Design Principles《Design Systems(摘译)》

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《Design Systems》中关于设计规则的阐述,句句箴言,下面这这本书的第二章的全部内容的摘录。又给自己挖了个坑,这周找时间吧翻译补上吧。周日白天喝完一大杯奶茶之后,失眠至大半夜,所以不如接着黑夜的眼睛,把下面的原文翻译出来了...


CHAPTER 2   Design Principles 

Solid principles are the foundation for any well-functioning system. In this chapter we’ll discuss the qualities of effective design principles and look at some of the ways of defining them. 

Earlier we talked about the importance of starting with the purpose and ethos of the product when designing the interface. Having clarity on the purpose is paramount because all other decisions should be shaped by it, even if indirectly. How do we make sure that the purpose of the product is manifested through design? By establishing a few grounding values and principles. 

固定的原则是保证系统良好运转的基础。在这一章我们会讨论关于有效的设计原则的特质,以及寻找一些定义他们的方法。

很早之前我们就开始讨论关于在开始设计界面产品界面的时候,设计目标和定位的重要性。清晰的目标是非常重要的,因为所有的决定都应该遵循一开始定下的设计目标,尽管有时候是间接地依赖「设计目标」。我们怎么保证在设计的过程中,产品的目标是明确的?那就需要确立一些基础的价值观和原则了。

Qualities Of Effective Design Principles /有效的设计原则的特性

Approaches to design principles are unique to every company and can take many forms.Principles can be overarching or more granular, temporary or long-lasting. What matters is how effective they are at unifying design thinking and distributing creative direction in the team. In the context of this book, design principles are shared guidelines that capture the essence of what good design means for the team, and advice on how to achieve it; in other words, agreed criteria for what constitutes good design in your organization and for your product.

每个公司都有他们独特的制定设计原则的方法,并且它们可能呈现不一样的方式。设计原则可以是很大粒度的,也可以是很细小粒度的,可以是短暂的也可以是长久的。最重要要的是这些设计原则如何有效的指引团队的设计思考和创造性的方向。在这本书里面,设计原则阐述了在团队里面,什么是好的设计的本质,还有给出了一些如何确定设计原则的建议。换句话说,就是那些构成公司和产品的准则。

1. THEY’RE AUTHENTIC AND GENUINE / 真实可靠的

Knowing that your product should be useful and enjoyable is not going to be hugely helpful in guiding your design decisions, because these qualities can be interpreted in a variety of ways. What would make them more helpful is knowing exactly what those words mean to your team and your product. What does innovative entail? When is a design considered useful? How do you know if it’s really delightful? Good design principles define qualities that can be interpreted in different ways, and ground them in the context of a specific product. 

当你说,「产品需要具备可用性和愉悦性」。这样的描述,对你接下来的设计决策是没有帮助的。因为这些特性可以被多种解读。清楚明白这些形容词(指的是刚刚提到的helpful和 enjoyable)对你的团队和你的产品来说意味着什么,那才是最终重要的。什么是创新的需要?什么时候一个产品才算是有用的?你怎么知道这会真的为用户带来愉悦?好的设计原则可以被不同角度来解读,并且在一个具体的产品中,应该要有具体的体现。

2. THEY’RE PRACTICAL AND ACTIONABLE /真实并且可执行的

A principle should offer practical guidance on how to solve a design problem within the context of a specific product.

“Make it simple. Make it so simple it’s almost invisible! We should always work to remove friction on the platform, creating an experience that allows users real freedom to the content. If our platform is easy to understand, people can and will use it more.”

However, it’s not clear from this advice exactly what simplicity means and how to achieve it.

“No needless parts. Every design element ,from the largest to the smallest ,must have a purpose ,and contribute to the purpose of a larger element it is part of. If you can’t explain what an element is for ,most likely it shouldn’t be there.” 

If you tell them “We like things to be delightful here. Make it delightful!” it’s probably not going to help them do their job.You’d need to define what delight means and share practical examples of what delight looks like in the context of your interface. 

