MySQL数据同步方案实战

准备

  • MySQL 5.6
  • Canal 1.0.24
  • Kafka 1.0.0
  • Zookeeper 3.4.11
  • Spring Boot
  • JDK 8
  • IntelliJ Idea 14.1.7

背景

在实际工作中,多个系统使用相同的用户等业务数据是常有的事情。随着需求的迭代式开发,系统的增加。系统的业务数据变更通知逐渐成为痛点,将数据变更逐一通知到其他系统在系统少的时候勉强可以接受,但是系统变多,需要通知的业务数据增多再使用此类的方式无疑是得不偿失的,且极不易维护,耦合性太强,牵一发而动全身。此时,引入中间件无疑是一种明智的选择。将系统从繁杂的通知中解脱出来,把通知这件事交给中间件来做。而这是基于业务操作最终会落实到数据库中,这也是本文方案可行的前提。

架构图

image

实现

Canal Server搭建

MySQL配置

  • 进入C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6目录
  • 编辑my.ini文件(按需修改),打开mysql bin log功能,如下
[mysqld]
# Remove leading # and set to the amount of RAM for the most important data
# cache in MySQL. Start at 70% of total RAM for dedicated server, else 10%.
# innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M

# Remove leading # to turn on a very important data integrity option: logging
# changes to the binary log between backups.
# log_bin

# These are commonly set, remove the # and set as required.
basedir = C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6
datadir = C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data
# port = .....
# server_id = .....

log-bin=mysql-bin  #添加这一行即可
#选择row模式
binlog-format=ROW
#配置mysql replaction需要定义,不能和canal的slaveId重复
server_id=1 
# Remove leading # to set options mainly useful for reporting servers.
# The server defaults are faster for transactions and fast SELECTs.
# Adjust sizes as needed, experiment to find the optimal values.
# join_buffer_size = 128M
# sort_buffer_size = 2M
# read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M 

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES 

  • canal的原理是模拟自己为mysql slave,所以这里一定需要拥有做为mysql slave的相关权限(canal server配置需要用到此用户)
CREATE USER canal IDENTIFIED BY 'canal';  
GRANT SELECT, REPLICATION SLAVE, REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'canal'@'%';
-- GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'canal'@'%' ;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
  • 重启mysql server
  • 查看bin log状态
show binlog events;
image
#canal.properties
##配置zookeeper地址
canal.zkServers=127.0.0.1:2181
#################################################
#instance.properties
## mysql serverId
canal.instance.mysql.slaveId = 1234

# position info,需要改成自己的数据库信息
canal.instance.master.address = 127.0.0.1:3306
canal.instance.master.journal.name = 
canal.instance.master.position = 
canal.instance.master.timestamp = 

#canal.instance.standby.address = 
#canal.instance.standby.journal.name =
#canal.instance.standby.position = 
#canal.instance.standby.timestamp = 

# username/password,需要改成自己的数据库信息
canal.instance.dbUsername = canal
canal.instance.dbPassword = canal
canal.instance.defaultDatabaseName =
canal.instance.connectionCharset = UTF-8

# table regex
canal.instance.filter.regex = .*\\..*
# table black regex
canal.instance.filter.black.regex =  

#################################################
  • 启动canal server

    • 进入D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\canal.deployer-1.0.24\bin目录
    • 运行startup.bat
  • 查看canal server日志

    • D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\canal.deployer-1.0.24\logs\canal\canal.log
    • D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\canal.deployer-1.0.24\logs\example\example.log
canal.log

2017-11-24 17:55:32.550 [main] INFO  com.alibaba.otter.canal.deployer.CanalLauncher - ## start the canal server.
2017-11-24 17:55:32.770 [main] INFO  com.alibaba.otter.canal.deployer.CanalController - ## start the canal server[192.168.191.1:11111]
2017-11-24 17:55:34.503 [main] INFO  com.alibaba.otter.canal.deployer.CanalLauncher - ## the canal server is running now ......
example.log

2017-11-24 17:55:33.202 [main] INFO  c.a.o.c.i.spring.support.PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer - Loading properties file from class path resource [canal.properties]
2017-11-24 17:55:33.209 [main] INFO  c.a.o.c.i.spring.support.PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer - Loading properties file from class path resource [example/instance.properties]
2017-11-24 17:55:33.343 [main] WARN  org.springframework.beans.TypeConverterDelegate - PropertyEditor [com.sun.beans.editors.EnumEditor] found through deprecated global PropertyEditorManager fallback - consider using a more isolated form of registration, e.g. on the BeanWrapper/BeanFactory!
2017-11-24 17:55:33.471 [main] INFO  c.a.otter.canal.instance.spring.CanalInstanceWithSpring - start CannalInstance for 1-example 
2017-11-24 17:55:33.647 [main] INFO  c.a.otter.canal.instance.core.AbstractCanalInstance - start successful....
2017-11-24 17:55:33.896 [destination = example , address = /127.0.0.1:3306 , EventParser] WARN  c.a.otter.canal.parse.inbound.mysql.MysqlEventParser - prepare to find start position just show master status

Zookeeper Server搭建

  • 获取并配置zookeeperhttp://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/zookeeper/
  • 复制D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\zookeeper\zookeeper-3.4.11\conf\zoo_sample.cfg并重命名为zoo.cfg,zookeeper读取的是zoo.cfg这个配置文件
  • 启动zookeeper,进入D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\zookeeper\zookeeper-3.4.11\bin,执行
zkServer.cmd

Kafka Server搭建

#server.properteis#
#配置zookeeper连接地址
zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181
  • 启动Kafka服务,进入D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\kafka\kafka_2.12-1.0.0\bin\windows,执行
kafka-server-start.bat D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\kafka\kafka_2.12-1.0.0\bin\conf\server.properties
  • 创建topic,进入D:\MySQL_Sync_Component\kafka\kafka_2.12-1.0.0\bin\windows,执行
kafka-topics.bat --create --zookeeper localhost:2181 --replication-factor 1 --partitions 1 --topic testbinlog
  • 启动一个kafka生产者,用于测试kafka是否启动成功。执行
kafka-console-producer.bat --broker-list localhost:9092 --topic testbinlog
  • 启动一个kafka消费者,接收生产者发送的消息。测试通过,consumer可以收到producer发送的消息。执行
kafka-console-consumer.bat --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --topic testbinlog --from-beginning

创建Spring Boot应用

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.kafka</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-kafka</artifactId>
</dependency>

总结

如上,已经介绍了整个解决方案所需组件的配置及启动方法。文中的解决方案用于业务数据通知或者缓存刷新等场景。本文除了提供一种业务场景的解决方案以外,更多的是希望读者可以从中领会到各组件的设计思想及其优劣势。除了可以熟练配置及使用各组件,这些组件的编码思想及设计模式更是我辈学习的典范。对于各组件的使用,最好先去阅读官方文档,然后参考相关博客,再编码实践,最后阅读下源码,达到融会贯通的境界。
PS:
示例代码github地址:
https://github.com/hxysea/mynote/tree/master/%E9%A1%B9%E7%9B%AE%E7%BB%8F%E9%AA%8C/Mysql%E6%95%B0%E6%8D%AE%E5%90%8C%E6%AD%A5%E8%A7%A3%E5%86%B3%E6%96%B9%E6%A1%88

参考文档

https://github.com/alibaba/canal/wiki

http://kafka.apache.org/

https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/1.5.8.RELEASE/reference/htmlsingle/

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