培根:论父母与子女 | Of Parents & Children

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2018.08.17 10:54* 字数 2270

Of Parents & Children

论父母与子女

(文章内容:英文原文+中文译文+单词释义)

父母与子女共度美好时光.jpg

The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears: they cannot utter the one, nor they will not utter the other. Children sweeten labours, but they make misfortunes more bitter: they increase the cares of life, but thy mitigate the remembrance of death.
父母的快乐是隐秘的,父母的忧伤和恐惧也是隐秘的。他们无法脱口而出他们的喜悦,也不肯说出内心的忧愁。子女使辛劳变得甜蜜,但子女也让不幸变得更为苦涩;他们增加了父母为生计的烦扰,但也淡化了父母对死亡的记忆。

  • 单词释义:
    1.utter 英 [ˈʌtə(r)] 美 [ˈʌtɚ] vt. 发出声音;说,讲;
    2.labour n.劳动;劳工;分娩,临产阵痛;工作,活计
    3.sweeten vt.使甜,把…弄香;使温和;使愉快;使悦耳
    4.misfortune 英 [ˌmɪsˈfɔ:tʃu:n] n.不幸;厄运;灾难;不幸的事
    5.bitter 英 [ˈbɪtə(r)] adj.苦的;尖锐的;
    6.mitigate 英 [ˈmɪtɪgeɪt] vt.使缓和,使减轻;使平息
宝宝最可爱.jpg

The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts; but memory, merit, and noble works are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the noblest works and foundations have proceeded from childless men, which have sought to express the images of their minds, where those of their bodies have failed: so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity.
繁衍生息,代代相传——这是人类与动物共通的一点。然而,记忆、美德和高尚的事业,是人类特有的。人们肯定会发现,最高尚的基业是没有子女的人建树的。他们生前一直致力于将自己的精神形象发扬光大,而他们的肉体形象没有能够表现;所以,没有子嗣的人倒成了最关心后代的人。

  • 单词释义:
    7.perpetuity 英 [ˌpɜ:pəˈtju:əti] 永久,永恒,永远
    8.generation 英 [ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃn] n.产生;一代人;代(约30年),时代;生殖
    9.beast 英 [bi:st] n.(尤指大型或凶猛、独特的)动物,兽
    10.merit 英 [ˈmerɪt] n.(行善得到的)功德;
    11.noble 英 [ˈnəʊbl] adj.高尚的;
    12.be proper to …特有的,…专门的
    13.proceed from 出于;从…出发[开始];从…产生, 起因于
    14.posterity 英 [pɒˈsterəti] n.子孙;后裔;后代,后世;儿孙
妈妈喂.jpeg

They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children; beholding them as the continuance not only of their kind but of their work; and so both children and creatures.
那些家业的开创者对自己的子女看成家族血脉的延续,也看成自己事业的继续;因此他们的子女也被看做他们的作品和心血。

  • 单词释义:
    15.indulgent 英 [ɪnˈdʌldʒənt] adj. 宽容的;任性的;放纵的,纵容的
    16.behold...as...把什么看做什么

The difference in affection of parents towards their several children is many times unequal, and sometimes unworthy,especially in the mothers; as Salomon saith, A wise son rejoiceth the father, but an ungracious son shames the mother. A man shall see, where there is a house full of children, one or two of the eldest respected, and the youngest made wantons; but in the midst some that are as it were forgotten, who many times nevertheless prove the best.
父母往往会对某几个孩子存在偏爱,而这种偏爱有时候是不好的,特别是母亲的偏爱更甚,就像所罗门说的:“一个聪明的儿子使父亲感到高兴,一个不光彩的儿子则使母亲蒙羞。”在子孙满堂的家庭里,人们会看到,有一两个最年长的受到尊敬,而年纪最小的成了纨绔子弟,而中间的几个,虽然常常被遗忘,然而往往被证明是最优秀的。

  • 单词释义:
    17.rejoiceth (使...)快乐
    18.unworthy 不值得的;无价值的;不合适的;可恶的,卑劣的
    19.rejoice 英 [rɪˈdʒɔɪs] vt.使高兴;使欢喜
    20.ungracious 英 [ʌnˈgreɪʃəs] adj.无礼;勉强的,愤恨的,不礼貌的
    21.wanton 英 [ˈwɒntən] wantons奢侈享乐的人;嬉闹的人;
    22.nevertheless 不过;然而;仍然;尽管如此
零花钱.jpg

