Alamofire源码解读系列(二)之错误处理(AFError)

96
老马的春天
0.2 2017.02.27 15:59* 字数 2594

本篇主要讲解Alamofire中错误的处理机制

前言

在开发中,往往最容易被忽略的内容就是对错误的处理。有经验的开发者,能够对自己写的每行代码负责,而且非常清楚自己写的代码在什么时候会出现异常,这样就能提前做好错误处理。

Alamofire的错误封装很经典,是使用swift中enum的一个典型案例。读完这篇文章,一定能让大家对swift的枚举有一个更深的理解,同时增加一些枚举的高级使用技巧。

那么有一个很重要的问题,我们应该在什么情况下考虑使用枚举呢?只要结果可能是有限的集合的情况下,我们就尽量考虑使用枚举。 其实枚举本身还是数据的一种载体,swift中,枚举有着很丰富的使用方法,在下边的内容中,我们会介绍到枚举的主流用法。

开胃菜

先总结一下swfit中enum中的用法:

1.正常用法

enum Movement {
    case Left
    case Right
    case Top
    case Bottom
}

let aMovement = Movement.Left

switch aMovement {
case .Left:
    print("left")
default:
    print("Unknow")
}

if case .Left = aMovement {
    print("Left")
}

if .Left == aMovement {
    print("Left")
}

2.声明为整型

enum Season: Int {
    case Spring = 0
    case Summer = 1
    case Autumn = 2
    case Winter = 3
}

3.声明为字符串类型

enum House: String {
    case ZhangSan = "I am zhangsan"
    case LiSi = "I am lisi"
}

let zs = House.ZhangSan
print(zs.rawValue)


enum CompassPoint: String {
case North, South, East, West
}

let n = CompassPoint.North
print(n.rawValue)

let s = CompassPoint(rawValue: "South");

4.声明为浮点类型

enum Constants: Double {
    case π = 3.14159
    case e = 2.71828
    case φ = 1.61803398874
    case λ = 1.30357
}

let pai = Constants.π
print(pai.rawValue)

5.其他类型

enum VNodeFlags : UInt32 {
    case Delete = 0x00000001
    case Write = 0x00000002
    case Extended = 0x00000004
    case Attrib = 0x00000008
    case Link = 0x00000010
    case Rename = 0x00000020
    case Revoke = 0x00000040
    case None = 0x00000080
}

6.enum包含enum

enum Character {

    enum Weapon {
        case Bow
        case Sword
        case Lance
        case Dagger
    }

    enum Helmet {
        case Wooden
        case Iron
        case Diamond
    }

    case Thief
    case Warrior
    case Knight
}

let character = Character.Thief
let weapon = Character.Weapon.Bow
let helmet = Character.Helmet.Iron

7.结构体和枚举

struct Scharacter {
    enum CharacterType {
        case Thief
        case Warrior
        case Knight
    }

    enum Weapon {
        case Bow
        case Sword
        case Lance
        case Dagger
    }

    let type: CharacterType
    let weapon: Weapon
}

let sc = Scharacter(type: .Thief, weapon: .Bow)
print(sc.type)

8.值关联

enum Trade {
    case Buy(stock: String, amount: Int)
    case Sell(stock: String, amount: Int)
}

let trade = Trade.Buy(stock: "Car", amount: 100)
if case let Trade.Buy(stock, amount) = trade {
    print("buy \(amount) of \(stock)")
}

enum Trade0 {
    case Buy(String, Int)
    case Sell(String, Int)
}

let trade0 = Trade0.Buy("Car0", 100)
if case let Trade0.Buy(stock, amount) = trade0 {
    print("buy \(amount) of \(stock)")
}

9.枚举中的函数

enum Wearable {
    enum Weight: Int {
        case Light = 2
    }

    enum Armor: Int {
        case Light = 2
    }

    case Helmet(weight: Weight, armor: Armor)


    func attributes() -> (weight: Int, armor: Int) {
        switch self {
        case .Helmet(let w, let a):
            return (weight: w.rawValue * 2, armor: a.rawValue * 4)

