known,thought,believed,等过去分词）
13.2.时态不同时，to之后加have（曾经，已经）+过去分词。例如：It seems that he worked hard.→He seems to have worked hard.
It is said that he was a thug in the past.→He is said to have been a thug in the past.
13.3.Prove可作不完全不及物动词，表“显示”，“结果是”例：What he said proved to be true.（不定式作表语）
The report proved to be false.=The report proved false.
常用的动词有：get,cause,lead,allow,permit,advise persuade,enable,tell,beg,ask,order,want,expect,wish ,intend等。例如：
The sad story caused him to cry.
His speech led me to understand the importance of learning English.
He advise me not to smoke again.
His timely help enabled me to finished it early.
I expect him to do it.
I'll get somebody to help you.
All we can do now is wish for a miracle.
He is studying.
The problem should be carefuly studied.
He enjoys studying.
The student raised a confusing question.
Th teacher was confused.
The retiring teacher walked into the classroom.（将要退的）
Theretied soldier died last month.（已退的）
The baby is tiring.（宝宝真累人）
He seems tired.（他似乎累了）
The experience is thrilling（这经历够刺激）
He became more and more interested in learning English.（他对学英语越来越感兴趣）
He was killed.
He was killing the termites.
He was writing a letter.
The letter was being written.
Ifound him killing termites或I found the termites killed.
3.3.2不及物动词变分词作宾补，一律用现在分词I keep John waiting.
The wounded were rushed to the hospital.=The wounded people were rushed to the hospital.
The unexpected has happen.=something (which) we didn't expect happened.
It's freezing/biting cold today.
The tea is boiling hot.
He was hopping mad on hearing dismissal.
We 're having a ripping good time.
An estimated 54people were killed in the air crash.=It is estimated that 54 people were killed in the air crash.
He came home crying.
He came here to see me.
I left hom at six in the morning,arriving here about four in the afternoon.
He ran away quickly,looking as if something terrible had happened.
The sun setting,the cowboy rode back to the ranch.
Being sick of studying,he ran away from home.
This being the case,you'd better be careful.
All things considered,I decided to major in business administration.其中all things considered原本为all things were bonsidered（所有情况都被考虑过了）be动词were变成being被省略了。
He was reading a book,and his wife was knitting beside him.→He was reading a book,his wife knitting beside him.
We will go picnicking tomorrow,if weather permits.→we will go picnicking tomorrow,weather permitting.
John,who is a good student of mine,studies hard.→John,a good student of mine,stidies hard.Not knowing how to deal with the problem,I consulted him.
As I entered the room,I found books scattered around.
He said goodbye to her,waving his hand.
He came into the room (being)barefooted.
If I'm free,I'll go with you.→If(being)free,I'll go with you.
Once I'm rich,I'll buy a car.→Once rich,I'll buy a car.
Though I have money,I don't buy a car→Though having money,I don't buy a car.
The girl has big eyes.→I like the big-eyed girl.
She has red hair.→Do you see the red-haired girl over there?
The one-legged soldier is a hero.
Generally speaking,men are physically stronger than women.
Strictly speaking,he is not good enough.
Judging from his appearance,he seems to be rich.
Frankly speaking,he is not the man I want.
Talking of novels,have you read his works?
According to John,the fire broken out at ten in the morning.
Seeing that you have no time,I will have Peter replace you.
I started the ball rolling（我给开个头）
The news set my heart throbbing.(这消息使我心悸不已）
I'm sorry to have kept you waiting.
I couldn't make myself understood.
He got a new suit made.
You should have it unsaid.
I like my eggs half boiled.
Ihad my watch stolen.
Working with him is fun.
Seeing is believing.
Losing his fortune drove him mad.
Not knowing what to do was an embarrassment for him.
Helping others gives me great pleasure.
It gives me great leasure to help others.
要注意的是：只有在it is no use结构中，真正的主语才用动名词。
It's no use crying over spilt milk.
It's no use reasoning with such a stubborn man.
His hobby is jogging.
