python数据结构

列表方法

list.append(x)
list.extend(L)
list.insert(i,x)
list.remove(x)
list.pop(i)
list.clear()
list.index(x)
list.count(x)
list.sort()
list.reverse()
list.copy()

遍历技巧

在字典中遍历时,关键字和对应的值可以使用 items() 方法同时解读出来:

>>> knights = {'gallahad': 'the pure', 'robin': 'the brave'}
>>> for k, v in knights.items():
...     print(k, v)
...
gallahad the pure
robin the brave 

在序列中遍历时,索引位置和对应值可以使用 enumerate() 函数同时得到:

>>> for i, v in enumerate(['tic', 'tac', 'toe']):
...     print(i, v)
...
0 tic
1 tac
2 toe

同时遍历两个或更多的序列,可以使用 zip() 组合:

>>> questions = ['name', 'quest', 'favorite color']
>>> answers = ['lancelot', 'the holy grail', 'blue']
>>> for q, a in zip(questions, answers):
...     print('What is your {0}?  It is {1}.'.format(q, a))
...
What is your name?  It is lancelot.
What is your quest?  It is the holy grail.
What is your favorite color?  It is blue.

要反向遍历一个序列,首先指定这个序列,然后调用 reversed() 函数:

>>> for i in reversed(range(1, 10, 2)):
...     print(i)
...
9
7
5
3
1

要按顺序遍历一个序列,使用 sorted() 函数返回一个已排序的序列,并不修改原值:

>>> basket = ['apple', 'orange', 'apple', 'pear', 'orange', 'banana']
>>> for f in sorted(set(basket)):
...     print(f)
...
apple
banana
orange
pear

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