        }
    }
}

let test = Wearable.Helmet(weight: .Light, armor: .Light).attributes()
print(test)

enum Device {
    case iPad, iPhone, AppleTV, AppleWatch
    func introduced() -> String {
        switch self {
        case .AppleTV: return "\(self) was introduced 2006"
        case .iPhone: return "\(self) was introduced 2007"
        case .iPad: return "\(self) was introduced 2010"
        case .AppleWatch: return "\(self) was introduced 2014"
        }
    }
}
print (Device.iPhone.introduced())

10.枚举中的属性

enum Device1 {
    case iPad, iPhone
    var year: Int {
        switch self {
        case .iPad:
            return 2010
        case .iPhone:
            return 2007
    }
    }
}

let iPhone = Device1.iPhone
print(iPhone.year)

ParameterEncodingFailureReason

通过ParameterEncodingFailureReason我们能够很清楚的看出来这是一个参数编码的错误原因。大家注意reason这个词,在命名中,有或者没有这个词,表达的意境完全不同,因此,Alamofire牛逼就体现在这些细节之中。

public enum AFError: Error {
    /// The underlying reason the parameter encoding error occurred.
    ///
    /// - missingURL:                 The URL request did not have a URL to encode.
    /// - jsonEncodingFailed:         JSON serialization failed with an underlying system error during the
    ///                               encoding process.
    /// - propertyListEncodingFailed: Property list serialization failed with an underlying system error during
    ///                               encoding process.
    public enum ParameterEncodingFailureReason {
        case missingURL
        case jsonEncodingFailed(error: Error)
        case propertyListEncodingFailed(error: Error)
    }
 }

ParameterEncodingFailureReason本身是一个enum,同时,它又被包含在AFError之中,这说明枚举之中可以有另一个枚举。那么像这种情况我们怎么使用呢?看下边的代码:

let parameterErrorReason = AFError.ParameterEncodingFailureReason.missingURL

枚举的访问是一级一级进行的。我们再看这行代码:case jsonEncodingFailed(error: Error)jsonEncodingFailed(error: Error)并不是函数,就是枚举的一个普通的子选项(error: Error)是它的一个关联值,相对于任何一个子选项,我们都可以关联任何值,它的意义就在于,把这些值与子选项进行绑定,方便在需要的时候调用。我们会在下边讲解如何获取关联值。

参数编码有一下几种方式:

  • 把参数编码到URL中
  • 把参数编码到httpBody中

Alamofire中是如何进行参数编码的,这方面的内容会在后续的ParameterEncoding.swift这一篇文章中给出详细的解释。那么编码失败的原因可能为:

  • missingURL 给定的urlRequest.url为nil的情况抛出错误
  • jsonEncodingFailed(error: Error) 当选择把参数编码成JSON格式的情况下,参数JSON化抛出的错误
  • propertyListEncodingFailed(error: Error) 这个同上

综上所述,ParameterEncodingFailureReason封装了参数编码的错误,可能出现的错误类型为Error,说明这些所谓一般是调用系统Api产生的错误。

MultipartEncodingFailureReason

   public enum MultipartEncodingFailureReason {
        case bodyPartURLInvalid(url: URL)
        case bodyPartFilenameInvalid(in: URL)
        case bodyPartFileNotReachable(at: URL)
        case bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(atURL: URL, error: Error)
        case bodyPartFileIsDirectory(at: URL)
        case bodyPartFileSizeNotAvailable(at: URL)
        case bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(forURL: URL, error: Error)
        case bodyPartInputStreamCreationFailed(for: URL)

        case outputStreamCreationFailed(for: URL)
        case outputStreamFileAlreadyExists(at: URL)
        case outputStreamURLInvalid(url: URL)
        case outputStreamWriteFailed(error: Error)

        case inputStreamReadFailed(error: Error)
    }

多部分编码错误一般发生在上传或下载请求中对数据的处理过程中,这里边最重要的是对上传数据的处理过程,会在后续的MultipartFormData.swift这一篇文章中给出详细的解释,我们就简单的分析下MultipartEncodingFailureReason子选项错误出现的原因:

  • bodyPartURLInvalid(url: URL) 上传数据时,可以通过fileURL的方式,读取本地文件数据,如果fileURL不可用,就会抛出这个错误
  • bodyPartFilenameInvalid(in: URL) 如果使用fileURL的lastPathComponent或者pathExtension获取filename为空抛出的错误
  • bodyPartFileNotReachable(at: URL) 通过fileURL不能访问数据,也就是不可达的
  • bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(atURL: URL, error: Error) 这个不同于bodyPartFileNotReachable(at: URL),当尝试检测fileURL是不是可达的情况下抛出的错误
  • bodyPartFileIsDirectory(at: URL) 当fileURL是一个文件夹时抛出错误
  • bodyPartFileSizeNotAvailable(at: URL) 当使用系统Api获取fileURL指定文件的size出现错误
  • bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(forURL: URL, error: Error) 查询fileURL指定文件size出现错误
  • bodyPartInputStreamCreationFailed(for: URL) 通过fileURL创建inputStream出现错误
  • outputStreamCreationFailed(for: URL) 当尝试把编码后的数据写入到硬盘时,创建outputStream出现错误
  • outputStreamFileAlreadyExists(at: URL) 数据不能被写入,因为指定的fileURL已经存在
  • outputStreamURLInvalid(url: URL) fileURL不是一个file URL
  • outputStreamWriteFailed(error: Error) 数据流写入错误
  • inputStreamReadFailed(error: Error) 数据流读入错误

综上所述,这些错误基本上都跟数据的操作相关,这个在后续会做出很详细的说明。

ResponseValidationFailureReason

   public enum ResponseValidationFailureReason {
        case dataFileNil
        case dataFileReadFailed(at: URL)
        case missingContentType(acceptableContentTypes: [String])
        case unacceptableContentType(acceptableContentTypes: [String], responseContentType: String)
        case unacceptableStatusCode(code: Int)
    }

Alamofire不管请求是否成功,都会返回response。它提供了验证ContentType和StatusCode的功能,关于验证,再后续的文章中会有详细的解答,我们先看看这些原因:

  • dataFileNil 保存数据的URL不存在,这种情况一般出现在下载任务中,指的是下载代理中的fileURL缺失
  • dataFileReadFailed(at: URL) 保存数据的URL无法读取数据,同上
  • missingContentType(acceptableContentTypes: [String]) 服务器返回的response不包含ContentType且提供的acceptableContentTypes不包含通配符(通配符表示可以接受任何类型)
  • unacceptableContentType(acceptableContentTypes: [String], responseContentType: String) ContentTypes不匹配
  • unacceptableStatusCode(code: Int) StatusCode不匹配

ResponseSerializationFailureReason

public enum ResponseSerializationFailureReason {
    case inputDataNil
    case inputDataNilOrZeroLength
    case inputFileNil
    case inputFileReadFailed(at: URL)
    case stringSerializationFailed(encoding: String.Encoding)
    case jsonSerializationFailed(error: Error)
    case propertyListSerializationFailed(error: Error)
}

我们在Alamofire源码解读系列(一)之概述和使用中已经提到,Alamofire支持把服务器的response序列成几种数据格式。

  • response 直接返回HTTPResponse,未序列化
  • responseData 序列化为Data
  • responseJSON 序列化为Json
  • responseString 序列化为字符串
  • responsePropertyList 序列化为Any

那么在序列化的过程中,很可能会发生下边的错误:

  • inputDataNil 服务器返回的response没有数据
  • inputDataNilOrZeroLength 服务器返回的response没有数据或者数据的长度是0
  • inputFileNil 指向数据的URL不存在
  • inputFileReadFailed(at: URL) 指向数据的URL无法读取数据
  • stringSerializationFailed(encoding: String.Encoding) 当使用指定的String.Encoding序列化数据为字符串时,抛出的错误
  • jsonSerializationFailed(error: Error) JSON序列化错误
  • propertyListSerializationFailed(error: Error) plist序列化错误