②有时be之后的V-ing可能是动名词也可能是现在分词，由于动名词和主语都有名词性质，故有A is B=B is A，只需将主语和V-ing互换位置，如语意通顺，该V-ing为动名词。
He detests gambling.
Some people don't enjoy smoking.
I remember seeing him.
3.2.anticipate V-ing=expect to V期望……
I anticipate cooperating with him.=I expect to cooperate with him.
3.3.stop+V-ing=quit Ving=cease V-ing=cease toV停止从事……
He stoped/quited/ceased writing when he saw me.=Heceased to writing when he saw me.
3.4.stop +to V.停下原来的工作而去作……
He stoped to talk to mewhen he saw me.
He allowed/permitted smoking.
He forbade smoking.（动名词作宾语）
He forbade me to smoke.（不定式作宾补）
Iforgot mailing that letter.
I regret doung it.
3.6.2.表以后要做或未完成的事时，用不定式：remember to V（记得要……）
forget to V（忘记要……）
regret to V（遗憾要……）
I'll remember to see him tomorrow.
I forgot to mail the letter.
I regret to tell you the bad news.
His illness prevented us from starting our own business.
The book is worth reading.
Thcar is worth a fortune.
The issue is worth paying attention to.
The issue is worthy of everyone's attention.
③Worthwhile adj.值得的，置于名词前，也可置于It is 后，
That's a worthwhile book to read.
It is worthwhile to read that book=It pays to read that book.
That he teaches well is something that pleases me.→His teaching well is something that pleases me.
That they helped John with the work won our great admiration.→Their helping John with the work won our great admiration.
5.2.that引导的名词性从句作表认知的及物动词（think believe,find feel）的宾语时，化简为所有格分词结构
Ibelieve that he works hard.→I believe his working hard.
I enjoyed John's joining us.
Would you mind my opening the window?
I don't like his smoking here.
In spite of my helping him,he failed.
In spite of the sun shining,the air was very cold.
a Sleeping car
a dining room
a walking stick手杖
a laughing stock笑柄
a writing pad便签纸
a starting poit起点
a visiting card名片
Writing letters is a trying job for me.=writing of letters is a tring job for me.
Shooting birds is forbidden here.=shooting of birds is forbidden here.
As an old saying goes"Honesty is the best policy."
A knocking at the door was heard.
He has a good understanding of the problem.
Don't forget to take your belongs （恒用复数）with you.
9.1there is no V-ing=It is impossible to V 不可能……
9.2.It is no use V-ing（……是无用的）
It is no use trying to escape.=It is of no use to try to escape.
9.3.cannot help/resist/refrain from V-ing忍不住……。
On hearing it,he cried.
2.助动词的种类：be(am,is,are,was,were)have(hws,had)do(does,did)shall(should)will(would)can(could)may(might)must need ought to ,dare,used to
He is handsome.
They are good students.
He is reading a book.他正在念书（进行时）
He was elected chairman.他当选主席（被动语态）
He has written the letter.
I had finished the task before he came.
2.3.do(does,did)do you see that?
Ididn't know what to do.
②疑问句:dDid you understand it?
He worked hard.→He did work hard.
Never did I know that he was so stupid.
Did you read this book?Yes,I did(=read this book)
I work as hard as he does(=works)
Shall I open the door?
Shall we go for a walk?
③命令对方时：You shall….=you must.你必须……。You shall obey the law.
例：Article One:You(或one)shall wash your(或one's)hands after using the toilet.
You shall have the present.
One should be kind to others.
①It is （natural/proper/right/advisable/desirable/no wonder） that…should…译作“……会……”乃自然的/适当的/正当的/恰当的/较好的/无疑的
It is natural that he (should )get angry.（他会生气是自然的。）
②It is (necessary/imperative/essential/important/urgent) that…should…译作（……应当……是有必要的）本结构中should常可省略保留其后的原形动词。
It is important that he(should)finish the job before leaving.
