25.Python-tkinter-聊天窗口GUI

  • 环境python3.x 3.x之后tkinter自带,jupyter notebook/pycharm

常见的聊天窗口

image.png
  • 聊天窗口布局
左上:聊天历史信息显示
左中:当前信息编辑区域
左下:按钮区域
右侧:显示展示区域
  • Frame控件

容器区域布局

frmLT,frmLC,frmLB,frmRT

#创建frmLT容器
frmLT = Frame(width = 500, height = 320, bg = 'white')
frmLC = Frame(width = 500, height = 150, bg = 'white')
frmLB = Frame(width = 500, height = 30)
frmRT = Frame(width = 200, height = 500)
  • 控件对象命名规则

“控件类型” + “功能”

frmLT:   frame + LeftTop
txtMsg:  text控件 + 消息
btnSend: button控件 + 发送
image.png
  • 消息处理:
txtMsg = Text(frmLC)
txtMsg.bind("<KeyPress-Up>", sendMsgEvent)
btnSend = Button(frmLB, text = '发送', width = 8, command = sendMsg)
btnCancel =Button(frmLB, text = '取消', width = 8, command = cancelMsg)
  • 图片处理:
imgInfo = PhotoImage(file = "timg-2.gif")
lblImage = Label(frmRT, image = imgInfo)
lblImage.image = imgInfo
  • sendNsg()

回调函数,通过函数指针调用的函数

def sendMsg():#发送消息
    strMsg = "我:" + time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S",time.localtime())+ '\n'
    txtMsgList.insert(END, strMsg, 'greencolor')
    txtMsgList.insert(END, txtMsg.get('0.0', END))
    txtMsg.delete('0.0', END)
  • cancelMsg()
def cancelMsg():#取消信息
        txtMsg.delete('0.0', END)
  • sendMsgEvent(event)
def sendMsgEvent(event):#发送消息事件
    if event.keysym =='Up':
        sendMsg()
  • grid()界面布局控制
frmLT.grid(row = 0, column = 0, columnspan = 2, padx = 1, pady = 3)
frmLC.grid(row = 1, column = 0, columnspan = 2, padx = 1, pady = 3)
frmLB.grid(row = 2, column = 0, columnspan = 2)
frmRT.grid(row = 0, column = 2, rowspan = 3, padx =2, pady = 3)

#固定大小
frmLT.grid_propagate(0)
frmLC.grid_propagate(0)
frmLB.grid_propagate(0)
frmRT.grid_propagate(0)

btnSend.grid(row = 2, column = 0)
btnCancel.grid(row = 2, column = 1)
lblImage.grid()
txtMsgList.grid()
txtMsg.grid()
  • 主事件循环
app.mainloop()
  • 代码整体:
from tkinter import *
import time

def main():

    def sendMsg():#发送消息
        strMsg = "我:" + time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S",time.localtime())+ '\n'
        txtMsgList.insert(END, strMsg, 'greencolor')
        txtMsgList.insert(END, txtMsg.get('0.0', END))
        txtMsg.delete('0.0', END)

    def cancelMsg():#取消信息
        txtMsg.delete('0.0', END)

    def sendMsgEvent(event):#发送消息事件
        if event.keysym =='Up':
            sendMsg()
    #创建窗口
    app = Tk()
    app.title('与python聊天')

    #创建frame容器
    frmLT = Frame(width = 500, height = 320, bg = 'white')
    frmLC = Frame(width = 500, height = 150, bg = 'white')
    frmLB = Frame(width = 500, height = 30)
    frmRT = Frame(width = 200, height = 500)

    #创建控件
    txtMsgList = Text(frmLT)
    txtMsgList.tag_config('greencolor',foreground = '#008C00')#创建tag
    txtMsg = Text(frmLC)
    txtMsg.bind("<KeyPress-Up>", sendMsgEvent)
    btnSend = Button(frmLB, text = '发送', width = 8, command = sendMsg)
    btnCancel =Button(frmLB, text = '取消', width = 8, command = cancelMsg)
    imgInfo = PhotoImage(file = "timg-2.gif")
    lblImage = Label(frmRT, image = imgInfo)
    lblImage.image = imgInfo

    #窗口布局
    frmLT.grid(row = 0, column = 0, columnspan = 2, padx = 1, pady = 3)
    frmLC.grid(row = 1, column = 0, columnspan = 2, padx = 1, pady = 3)
    frmLB.grid(row = 2, column = 0, columnspan = 2)
    frmRT.grid(row = 0, column = 2, rowspan = 3, padx =2, pady = 3)

    #固定大小
    frmLT.grid_propagate(0)
    frmLC.grid_propagate(0)
    frmLB.grid_propagate(0)
    frmRT.grid_propagate(0)

    btnSend.grid(row = 2, column = 0)
    btnCancel.grid(row = 2, column = 1)
    lblImage.grid()
    txtMsgList.grid()
    txtMsg.grid()

    #主事件循环
    app.mainloop()

if  __name__ == "__main__":
    main()