AFError

上边内容中介绍的ParameterEncodingFailureReason MultipartEncodingFailureReason ResponseValidationFailureReasonResponseSerializationFailureReason,他们是定义在AFError中独立的枚举,他们之间是包含和被包含的关系,理解这一点很重要,因为有了这种包含的管理,在使用中就需要通过AFError.ParameterEncodingFailureReason这种方式进行操作。

那么最重要的问题就是,如何把上边4个独立的枚举进行串联呢?Alamofire巧妙的地方就在这里,有4个独立的枚举,分别代表4大错误。也就是说这个网络框架肯定有这4大错误模块,我们只需要给AFError设计4个子选项,每个子选项关联上上边4个独立枚举的值就ok了。

这个设计真的很巧妙,试想,如果把所有的错误都放到AFError中,就显得非常冗余。那么下边的代码就呼之欲出了,大家好好体会体会在swift下这么设计的妙用:

case invalidURL(url: URLConvertible)
case parameterEncodingFailed(reason: ParameterEncodingFailureReason)
case multipartEncodingFailed(reason: MultipartEncodingFailureReason)
case responseValidationFailed(reason: ResponseValidationFailureReason)
case responseSerializationFailed(reason: ResponseSerializationFailureReason)

AFError的扩展

也许在开发中,我们完成了上边的代码就认为够用了,但对于一个开源框架而言,远远是不够的。我们一点点进行剖析:

现在给定一条数据:

 func findErrorType(error: AFError) {
        
    }

我只需要知道这个error是不是参数编码错误,应该怎么办?因此为AFError提供5个布尔类型的属性,专门用来获取当前的错误是不是某个指定的类型。这个功能的实现比较简单,代码如下:

extension AFError {
    /// Returns whether the AFError is an invalid URL error.
    public var isInvalidURLError: Bool {
        if case .invalidURL = self { return true }
        return false
    }

    /// Returns whether the AFError is a parameter encoding error. When `true`, the `underlyingError` property will
    /// contain the associated value.
    public var isParameterEncodingError: Bool {
        if case .parameterEncodingFailed = self { return true }
        return false
    }

    /// Returns whether the AFError is a multipart encoding error. When `true`, the `url` and `underlyingError` properties
    /// will contain the associated values.
    public var isMultipartEncodingError: Bool {
        if case .multipartEncodingFailed = self { return true }
        return false
    }

    /// Returns whether the `AFError` is a response validation error. When `true`, the `acceptableContentTypes`,
    /// `responseContentType`, and `responseCode` properties will contain the associated values.
    public var isResponseValidationError: Bool {
        if case .responseValidationFailed = self { return true }
        return false
    }

    /// Returns whether the `AFError` is a response serialization error. When `true`, the `failedStringEncoding` and
    /// `underlyingError` properties will contain the associated values.
    public var isResponseSerializationError: Bool {
        if case .responseSerializationFailed = self { return true }
        return false
    }
}

总而言之,这些都是给AFError这个枚举扩展的属性,还包含下边这些属性:

  • urlConvertible: URLConvertible? 获取某个属性,这个属性实现了URLConvertible协议,在AFError中只有case invalidURL(url: URLConvertible)这个选项符合要求

       /// The `URLConvertible` associated with the error.
          public var urlConvertible: URLConvertible? {
              switch self {
              case .invalidURL(let url):
                  return url
              default:
                  return nil
              }
          }
    
  • url: URL? 获取AFError中的URL,当然这个URL只跟MultipartEncodingFailureReason这个子选项有关

       /// The `URL` associated with the error.
          public var url: URL? {
              switch self {
              case .multipartEncodingFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.url
              default:
                  return nil
              }
          }
    
  • underlyingError: Error? AFError中封装的所有的可能出现的错误中,并不是每种可能都会返回Error这个错误信息,因此这个属性是可选的