It is imperative that he do the work now.（他现在应该赶紧作这事。）
③It is (surprising/amazing)that…should（居然）…译作令人惊讶的是……居然……。
It is surprising that he should be so kind.（令人惊讶的是他居然这么和气。）
④It is (a pity/a regret/regrettable)that …should…译作令人遗憾的是……居然……。
It is a pity that he should be so rude.真遗憾他居然这么粗鲁。
He suggested that we (should)leave at once.
He came early lest he (should) be late.=He came early for fear that he might be late.
If you should be late again,you will spoil the plan.
I told him that I should be at home that evening.
If you had not helped me,I should have died.
It is surprising that he should have passed the examination.
It is a pity that he should have done such a stupid thing.
He said that he would try again.
He said that he will visit the country sometime in july.他说七月份要找时间造访该国。本句暗示he said 虽是过去时，但he will visit…injuly则表示作者写本句时是七月之前，七月尚未到来，所以用will。对比下列两段对话：
A:I saw john a few days ago.
B:what did he say?
A:He sai that he would call on you yesterday.
B:but he didn't show up yesterday.
A:I saw john a few days ago.
B:what did he say?
A:He said that he will call on you tomorrow.
B:I'll be expecting him then.
If I had money now,I would buy a car.(but I don't have money now.)
If I had had money,I would have bought a car.(but I didn't have money then)
Iwould rather go than stay here.=I would sooner go than stay here.=I would as soon go as stay here.
2.6.5.aIwould rather＋（that）从句＝I wish+that从句多么希望……该句型属虚拟语气，若与现在事实相反，that从句用一般过去时，若与过去事实相反，则用过去完成时。
I would rather that they were here.=I wish that they were here.
2.6.6would you mind+（V-ing/if从句）你介不介意……?
Would you mind doing it for me?
Would you mind if you do it for me?
Would you mind的语气要比Do you mind客气。且would you mind之后的 if从句用一般过去时与助动词would配合，而do you mind之后的if从句用一般现在时与助动词do配合。
2.7.1.can表“能力”=（be able to)译作“能够”。
He can cope with the problem.=He is able to cope with the problem.
He can be wrong if he says so.
You can go home now.
Can it be true?No,it can't be true.
He is so honest that he can't have stolen your money yesterday.
①must have+p.p.一定曾经……；He looks nervous;he must have stolen your money.
②may have+p.p.可能曾经……。He looks nervous;he may have stolen your money.
Can he have stolen your money?
She could speak English well when she was ten.
Could/would you please do it for me?
2.7.8.could=was/were able to用于一般过去时中，表过去的能力。
When young,he could eat eight bowls of rice at a time.
①I can but do so=I can only do so.我只能这么作。
②I cannot but laugh.=I cannot help but laugh=I cannot help laughing我忍不住大笑。
③we cannot be too careful in choosing friends.我们选朋友时再小心也不为过。
④I couldn'tcare less.我一点都不在乎。
⑤I couldn't sgree more.我同意极了。
You may take whatever you like.
It may be true.
2.8.3.may not有两种意思：①表“可能不会”It's getting late;he may not come.②表“不可以”="must not"
You may not cheat during exams.
He said:"you may go."
He said that I might go.
Ifhe tried hard,he might succeed.(but he doesn't try hard.)
If he had tried hard,he might have succeeded.(but he didn't try hard.)
He knows so many thing that he may well be called genius.
②may as well+原形动词（不妨……）
You may as well stay home.你不妨留在家。
You had better stay home.（你最好呆在家。）
③may as well+原形动词+as+原形动词（与其……倒不如……）
You may as well stay home as go out with them.
注意：may as well…as…（表较大的可能性），而might as well…as…（表可能性较小）
Youmught as well die as make friends with John.不与其和约翰交友倒不如去死算了。（真的去死的可能性很小）
You must finish your work before leaving.
2.9.2.must只用于表现在和将来的状况；have to是全时态的。must not=may not（不可）；don't have to=need not（不必）you don't have to do it.
It must be true.
2.9.4.must have+p.p.表对过去状况的推论，一定曾经……It must have rained last night.
Since he works hard,he ought to succeed.
