如何通过阅读外刊积累英文写作句型?(3)原创 2018-04-28 魏剑峰 英文悦读

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长袜子Jenny
2018.04.28 22:41 字数 1750

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/h-MVHbD5ngZ-3gEDm5DO3g


Vivere

Florian Bur - Dream Once Again



这是“读外刊,学英文句型”栏目的第三期,关于该栏目第一期的说明可以见如何通过阅读外刊积累英文写作句型?


经常读外刊和原版书的同学可能会发现一些看起来很简单,但自己就是写不出来的表达,举个例子:我们被禁止使用母语,违者将被关进监狱。这句话用英语怎么说?你可能会写:


We were not allowed to use our native language. If we did, we could be put into prison.


外刊是这样写的:


We were forbidden to use our native language on pain of imprisonment.


这里on pain of something就属于这种“虽然看起来很简单但怎么也想不到”的短语,它的意思是“如违反则以……处罚”。




本期要介绍的几个短语和句型很大一部分也属于这类表达,各位同学平时的阅读的时候也要注意积累。


1.导致……的结果


要表达“……导致了……的结果”,通常可以用 something leads to something 或者 something results in something,但还可以有别的说法:




Unless more immigrants are allowed in, or a larger proportion of the working-age population joins the labour force, or people retire later, or their productivity accelerates, the ageing population will translate into permanently slower potential growth.


上面这一段讨论的是人口老龄化对于经济增长的负面影响,the ageing population will translate into permanently slower potential growth 即“老龄化人口会使经济增长长期减缓”,这里translate属于一词多义,translate into的意思是“导致,造成”:




议论文写作中涉及到原因-结果类的论述都可以用上该短语,例如:


(1) The reason why so many students are seeking a postgraduate education is that holding an advanced degree can translate into a higher salary or a senior position.


(2) Many internet companies require their staff to work overtime, but as it turns out, longer working hours do not always translate into higher productivity.


2.如何举例


常见的举例表达有for example/for instance等,除此之外,还可以学习一个新的用法:




For the majority who must consume entertainment remotely, most of the battles are still about screens, be they the size of a smartphone or half a wall, and about minutes of attention within particular apps.


上面这段话来自《经济学人》对于现代娱乐产业的报道,其中出现了一个值得注意的句子:be they the size of a smartphone or half a wall,这里be they属于虚拟语气,相当于whether they be the size of a smartphone or half a wall(不管它们的大小跟手机屏幕一样大还是跟半面墙一样大),其中they指代前面提到的screens


be it (they) / whether it (they) be是一种很古典的用法,它们可以用来对一些可能的情况进行列举。新概念英语4课文中也出现了类似的例子:


After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else, whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive, and it is only by chance that such a fate is avoided.


Whether it be plant or animal 其中it指代的是前面的something else


Whether it be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive. They are constantly after the turtles, who peacefully submit to all sorts of indignities.


这里it则指代的是后面的anything that is alive


在写作中可以用be it (they) / whether it (they) be来举例,例如:


Due to the generation gap, young adults are often at odds with older generations over everyday matters, whether they be / be they hairstyles or taste in music.


3.一个句式


下面这个句式可以用于强调事物的用处、优点等等:




Globally just 55.3% of women of working age are employed or looking for a job—less than in 1990. But the usefulness to society of early development goes far beyond giving parents a place to park a kid.


go beyond是一个地道英文中很常见的短语,它的意思是“不仅仅……”




从上面的段落中我们可以提取出一个句式:the usefulness to society of…goes far beyond… 通过该句式可以来强调某事物的用处不仅仅局限于……,还包括……,例如:


The usefulness to society of promoting higher education goes far beyond enabling young people to find a good job. It also includes sociocultural benefits. The widespread availability of tertiary education can enrich a country’s sciences and arts, through the cultivation of more researchers and scholars in every field.


4.与……接触


怎样表达“孩子们应该接触更多古典音乐”?我曾经见到有人写成:


Children should get in touch with more classical music.


这种写法看起来似乎没问题,但英美人士读起来可能会觉得莫名其妙,因为get in touch with用错了,get in touch with的意思是“通过电话或信件与某人取得联系”(communicate with someone by letter or telephone),不能用来指“与某事物接触”。


那么这句话怎么说才地道呢?看看《经济学人》的写法:




Some fret that too many students are still exposed to lacklustre teaching.


be exposed to something是一个很好用的表达,它的含义是“体验,接触”(to make it possible for someone to experience new ideas, ways of life etc)




因此,“孩子们应该接触更多古典音乐”可以写成:


Children should be exposed to more classical music.


5.效果适得其反


怎样表达“做……效果适得其反”?可以参考下面的一个外刊句子:




But when passengers are paying a premium to get to their destination quickly, a refuelling stop could defeat the purpose, if it results in a flight time that is only slightly lower than on a conventional aircraft.


这段话的背景是航空公司推出了超音速飞机以让乘客能更快到达目的地,但这种飞机在长途飞行过程中需要停下来加油,这与原来节省时间的目的相违背。其中defeat the purpose是一个短语,它的含义是“使……失败”。




A defeats the purpose of B是一个写作常用句式,它可以用来表达这样的意思:本来希望通过A能够达到目的B,但实际上A起到的效果适得其反,无法达到B。举个例子,很多人希望通过买一部好手机或好电脑来学英语,但最后英语没学到,反而打游戏水平提升了,这种情况就属于defeat the purpose:


Some students use smartphones in the hope of improving their English, but they end up playing mobile games all day, which defeats the purpose of learning.



总结:


这期一共介绍了五个表达:


(1) translate into


(2) be it (they) / whether it (they) be


(3) the usefulness to society of…goes far beyond…


(4) be exposed to


(5) defeat the purpose of


感兴趣的同学可以对这些短语句型做造句练习,以进一步加深印象。

徐乐怡