       /// The `Error` returned by a system framework associated with a `.parameterEncodingFailed`,
          /// `.multipartEncodingFailed` or `.responseSerializationFailed` error.
          public var underlyingError: Error? {
              switch self {
              case .parameterEncodingFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.underlyingError
              case .multipartEncodingFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.underlyingError
              case .responseSerializationFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.underlyingError
              default:
                  return nil
              }
          }
    
  • acceptableContentTypes: [String]? 可接受的ContentType

         /// The response `Content-Type` of a `.responseValidationFailed` error.
          public var responseContentType: String? {
              switch self {
              case .responseValidationFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.responseContentType
              default:
                  return nil
              }
          }
    
  • responseCode: Int? 响应码

      /// The response code of a `.responseValidationFailed` error.
      public var responseCode: Int? {
          switch self {
          case .responseValidationFailed(let reason):
              return reason.responseCode
          default:
              return nil
          }
      }
    
  • failedStringEncoding: String.Encoding? 错误的字符串编码

       /// The `String.Encoding` associated with a failed `.stringResponse()` call.
          public var failedStringEncoding: String.Encoding? {
              switch self {
              case .responseSerializationFailed(let reason):
                  return reason.failedStringEncoding
              default:
                  return nil
              }
          }
    

这里是一个小的分割线,在上边属性的获取中,也是用到了下边代码中的扩展功能:

    extension AFError.ParameterEncodingFailureReason {
        var underlyingError: Error? {
            switch self {
            case .jsonEncodingFailed(let error), .propertyListEncodingFailed(let error):
                return error
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    }
    
    extension AFError.MultipartEncodingFailureReason {
        var url: URL? {
            switch self {
            case .bodyPartURLInvalid(let url), .bodyPartFilenameInvalid(let url), .bodyPartFileNotReachable(let url),
                 .bodyPartFileIsDirectory(let url), .bodyPartFileSizeNotAvailable(let url),
                 .bodyPartInputStreamCreationFailed(let url), .outputStreamCreationFailed(let url),
                 .outputStreamFileAlreadyExists(let url), .outputStreamURLInvalid(let url),
                 .bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(let url, _), .bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(let url, _):
                return url
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    
        var underlyingError: Error? {
            switch self {
            case .bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(_, let error), .bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(_, let error),
                 .outputStreamWriteFailed(let error), .inputStreamReadFailed(let error):
                return error
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    }
    
    extension AFError.ResponseValidationFailureReason {
        var acceptableContentTypes: [String]? {
            switch self {
            case .missingContentType(let types), .unacceptableContentType(let types, _):
                return types
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    
        var responseContentType: String? {
            switch self {
            case .unacceptableContentType(_, let responseType):
                return responseType
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    
        var responseCode: Int? {
            switch self {
            case .unacceptableStatusCode(let code):
                return code
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    }
    
    extension AFError.ResponseSerializationFailureReason {
        var failedStringEncoding: String.Encoding? {
            switch self {
            case .stringSerializationFailed(let encoding):
                return encoding
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    
        var underlyingError: Error? {
            switch self {
            case .jsonSerializationFailed(let error), .propertyListSerializationFailed(let error):
                return error
            default:
                return nil
            }
        }
    }

错误描述

在开发中,如果程序遇到错误,我们往往会给用户展示更加直观的信息,这就要求我们把错误信息转换成易于理解的内容。因此我们只要实现LocalizedError协议就好了。这里边的内容很简单,在这里就直接把代码写上了,不做分析:

extension AFError: LocalizedError {
    public var errorDescription: String? {
        switch self {
        case .invalidURL(let url):
            return "URL is not valid: \(url)"
        case .parameterEncodingFailed(let reason):
            return reason.localizedDescription
        case .multipartEncodingFailed(let reason):
            return reason.localizedDescription
        case .responseValidationFailed(let reason):
            return reason.localizedDescription
        case .responseSerializationFailed(let reason):
            return reason.localizedDescription
        }
    }
}