2.10.2.ough to have+p.p.本应会……（却不如此）表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，此时if从句中用过去完成时。
If he had worked hard,he ought to have been successful.
2.10.4.ought to have+p.p.也可表“推论至目前为止已经完成的动作”，常与“by now”连用，译作：应当已经……（可能如此）。
He ough to have arrived in New York by now.
He needs to go.
The car needs to be cleaned=the car needs cleaning.
He need not go.（need是助动词）
He doesn't need to go.（need是一般动词）
①didn't need to+原形动词表：当时不必（且也未如此做）
He didn't need to attend the party,so he stayed home.
②need not have+p.p.表：当时不必……（却做了）
He needn't have attended the party,but he went there just the same.（他本不必去，但是去了）
Need he go?=Does he need to go?
①一般动词He needs to go,doesn't he?（needs为一般动词）
He doesn't need to go,does he?
He need not go,need he?
Dare he go?他敢去吗？
He dare not go.他不敢去。
How dare you say such a thing to me?
I wonder whether he dare do it.
He dares to go.
I dared to go.
He dare not answer the phone.=He doesn't dare (to) answer the phone.
He dared me to jump the stream.
I daresay he will be late again.
He used to live here.
There used to be a pond in this garden.→Used there to be a pond in this garden?
He used to work hard.→Did he use to work hard?
①人+be used to(名词/动名词）某人习惯于……在此结构中used是形容词“习惯的”相当于accustomed，之后的to是介词，译作“对于”
He is used to working alone.
He hasn't( been/got)used to city life yet.
②物＋be used to+原形动词（被用来……），在此结构中used是过去分词，to为不定式。
The book can be used to teach us English writting.
③物+be used as…（被当作……来用）
The knife was used as a weapon
He lays a book on the desk.
A book has been laid on the desk.（被动语态）
He lay on the bed a while ago.他刚才躺在床上。
Don't lie to me.
He lied to me.
He came in and sit down.
John was seateated by the window,lookiking out at passersby.=John sat by the window,looking out at passers by.
May I seat you here?可以安排你坐这里吗？（表就座）
He set the table for dinner.
He rose at seven every morning.
The sun rises in the east.
Accidents arise from care lessnes.
Raise your hand,if you have any wuestions.
Many cattle are raised on his farm.
His bitter words aroused my anger.
The picture hangs on the wall.
The picture is hung on the wall.
They hsnged themurder yesterday.
The airplane flew high in the sky.
This is the place from which the river flows.
The bird flew all the way here fromCanada.
例：Take the book to the library,please.
Bring them back here.
Take it with you when you go there.
Bring it with you when you come here.
He refused my suggestion.
He refused to go with me.
He rejected working with Marybecause he thought she was too selfish.
He denied that he ha done it.=He refused to admit that he had done it.
I spend all my income on books=I spend all my income buying books.
It takes (sb.)+时间＋to V.
It costs(sb.)+金钱＋to V.
It takes(one) two hours to go from here toParis.
It cost(me) fifteen dollars to buy the book.
He failed to answer her question.=He failed to reply to her question.
When asked if he would buy a car,John answered that he had no money.=When asked if he would buy acar,aJohn replied that he had no money.约翰被问到是否会买车，他回答没钱。
11.reach,get to,arrive in/at:
注意：①arrive in大地方（指城市、国家、地区等），arrive at小地方（指建筑物，如车站，邮局等）。
By the time I arrived at the station,the train had gone.
Igot/arrived/reched there at 12.
We have to carry out the mission.=we have to carry the mission out.
We have to carry it out.
bring up 抚养 figure out 想出
Call down 斥责 give up 放弃
Call off 取消 put out 熄灭
Cross out 删去 take off 脱掉（衣服等）
Do over 重做 take over 接管
Talk over 商讨 pick up 拾起
Think over 考虑 put off 延期
Think up 设计 put on 穿上（衣服等）
Try on 试穿 （衣服等）try out试验（机器、想法等）
Hand in 交出 turn down拒绝
Look over 检查 turn in 交出
Look up查询（生词、电话号码等）turn off关上
Make out 了解 turn on 打开（开关等）
Pick out 挑选
I callon him yesterday.
