java attach机制源码阅读

概述

在日常工作中经常会用到jstack,jmap等命令,那么这些命令是怎么与运行中的jvm进程通讯的呢?下文以linux中的jstack命令为例,看看其是如何实现的

Jstack

jstack命令的实现类为sun.tools.jstack.JStack,

public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        if (args.length == 0) {
            usage(1); // no arguments
        }

        boolean useSA = false;
        boolean mixed = false;
        boolean locks = false;

        int optionCount = 0;
        while (optionCount < args.length) {
            String arg = args[optionCount];
            if (!arg.startsWith("-")) {
                break;
            }
            if (arg.equals("-help") || arg.equals("-h")) {
                usage(0);
            }
            else if (arg.equals("-F")) {
                useSA = true;
            }
            else {
                if (arg.equals("-m")) {
                    mixed = true;
                } else {
                    if (arg.equals("-l")) {
                       locks = true;
                    } else {
                        usage(1);
                    }
                }
            }
            optionCount++;
        }

        if (mixed) {
            useSA = true;
        }

        int paramCount = args.length - optionCount;
        if (paramCount == 0 || paramCount > 2) {
            usage(1);
        }
        if (paramCount == 2) {
            useSA = true;
        } else {
            if (!args[optionCount].matches("[0-9]+")) {
                useSA = true;
            }
        }
        if (useSA) {
            // parameters (<pid> or <exe> <core>
            String params[] = new String[paramCount];
            for (int i=optionCount; i<args.length; i++ ){
                params[i-optionCount] = args[i];
            }
            runJStackTool(mixed, locks, params);
        } else {
            // pass -l to thread dump operation to get extra lock info
            String pid = args[optionCount];
            String params[];
            if (locks) {
                params = new String[] { "-l" };
            } else {
                params = new String[0];
            }
            runThreadDump(pid, params);
        }
    }

可以看到根据传入参数的不同,有两种实现机制,一种是基于SA,一种是通过attach;

attach

jstack命令首先会attach到目标jvm进程,产生VirtualMachine类;linux系统下,其实现类为LinuxVirtualMachine,调用其remoteDataDump方法,打印堆栈信息;那么VirtualMachine是如何连接到目标JVM进程的呢?
具体的实现逻辑在sun.tools.attach.LinuxVirtualMachine的构造函数;

        path = findSocketFile(pid);
        if (path == null) {
            File f = createAttachFile(pid);
            try {
                if (isLinuxThreads) {
                    int mpid;
                    try {
                        mpid = getLinuxThreadsManager(pid);
                    } catch (IOException x) {
                        throw new AttachNotSupportedException(x.getMessage());
                    }
                    assert(mpid >= 1);
                    sendQuitToChildrenOf(mpid);
                } else {
                    sendQuitTo(pid);
                }

                // give the target VM time to start the attach mechanism
                int i = 0;
                long delay = 200;
                int retries = (int)(attachTimeout() / delay);
                do {
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(delay);
                    } catch (InterruptedException x) { }
                    path = findSocketFile(pid);
                    i++;
                } while (i <= retries && path == null);
                if (path == null) {
                    throw new AttachNotSupportedException(
                        "Unable to open socket file: target process not responding " +
                        "or HotSpot VM not loaded");
                }
            } finally {
                f.delete();
            }
        }

        // Check that the file owner/permission to avoid attaching to
        // bogus process
        checkPermissions(path);

        // Check that we can connect to the process
        // - this ensures we throw the permission denied error now rather than
        // later when we attempt to enqueue a command.
        int s = socket();
        try {
            connect(s, path);
        } finally {
            close(s);
        }
  • 查找/tmp目录下是否存在".java_pid"+pid文件;
  • 如果文件不存在,则首先创建"/proc/" + pid + "/cwd/" + ".attach_pid" + pid文件,然后通过kill命令发送SIGQUIT信号给目标JVM进程;
  • 目标JVM进程接收到信号之后,会在/tmp目录下创建".java_pid"+pid文件
  • 当发现/tmp目录下存在".java_pid"+pid文件,LinuxVirtualMachine会通过connect系统调用连接到该文件描述符,后续通过该fd进行双方的通讯;

JVM接受SIGQUIT信号的相关逻辑在os.cpp文件的os::signal_init方法:

#ifndef SIGBREAK
#define SIGBREAK SIGQUIT
#endif
static void signal_thread_entry(JavaThread* thread, TRAPS) {
  os::set_priority(thread, NearMaxPriority);
  while (true) {
    int sig;
    {
      // FIXME : Currently we have not decieded what should be the status
      //         for this java thread blocked here. Once we decide about
      //         that we should fix this.
      sig = os::signal_wait();
    }
    if (sig == os::sigexitnum_pd()) {
       // Terminate the signal thread
       return;
    }