extension AFError.ParameterEncodingFailureReason {
    var localizedDescription: String {
        switch self {
        case .missingURL:
            return "URL request to encode was missing a URL"
        case .jsonEncodingFailed(let error):
            return "JSON could not be encoded because of error:\n\(error.localizedDescription)"
        case .propertyListEncodingFailed(let error):
            return "PropertyList could not be encoded because of error:\n\(error.localizedDescription)"
        }
    }
}

extension AFError.MultipartEncodingFailureReason {
    var localizedDescription: String {
        switch self {
        case .bodyPartURLInvalid(let url):
            return "The URL provided is not a file URL: \(url)"
        case .bodyPartFilenameInvalid(let url):
            return "The URL provided does not have a valid filename: \(url)"
        case .bodyPartFileNotReachable(let url):
            return "The URL provided is not reachable: \(url)"
        case .bodyPartFileNotReachableWithError(let url, let error):
            return (
                "The system returned an error while checking the provided URL for " +
                "reachability.\nURL: \(url)\nError: \(error)"
            )
        case .bodyPartFileIsDirectory(let url):
            return "The URL provided is a directory: \(url)"
        case .bodyPartFileSizeNotAvailable(let url):
            return "Could not fetch the file size from the provided URL: \(url)"
        case .bodyPartFileSizeQueryFailedWithError(let url, let error):
            return (
                "The system returned an error while attempting to fetch the file size from the " +
                "provided URL.\nURL: \(url)\nError: \(error)"
            )
        case .bodyPartInputStreamCreationFailed(let url):
            return "Failed to create an InputStream for the provided URL: \(url)"
        case .outputStreamCreationFailed(let url):
            return "Failed to create an OutputStream for URL: \(url)"
        case .outputStreamFileAlreadyExists(let url):
            return "A file already exists at the provided URL: \(url)"
        case .outputStreamURLInvalid(let url):
            return "The provided OutputStream URL is invalid: \(url)"
        case .outputStreamWriteFailed(let error):
            return "OutputStream write failed with error: \(error)"
        case .inputStreamReadFailed(let error):
            return "InputStream read failed with error: \(error)"
        }
    }
}

extension AFError.ResponseSerializationFailureReason {
    var localizedDescription: String {
        switch self {
        case .inputDataNil:
            return "Response could not be serialized, input data was nil."
        case .inputDataNilOrZeroLength:
            return "Response could not be serialized, input data was nil or zero length."
        case .inputFileNil:
            return "Response could not be serialized, input file was nil."
        case .inputFileReadFailed(let url):
            return "Response could not be serialized, input file could not be read: \(url)."
        case .stringSerializationFailed(let encoding):
            return "String could not be serialized with encoding: \(encoding)."
        case .jsonSerializationFailed(let error):
            return "JSON could not be serialized because of error:\n\(error.localizedDescription)"
        case .propertyListSerializationFailed(let error):
            return "PropertyList could not be serialized because of error:\n\(error.localizedDescription)"
        }
    }
}

extension AFError.ResponseValidationFailureReason {
    var localizedDescription: String {
        switch self {
        case .dataFileNil:
            return "Response could not be validated, data file was nil."
        case .dataFileReadFailed(let url):
            return "Response could not be validated, data file could not be read: \(url)."
        case .missingContentType(let types):
            return (
                "Response Content-Type was missing and acceptable content types " +
                "(\(types.joined(separator: ","))) do not match \"*/*\"."
            )
        case .unacceptableContentType(let acceptableTypes, let responseType):
            return (
                "Response Content-Type \"\(responseType)\" does not match any acceptable types: " +
                "\(acceptableTypes.joined(separator: ","))."
            )
        case .unacceptableStatusCode(let code):
            return "Response status code was unacceptable: \(code)."
        }
    }
}

总结

通过阅读AFError这篇代码,给了我很大的震撼,在代码的设计上,可以参考这种设计方式。

容老衲休息一天,再带来下一篇Notifications.swift的源码解读。

由于知识水平有限,如有错误,还望指出

随笔
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