The illiberality of parents in allowance towards their children is an harmful error; makes them base; acquaints them with shifts; makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty: and therefore the proof is best, when men keep their authority towards their children, but not their purse.
父母在给子女零花钱上过于吝啬,这是十分有害的做法,会使子女变得卑贱,让他们学会投机取巧、玩弄心计,使他们容易和卑贱之流为伍。而若是给他们过量的钱财,他们就会变得挥霍无度。因此,父母最好的做法就是在子女之中树立威信,而不是掌握他们的财政大权。

  • 单词释义:
    23.illiberality 英 [ɪˌlɪbə'rælɪtɪ] n.吝啬,小气
    24.allowance 英 [əˈlaʊəns] n.限额;折扣;津贴,补贴,零用钱;
    25.base adj.卑鄙的;低级的;贱的,劣的;庶生的
    26.acquaint with使了解;使熟悉;使相识
    27.surfeit 英 [ˈsɜ:fɪt] vi.挥霍无度
    28.purse n.钱包,钱袋;财力,财源;和包或钱袋相似的东西;女用小提包
亲兄弟.jpg

Men have a foolish manner(both parents and schoolmasters and servants)in creating and breeding an emulation between brothers during childhood, which many times sorteth to discord when they are men, and disturbeth families.
人们有一种愚蠢的行为(父母、老师与仆人都一样),就是在童年时期在兄弟之间营造竞争气氛。这往往会导致他们成年后兄弟反目,让他们的家庭也不得安宁。

  • 单词释义:
    29.emulation 英 [ˌemjʊ'leɪʃn] n.竞赛;竞争;
    30.discord英 [ˈdɪskɔ:d] n.不和;不调和;嘈杂声

The Italians make little difference between children and nephews or near kinsfolks; but so they be of the lump,they care not though they pass not through their own body. And, to say truth, in nature it it much a like matter; insomuch that we see a nephew sometimes resembleth an uncle or a kinsman more than his own parent; as the blood happens.
意大利人几乎不分自己的子女或侄儿侄女,以及其他近亲,只要他们是同族,就算他们并非自己所生,他们也不在意,仍然一视同仁,把他们看成同胞兄弟或同胞姐妹。说实话,由于血缘的关系,他们在天性上如此相似,以至我们看见侄子像他的伯父,或者像其他的亲人,胜过像他自己的父亲。

  • 单词释义:
    31.nephew 英 [ˈnefju:] n.侄子,外甥
    32.near kinsfolk 近亲
    33.be of the lump 同族
    34.insomuch adv.由于,就此程度而言
    35.resembleth 同resemble vt.与…相像,类似于
可塑性强.jpg

Let parents choose betimes the vocations and courses they mean their children should take; for then they are most flexible; and let them not too much apply themselves to the disposition of their children, as thinking they will take best to that which they have most mind to. It is true, that if the affection or aptness of the children be extraordinary, then it it good not to cross it; but generally the precept is good, optimum elige, suave et facile illud faciet consuetudo. Younger brothers are commonly fortunate, but seldom or never where the elder are disinherited.
父母可以及时选择他们认为子女应该从事的职业与学业,因为在幼年时期他们的可塑性最强,然而父母切勿过于试图安排子女的未来,以为自己现在最愿意的就是他们将来努力去做的。当然,若是子女对某方面表现出特殊的爱好或是超群的天赋,那么最好不要阻止,然而一般说来,下面这句话可谓金科玉律:“选择最好的,培养成习惯,习惯成自然。”子女中,年幼的弟弟往往是幸运儿,但如果长兄被剥夺了继承权,那弟弟很少或是根本不可能拥有幸福的一生了。

  • 单词释义:
    36.betimes adv.及时,早
    37.vocation 英 [vəʊˈkeɪʃn] n.职业,使命; vocations and courses 职业与学业
    38.disposition 英 [ˌdɪspəˈzɪʃn] n. 安排,配置;
    39.aptness 英 ['æptnəs] n.倾向,适合性,才能
    40.cross 反对,反驳,否定(某人或计划、意愿)
    41.precept 英 [ˈpri:sept] n.规诫,戒律,箴言
    42.disinherited v.剥夺继承权,剥夺特权( disinherit的过去式和过去分词 )

~Francis Bacon
——[ 英 ] 弗兰西斯·培根
(节选自《培根散文集)

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