Quartz-作业调度框架

简介  

  Quartz 是个开源的作业调度框架,为在 Java 应用程序中进行作业调度提供了简单却强大的机制。Quartz 允许开发人员根据时间间隔(或天)来调度作业。它实现了作业和触发器的多对多关系,还能把多个作业与不同的触发器关联。整合了 Quartz 的应用程序可以重用来自不同事件的作业,还可以为一个事件组合多个作业。虽然可以通过属性文件(在属性文件中可以指定 JDBC 事务的数据源、全局作业和/或触发器侦听器、插件、线程池,以及更多)配置 Quartz,但它根本没有与应用程序服务器的上下文或引用集成在一起。结果就是作业不能访问 Web 服务器的内部函数;例如,在使用 WebSphere 应用服务器时,由 Quartz 调度的作业并不能影响服务器的动态缓存和数据源。

使用前奏

  1. 新建一个maven项目(可以是web也可以是普通的java项目),添加上相关依赖。

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<properties>

    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>

    <quartz.version>2.2.0</quartz.version>

</properties>

<dependencies>

....

<!--quartz dependency-->

      <dependency>

          <groupId>org.quartz-scheduler</groupId>

          <artifactId>quartz-jobs</artifactId>

          <version>${quartz.version}</version>

      </dependency>

      <dependency>

          <groupId>org.quartz-scheduler</groupId>

          <artifactId>quartz</artifactId>

          <version>${quartz.version}</version>

      </dependency>

</dependencies>

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  2. 在resources下新建一个配置文件quartz.properties,添加如下内容:

org.quartz.scheduler.instanceName = MyScheduler #指定调度器的名称

org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount = 3 #线程池中最多同时有3个线程运行

org.quartz.jobStore.class = org.quartz.simpl.RAMJobStore #指定Quartz的数据(job及trigger信息)存储位置,RamJobStore指内存

启动一个Scheduler

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package com.netease.test.quartz;

import org.quartz.Scheduler;

import org.quartz.SchedulerException;

import org.quartz.impl.StdSchedulerFactory;

/**

* User: hzwangxx

* Date: 14-2-26

* Time: 0:16

*/

public class QuartzTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        try {

            //1.从StdSchedulerFactory工厂中获取一个任务调度器

            Scheduler scheduler = StdSchedulerFactory.getDefaultScheduler();

            //2. 启动调度器

            scheduler.start();

            System.out.println("scheduler is start...");

            //关闭调度器

            scheduler.shutdown();

        } catch (SchedulerException e) {

            e.printStackTrace();  //To change body of catch statement use File | Settings | File Templates.

        }

    }

}

/*

  console output:

2014-02-26 00:22:31,744 0    [main] INFO  - Using default implementation for ThreadExecutor

2014-02-26 00:22:31,766 22  [main] INFO  - Initialized Scheduler Signaller of type: class org.quartz.core.SchedulerSignalerImpl

2014-02-26 00:22:31,767 23  [main] INFO  - Quartz Scheduler v.2.2.0 created.

2014-02-26 00:22:31,768 24  [main] INFO  - RAMJobStore initialized.

2014-02-26 00:22:31,769 25  [main] INFO  - Scheduler meta-data: Quartz Scheduler (v2.2.0) 'MyScheduler' with instanceId 'NON_CLUSTERED'

  Scheduler class: 'org.quartz.core.QuartzScheduler' - running locally.

  NOT STARTED.

  Currently in standby mode.

  Number of jobs executed: 0

  Using thread pool 'org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool' - with 3 threads.

  Using job-store 'org.quartz.simpl.RAMJobStore' - which does not support persistence. and is not clustered.

2014-02-26 00:22:31,769 25  [main] INFO  - Quartz scheduler 'MyScheduler' initialized from default resource file in Quartz package: 'quartz.properties'

2014-02-26 00:22:31,769 25  [main] INFO  - Quartz scheduler version: 2.2.0

2014-02-26 00:22:31,769 25  [main] INFO  - Scheduler MyScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED started.

scheduler is start...

2014-02-26 00:22:31,769 25  [main] INFO  - Scheduler MyScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED shutting down.

2014-02-26 00:22:31,770 26  [main] INFO  - Scheduler MyScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED paused.

