The Power of Purposeful Practice(Part 1)

词句表达

1.string

文章里用到两个意思

■a usually short piece of text consisting of letters, numbers or symbols which is used in computer processes such as searching through large amounts of information字串

eg: seven-digit strings

■a set of objects joined together in a row on a single rope or thread一串

eg: strings of numbers一串数字a string of beads/pearls一串珠子/珍珠

这个词的其他表达

have another /more than one string to your bow

■to have another interest or skill which you can use if your main one cannot be used还有一手;第二个对策;第二种办法

2.Or if you’re multiplying a couple of two-digit numbers in your head, your short-term memory is where youkeep track ofall the intermediate pieces.

keep track [phrase]

■to have all the information that you need about something

eg: We need a system to keep track of all our expenses.

track

■amark or line of marks left on the ground or on another surface by an animal, person or vehicle which has moved over it, showing the direction they moved in踪迹;足迹;车辙

短语

be on the track of sb/sth

■to be examining marks or pieces of information which show where a person or animal has gone, in order to catch them追踪

造句:The dog kept track of smell while eventually it disappeared with the criminal beside a river.

3.The idea for the study had come from anobscurepaper I had discovered while searching through old scientific studies, a paper published in a 1929 issue of the American Journal of Psychology by Pauline Martin and Samuel Fernberger, two psychologists at the University of Pennsylvania.

■not clear and difficult to understand or see费解的,晦涩的;模糊的,朦胧的;不清楚的

造句:This official statement is obscure and confusing, so the police may want to cover up something.

另一个意思

■not known to many people无名的;鲜为人知的;默默无闻的

其他

intrugued被吸引住的;被迷住的If you are intrigued by something, especially something strange, it interests you and you want to know more about it.

dissertation专题论文;学位论文

dead-on完全正确的  原文:His performance was dead-on average.

on a roll运气好;超常发挥;做得很顺  原文:But he began that fifth session on a roll.

somersault筋斗

competent■able to do something well有能力的;能干的;称职的

摘录+感悟

1.But while the abilities are extraordinary, there is no mystery at all about how these people developed them. They practiced. A lot.

这里举了许多有非凡才能的人士的例子,但是明确告诉我们他们并不是有特殊的天分(或者可能有,但并非仅靠天分),而是依靠大量练习才能练好技能。

2.I have found that no matter what field you study, music or sports or chess or something else, the most effective types of practice all follow the same set of general principles. There is no obvious reason why this should be the case. Why should the teaching techniques used to turn aspiring musicians into concert pianists have anything to do with the training that a dancer must go through to become a prima ballerina or the study that a chess player must undertake to become a grandmaster? The answer is that the most effective and most powerful types of practice in any field work by harnessing the adaptability of the human body and brain to create, step by step, the ability to do things that were previously not possible.

二十世纪以来,在许多技能领域又有了比之前更大的突破,并不是这个年代出生的人整体比之前的人有什么特殊之处,而是许多领域有了卓有成效的练习方法,并且这些人运用了这种练习方法。作者通过研究告诉我们在技能学习这方面是有着普适性原则的——逐渐训练自己的身体和大脑的适应性以做到之前无法做到的事情。

3.But there is one very important thing to understand here: once you have reached this satisfactory skill level and automated your performance—your driving, your tennis playing, your baking of pies—you have stopped improving.

作者举了一个学习打网球的例子来说明我们一般的学习步骤,学一个动作——练习——觉得学的不错——学一个新动作——练习——觉得学的不错——学另一个新动作......如此循环往复,并且在这一过程中当掌握了最小必要技能之后就上场练习,同时自己的动作达到automatic,然后继续打比赛,大多数人都只能达到一个“还过得去”的中等水平——可以上场玩但是总有瓶颈,永远称不上高手。他的表述令我心惊you have stopped improving,停滞不前。其实对大多数人而言,在非专业技能领域这种水平足矣,之后再写这一点。

4.But no. Research has shown that, generally speaking, once a person reaches that level of“acceptable”performance and automaticity, the additional years of“practice”don’t lead to improvement.

一个事实是开车二十年的司机水平有可能不如开车五年的司机。人们的某些技能,如果不经刻意练习,并不会如我们所愿随着时间和使用频次的增加自然而然提高。

下面就要开始谈研究得出的方法了,明天继续~

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