一个好的设计原则,需要在一个非常具体的产品和场景下面,有非常具体和现实的的指引,去解决一个具体的设计上的问题。

“变得简单。把它变得简单,以至于完全被隐藏!我们应该一直致力于消除平台的矛盾点,并且创造一个很好的体验,让用户在产品中感到非常自由。当我们的平台很容易被理解和明白,那么用户就会持续地使用它。”

但是,上面这个建议还是没有明确的说明「简单」是什么意思,以及如何去实现「简单」。那我们看下面这个说法。

“去除掉那些不需要的元素。所有的设计元素,不管大的还是小的,都应该有明确的使用目的。当你不能解释这个设计元素为什么会出现在这里,那么就说明这个东西不需要出现在这里了。”

如果你告诉他们说“我们需要一些好玩的快乐的元素,所以设计得好玩一些吧!”,这种说法并不有助于让设计师们完成他们的工作。你需要明确地定义什么叫做「好玩有趣的」并且找一些现实的例子去说明在界面设计中,如何做到有趣好玩。

3. THEY HAVE A POINT OF VIEW /表明某种观点和立场

Design is shaped by the choices we make. Should this page be more visually alive or more utilitarian? Is it appropriate to be more playful or more serious here? Can we justify making this module more usable at the cost of making it less flexible? By achieving some things we often have to say no to others. Good design principles help to work out priority and balance ,even if there are conflicting factors to consider. 

Good principles don't try to be everything for everyone.

我们的每一个设计决策导致了我们最后的设计产出。这个页面到底是视觉展现力更重要还是功利性更重要?好玩一些比较合适呢还是严肃一些比较合适呢?我们可以牺牲灵活性去换取更多的可用性吗?常常我们为了达到某些目的,所以我们经常会去否决一些东西。好的设计原则可以帮助设计师们去找到关于选择的优先级和设计中的平衡,尽管这里面有很多需要考虑的矛盾的因素。

好的设计原则不应该为了每一个人。(这里的意思应该是好的设计并不能满足所有人的所有需求。)

4. THEY’RE RELATABLE AND MEMORABLE/相互联系并且难忘的 

Here’s a fun test. Try asking people in your company what your design principles are. If no one can remember them, chances are they can be improved. To be memorable, the principles must be in constant use. They should be referred to in everyday conversations, included in presentations and design critiques, displayed where they can be seen. 

The optimal number of design principles — if you want them to be in use — is between three and five.

Airbnb’s four design principles(“Unified,”“Universal,”“Iconic,”“Conversational”)are deeply engrained in its design process: “When we design a new component, we want to make sure it addresses all four of those. If we didn’t have a set of principles it would be difficult to agree on things. We want to make sure each piece lives up to it.”— Roy Stanfield, principal interaction designer,Airbnb 

这里有一个好玩的测试。你试下问公司的人看知不知道你们的设计原则是啥。如果没有人记得,那么你们的设计原则该优化了。如果设计原则要变的令人难忘的话,那么你们的设计原则就应该经常被用起来。设计原则应该渗透在每天的对话里面,包括演讲/演示,设计评审的时候,甚至是把它们展示在任何容易被人看到的地方。

设计原则应该定多少个呢?如果你们想它们常常被用到的话,那么最好是3-5个原则就可以了。

Airbnb的四个设计原则是:统一的、通用的、具有标识性的、可对话的。这四个原则在它们的设计过程中已经根深蒂固了,“当我们在设计一个元素的时候,我们希望都满足这四个设计原则。如果我们没有这些设计原则,那么我们真的很难在设计上达成一致。我们希望是,确保每一个设计元素都依赖于这些原则。” - 来自Roy Stanfield,Airbnb的首席交互设计师。

Defining your Principles/制定设计原则

Expressing your design approach in five sentences is not easy. Every team arrives at their principles in their own way: some go through rounds of workshops, others might get input from their CEO or a creative director. Regardless of how you get there, the following tips can be useful to keep in mind.

把你的设计方法用5句话来描述,是件很不容易的事情。每个团队制定他们的设计原则的方式都不一样:有些通过workshop的形式,有些可能是CEO或者他们的创意总监直接给出的原则。不管你是通过什么方式来制定你们团队的设计原则的,下面这些tips都可以给你点帮助。

1.START WITH THE PURPOSE/从目标开始

The main purpose of TED’s website can be captured in one sentence: “Spread the ideas as far and as wide as possible.” In terms of TED’s ethos and values, this means reaching as many people as they can, lowering the barrier to entry, and making the product inclusive and accessible. It means prioritizing performance and accessibility over flashy features, clarity of message over bold experimental design. Their “timelessness” principle encompasses that.