2014-02-26 00:22:31,770 26  [main] INFO  - Scheduler MyScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED shutdown complete.

*/

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简单Helloworld

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package com.netease.test.quartz;

import org.quartz.*;

import org.quartz.impl.StdSchedulerFactory;

import java.util.Date;

import static org.quartz.JobBuilder.newJob;

import static org.quartz.SimpleScheduleBuilder.simpleSchedule;

import static org.quartz.TriggerBuilder.newTrigger;

/**

* User: hzwangxx

* Date: 14-2-26

* Time: 0:16

*/

public class QuartzTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        try {

            //1.从StdSchedulerFactory工厂中获取一个任务调度器

            Scheduler scheduler = StdSchedulerFactory.getDefaultScheduler();

            //2. 启动调度器

            scheduler.start();

            System.out.println("scheduler is start...");

            //3. 添加定时任务

            //  3.1 定义job

            JobDetail job = newJob(HelloJob.class)

                    .withIdentity("job1", "group1")

                    .build();

            //  3.2 定义Trigger,使得job现在就运行,并每隔3s中运行一次,重复运行5次, withRepeatCount(number)设定job运行次数为number+1

            Trigger trigger = newTrigger()

                    .withIdentity("trigger1", "group1")

                    .startNow()

                    .withSchedule(simpleSchedule()

                        .withIntervalInSeconds(3)

                        .withRepeatCount(4))

                    .build();

            //  3.3 交给scheduler去调度

            scheduler.scheduleJob(job, trigger);

            //4. 关闭调度器

            //scheduler.shutdown();

        } catch (SchedulerException e) {

            e.printStackTrace();

        }

    }

    /**

    * 自定义Job,实现Job接口并实现execute方法

    */

    public static class HelloJob implements Job{

        public void execute(JobExecutionContext context) throws JobExecutionException {

            System.out.println("execute job at " + new Date() + " by trigger " + context.getTrigger().getJobKey());

        }

    }

}

/*

  console output:

2014-02-26 01:05:25,766 0    [main] INFO  - Using default implementation for ThreadExecutor

2014-02-26 01:05:25,794 28  [main] INFO  - Initialized Scheduler Signaller of type: class org.quartz.core.SchedulerSignalerImpl

2014-02-26 01:05:25,795 29  [main] INFO  - Quartz Scheduler v.2.2.0 created.

2014-02-26 01:05:25,797 31  [main] INFO  - RAMJobStore initialized.

2014-02-26 01:05:25,798 32  [main] INFO  - Scheduler meta-data: Quartz Scheduler (v2.2.0) 'MyScheduler' with instanceId 'NON_CLUSTERED'

  Scheduler class: 'org.quartz.core.QuartzScheduler' - running locally.

  NOT STARTED.

  Currently in standby mode.

  Number of jobs executed: 0

  Using thread pool 'org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool' - with 3 threads.

  Using job-store 'org.quartz.simpl.RAMJobStore' - which does not support persistence. and is not clustered.

2014-02-26 01:05:25,798 32  [main] INFO  - Quartz scheduler 'MyScheduler' initialized from default resource file in Quartz package: 'quartz.properties'

2014-02-26 01:05:25,799 33  [main] INFO  - Quartz scheduler version: 2.2.0

2014-02-26 01:05:25,799 33  [main] INFO  - Scheduler MyScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED started.

scheduler is start...

execute job at Wed Feb 26 01:05:25 CST 2014 by trigger group1.job1

execute job at Wed Feb 26 01:05:28 CST 2014 by trigger group1.job1

execute job at Wed Feb 26 01:05:31 CST 2014 by trigger group1.job1

execute job at Wed Feb 26 01:05:34 CST 2014 by trigger group1.job1

execute job at Wed Feb 26 01:05:37 CST 2014 by trigger group1.job1

*/

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API说明

Quartz框架核心的几个类如下:

Scheduler - 与scheduler进行交互的主要API,整个生命周期是由SchedulerFactory创建到调用shutdown()方法

Job - 希望scheduler进行调度的自定义任务接口,主要实现该接口的execute方法。

JobDetail - 定义Job的相关信息

Trigger - 定义调度器调度任务的触发器,主要描述任务的执行时间,周期等信息

JobBuilder - 用来定义和创建JobDetail实例

TriggerBuilder - 用来定义和创建Trigger实例

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