    switch (sig) {
      case SIGBREAK: {
        // Check if the signal is a trigger to start the Attach Listener - in that
        // case don't print stack traces.
        if (!DisableAttachMechanism && AttachListener::is_init_trigger()) {
          continue;
        }
        // Print stack traces
        // Any SIGBREAK operations added here should make sure to flush
        // the output stream (e.g. tty->flush()) after output.  See 4803766.
        // Each module also prints an extra carriage return after its output.
        VM_PrintThreads op;
        VMThread::execute(&op);
        VM_PrintJNI jni_op;
        VMThread::execute(&jni_op);
        VM_FindDeadlocks op1(tty);
        VMThread::execute(&op1);
        Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK();
        if (PrintClassHistogram) {
          VM_GC_HeapInspection op1(gclog_or_tty, true /* force full GC before heap inspection */);
          VMThread::execute(&op1);
        }
        if (JvmtiExport::should_post_data_dump()) {
          JvmtiExport::post_data_dump();
        }
        break;
      }
      default: {
        // Dispatch the signal to java
        HandleMark hm(THREAD);
        Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_null(vmSymbols::sun_misc_Signal(), THREAD);
        KlassHandle klass (THREAD, k);
        if (klass.not_null()) {
          JavaValue result(T_VOID);
          JavaCallArguments args;
          args.push_int(sig);
          JavaCalls::call_static(
            &result,
            klass,
            vmSymbols::dispatch_name(),
            vmSymbols::int_void_signature(),
            &args,
            THREAD
          );
        }
        if (HAS_PENDING_EXCEPTION) {
          // tty is initialized early so we don't expect it to be null, but
          // if it is we can't risk doing an initialization that might
          // trigger additional out-of-memory conditions
          if (tty != NULL) {
            char klass_name[256];
            char tmp_sig_name[16];
            const char* sig_name = "UNKNOWN";
            InstanceKlass::cast(PENDING_EXCEPTION->klass())->
              name()->as_klass_external_name(klass_name, 256);
            if (os::exception_name(sig, tmp_sig_name, 16) != NULL)
              sig_name = tmp_sig_name;
            warning("Exception %s occurred dispatching signal %s to handler"
                    "- the VM may need to be forcibly terminated",
                    klass_name, sig_name );
          }
          CLEAR_PENDING_EXCEPTION;
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

AttachListener::is_init_trigger()的源码如下:

bool AttachListener::is_init_trigger() {
  if (init_at_startup() || is_initialized()) {
    return false;               // initialized at startup or already initialized
  }
  char fn[PATH_MAX+1];
  sprintf(fn, ".attach_pid%d", os::current_process_id());
  int ret;
  struct stat64 st;
  RESTARTABLE(::stat64(fn, &st), ret);
  if (ret == -1) {
    snprintf(fn, sizeof(fn), "%s/.attach_pid%d",
             os::get_temp_directory(), os::current_process_id());
    RESTARTABLE(::stat64(fn, &st), ret);
  }
  if (ret == 0) {
    // simple check to avoid starting the attach mechanism when
    // a bogus user creates the file
    if (st.st_uid == geteuid()) {
      init();
      return true;
    }
  }
  return false;
}
void AttachListener::init() {
  const char thread_name[] = "Attach Listener";
  Handle string = java_lang_String::create_from_str(thread_name, CHECK);

  // Initialize thread_oop to put it into the system threadGroup
  Handle thread_group (THREAD, Universe::system_thread_group());
  JavaValue result(T_VOID);
  JavaCalls::call_special(&result, thread_oop,
                       klass,
                       vmSymbols::object_initializer_name(),
                       vmSymbols::threadgroup_string_void_signature(),
                       thread_group,
                       string,
                       THREAD);

  KlassHandle group(THREAD, SystemDictionary::ThreadGroup_klass());
  JavaCalls::call_special(&result,
                        thread_group,
                        group,
                        vmSymbols::add_method_name(),
                        vmSymbols::thread_void_signature(),
                        thread_oop,             // ARG 1
                        THREAD);

  { MutexLocker mu(Threads_lock);
    JavaThread* listener_thread = new JavaThread(&attach_listener_thread_entry);//具体的逻辑实现

    // Check that thread and osthread were created
    if (listener_thread == NULL || listener_thread->osthread() == NULL) {
      vm_exit_during_initialization("java.lang.OutOfMemoryError",
                                    "unable to create new native thread");
    }

    java_lang_Thread::set_thread(thread_oop(), listener_thread);
    java_lang_Thread::set_daemon(thread_oop());

    listener_thread->set_threadObj(thread_oop());
    Threads::add(listener_thread);
    Thread::start(listener_thread);
  }
}
static void attach_listener_thread_entry(JavaThread* thread, TRAPS) {
  os::set_priority(thread, NearMaxPriority);

  thread->record_stack_base_and_size();

  if (AttachListener::pd_init() != 0) {
    return;
  }
  AttachListener::set_initialized();

//从AttachListener读取AttachOperation,并分发处理
  for (;;) {
    AttachOperation* op = AttachListener::dequeue();
    if (op == NULL) {
      return;   // dequeue failed or shutdown
    }

    ResourceMark rm;
    bufferedStream st;
    jint res = JNI_OK;

    // handle special detachall operation
    if (strcmp(op->name(), AttachOperation::detachall_operation_name()) == 0) {
      AttachListener::detachall();
    } else {
      // find the function to dispatch too
      AttachOperationFunctionInfo* info = NULL;
      for (int i=0; funcs[i].name != NULL; i++) {
        const char* name = funcs[i].name;
        assert(strlen(name) <= AttachOperation::name_length_max, "operation <= name_length_max");
        if (strcmp(op->name(), name) == 0) {
          info = &(funcs[i]);
          break;
        }
      }

      // check for platform dependent attach operation
      if (info == NULL) {
        info = AttachListener::pd_find_operation(op->name());
      }

      if (info != NULL) {
        // dispatch to the function that implements this operation
        res = (info->func)(op, &st);
      } else {
        st.print("Operation %s not recognized!", op->name());
        res = JNI_ERR;
      }
    }

    // operation complete - send result and output to client
    op->complete(res, &st);
  }
}

前面说到jstack是通过调用remoteDataDump方法实现的,该方法就是通过往前面提到的fd中写入threaddump指令,读取返回结果,从而得到目标JVM的堆栈信息

 public InputStream remoteDataDump(Object ... args) throws IOException {
        return executeCommand("threaddump", args);
    }