TED 这个产品的最核心目标可以用一句话来描述,那就是:“把想法尽可能广泛地传播。”所以从这个角度来看,意味着TED需要尽可能的触达到每一个用户,降低用户入门的门槛,那么产品就需要被设计得具有广泛性和容易被理解的。(ps:所有Accessible在设计的语言里面,大家会翻译成什么呢?)这就意味着,性能和可访问性比华而不实的功能更重要,清晰的信息表达会比大胆创新的设计优先级更高。这是由他们其中一个设计原则 - 「不受时间限制」来决定的!(Timelessness找不到一个恰当的词语来表达,大家感受一下好了..)

2.FIND SHARED THEMES/找到共识

If you’re still in the process of defining your principles, a useful exercise is to ask a few team members to write them down individually. What, in their opinion, does good design mean for your product? How would they explain it in five sentences to a new member of the team, in a way that’s practical and easy to grasp? Ask them to find a practical example in your product’s interface and include it alongside each principle.

These answers can be a valuable starting point in further work on the principles, as you identify common themes and agree on priorities.

如果你们还在确定设计原则的过程中,一个很实际的建议是你可以去问一下你们团队的人,让他们自己一个个写下来。在他们每个人的眼里,什么才是好的设计呢?他们会怎么用简单易懂的五句话来跟一个新人介绍你们团队的设计原则呢?同时邀请大家在产品里面找到一个具体的场景或者案例,来证明这个设计是遵循了上述他们所说的所有的原则。

这些团队成员的答案,对于制定设计原则的初期,是很有价值的。然后你可以去找到这些答案的共通点,并且跟大家确定一下这些点的重要级。

3.FOCUS ON THE RIGHT AUDIENCE/关注真正的人群

Try writing your principles for people directly involved in the creation of the product. Aim to come up with an informal agreement on what constitutes good design for your product, and offer practical guidelines for achieving it.

在你设计产品的时候,试着去把设计原则直接写出来给大家看吧。这是为了达成一个不太正式的团队共识,去明确到底对产品来说什么才是好的设计,以及以此来找到一个实际的办法和思路,来帮助团队更好地制定出设计原则。

4.TEST AND EVOLVE YOUR PRINCIPLES/测试并且迭代优化

To make sure your design principles continue to improve, they need to be constantly tested, evaluated and refined. This can only be done by being conscious of them and applying them in your work every day.

确保你的设计原则是持续迭代并且优化的,它们需要被不断地测试、评估以及明确。这个可以通过有意识地,每天在工作中,随时随地地使用这些原则,来保持不断的测试和验证。

From Principles To Patterns/从设计原则到设计模式

One of the challenges I’ve had in my work as a designer is working out how to materialize higher-level concepts, such as design principles and brand values, into concrete UI elements. How exactly are they embodied in the design patterns we create?

A lot of it is about choice and execution of patterns. For Medium, on the functional level a rich-text editor was required. It could have been any kind of editor, with any degree of complexity. But out of all the possibilities, Medium chose the simplest one, guided by its principal, “Direction over Choice.”

在我的工作中,我遇到最大的挑战是,如何把这些设计原则和品牌价值,转化为更高层次的更具体的东西,比如,如何在具体的UI元素中体现。在实际中,这些概念性的东西, 是怎么体现在我们的设计模式里面的呢?

这就涉及到模式设计中的决策和具体的落地了。打个比方,在Medium这个产品中,是一定需要一个功能完善的富文本编辑器的。编辑器可以有很多种,但是在这些各种各种的编辑器中,Medium选择了一个最简单的一种模式。这也是根据他们的设计原则中,其中一点关于「指引比选择更重要」来做的这个决策吧。


Medium的编辑器

You can view design principles as grammar rules for creating patterns and combining them in ways that make intrinsic sense. Equally, as the brand and functional patterns evolve and become more refined, they shape the design principles. Principles and patterns are refined and influenced by one another continuously.

你可以把设计原则当做是构建设计模式的语法规则,并且把它们两者以某种方式结合在一起。同样的,随着品牌和基础设计模式的演进和更加精细化,他们反过来又对设计原则起作用。设计原则和设计模式是相辅相成并且互相影响的。

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