Call for 要求 go over复习
Come across=run into=meet…by chance偶遇
Look sfter照顾 look for寻找
Get over=recover from复原
Look into调查 get through 做完
We finally agreed on the contract.=we reached an agreement on the contract.
I agree to his coming here.
I agreed him on this point.
This class consists of 10students.=this class is composted of 10students.=this class is made up of 10 students.
14.5.argue with sb.与某人争论
argue over sth.争论某事
approve of sth.赞同某事
care for喜欢comment on评论
count on=depend on=rely on依赖
Add this number to that number.
He blamed me for the fault.
I congratulated him on his success.
He explained it to me.
He won't excuse me for being rude.
He fell in love with she.
He willget in touch with her when he got to New York.
He has made up his mind to study hard.=he has decided to study hard.
Take charge of=be in charge of负责
Take care of=look after照顾
Have coplete access to有完全使用权
Students have complete access to books in the libary.学生们可以任意使用图书馆的书。
I look forward to seeing you soon.我期盼很快能见到你。
I prefer going to the movies to watching TV.我喜欢看电影胜过看电视。
17.2.prefer to+原形动词+（instead of+动名词）/rather than +原形动词
I prefer to go to the movies instead of watching TV.=I prefer to go to the movied rather than watch TV.
Would you mind if I opened the door?=would you mind my opening the door?
Admit 承认 mention 提到
Avoid 避免 pardon 原谅
Appreciate 感激 miss 想念
Consider 考虑 practise＝practice练习
Delay 延期 quit 停止
Mind 介意 risk冒险
Deny 否认 postpone 推迟
Detest 憎恨 resent 愤恨
Enjoy 喜欢 regret 后悔
Escape逃避 keep 保持
Excuse 原谅 forgive 原谅
Finish 结束 imagine 想象
20.prevent sb. from V-ing阻止某人从事……
The heavy rain prevented me getting to work on time.
特：forbid也表禁止不同的是不与from连用，而是forbid sb.to +V.
I forbid him to smoke here.
Discourage sb. from V-ing使某人不敢从事……。
22.persuade sb. to aV劝某人去……
Persuade sb.from V-ing劝阻某人……
You resemble your brother.=you bear a close resemblance to your brother.=you look like your brother.
I've decided to take a trip to Tokyo this summer.
I have ddecided on him as representative of our company.
We decided against John'sidea,thinking that it was not feasible.
②过去分词determined作形容词用，表“下定决心的”be determined to V决心要……。
I'm determined to go on with the project even if I may run into many set backs.（即便可能会遇到许多挫折，我决心继续该项目）
Ican afford the car.=i can afford to buy the car.
Wait one's turn等候某人的机会
I'mwaiting my turn to take revenge.
Await sth=wait for sth
He succeeded inbusiness after years of hard work.
How many of you have succeed in passing the test?
He succeeded his father as president of this company.
He fail to pass the test.
The teacher failed one-third students.
You are the only person i trust don'tfail me.
I depend on him to give me sdvice.
He looks happy.
He looks like a happy man.
30.意图动词的用法：表“设法”、“企图”的接不定式try to do/attempt to do/manage to do/endeavor to do。
I'll endeavor to save our company from going bankrupt.
Be sngry with+人 生某人的气
Be Angry at+物 气某物
He angered me=I was angered by him.=I was angry with him.
①主语+授予动词+间接宾语（人）+直接宾语（物）I asked him a question.
I asked a question of him.
*b*make /do/ leave/ buy用介词for;
Iplayed a joke on him.
③被动语态:人+be+授予动词过去分词＋宾语he was given a book(by me)
Isaw him cry.
I saw him crying.
33.2.听：listen to /hear
Iheard him talk.
I heard him talking.
Ifelt him leave.
Ifelt him leaving.
I'll remember to see him.
II remember seeing him before.
Iforgot to see him.
Iforgot seeing him before.