此程序包是自动生成的. 有关拉取请求,请参阅 src/entries/web-server-renderer.js.

此软件包提供Vue 2.0的Node.js服务器端呈现。

<a name="installation" />
<span id="installation">跳转到这里</span>
<a name="installation">安装</a>


npm install vue-server-renderer



创建一个 renderer 实例.

const renderer = require('vue-server-renderer').createRenderer()

renderer.renderToString(vm, cb)

将Vue实例呈现为字符串。 回调是一个标准的Node.js回调,它接收错误作为第一个参数:

const Vue = require('vue')

const renderer = require('vue-server-renderer').createRenderer()

const vm = new Vue({
  render (h) {
    return h('div', 'hello')

renderer.renderToString(vm, (err, html) => {
  console.log(html) // -> <div server-rendered="true">hello</div>


以流模式呈现Vue实例。 返回一个Node.js可读流。

// express 示例用法
app.get('/', (req, res) => {
  const vm = new App({ url: req.url })
  const stream = renderer.renderToStream(vm)

  res.write(`<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><title>...</title></head><body>`)

  stream.on('data', chunk => {

  stream.on('end', () => {

createBundleRenderer(bundle, [rendererOptions])

使用预编译的应用程序包创建 bundleRenderer . bundle 参数可以是以下之一:

  • 生成的bundle文件( .js.json )的绝对路径。 文件路径必须以/开头

  • vue-ssr-webpack-plugin生成的bundle对象.

  • 一个JavaScript代码字符串.

有关详细信息,请参阅 创建服务器包

对于每个render调用,代码将使用Node.js的 vm模块在一个新的上下文中重新运行。 这确保您的应用程序状态在请求之间是离散的,并且您不需要担心为了SSR而以限制模式构造应用程序。

const createBundleRenderer = require('vue-server-renderer').createBundleRenderer

// 绝对文件路径
let renderer = createBundleRenderer('/path/to/bundle.json')

// bundle对象
let renderer = createBundleRenderer({ ... })

// 代码(不推荐缺少源映射支持)
let renderer = createBundleRenderer(bundledCode)

bundleRenderer.renderToString([context], cb)

将捆绑的应用程序复制到字符串。 与renderer.renderToString相同的回调。 可选的上下文对象将被传递到bundle的导出函数。

bundleRenderer.renderToString({ url: '/' }, (err, html) => {
  // ...


将捆绑的应用程序呈现到流。 与renderer.renderToStream相同的流。 可选的上下文对象将被传递到bundle的导出函数。

  .renderToStream({ url: '/' })



提供组件缓存实现。 缓存对象必须实现以下接口(使用流标记):

type RenderCache = {
  get: (key: string, cb?: Function) => string | void;
  set: (key: string, val: string) => void;
  has?: (key: string, cb?: Function) => boolean | void;

一个典型的用法是传递一个 lru-cache:

const LRU = require('lru-cache')

const renderer = createRenderer({
  cache: LRU({
    max: 10000

注意,缓存对象应该至少实现getset 。 此外, gethas接受第二个参数作为回调,可以选择异步。 这允许缓存使用异步API,例如redis客户端:

const renderer = createRenderer({
  cache: {
    get: (key, cb) => {
      redisClient.get(key, (err, res) => {
        // handle error if any
    set: (key, val) => {
      redisClient.set(key, val)


New in 2.2.0

Provide a template for the entire page's HTML. The template should contain a comment `` which serves as the placeholder for rendered app content.
为整个网页的HTML提供模板。 模板应包含注释 ,作为呈现的应用内容的占位符。

In addition, when both a template and a render context is provided (e.g. when using the bundleRenderer), the renderer will also automatically inject the following properties found on the render context:
此外,当提供模板和渲染上下文时(例如,当使用bundleRenderer ),渲染器也将自动注入渲染上下文中找到的以下属性:

  • context.head: (string) any head markup that should be injected into the head of the page. 应该注入页面头部的任何头标记

  • context.styles: (string) any inline CSS that should be injected into the head of the page. Note that vue-loader 10.2.0+ (which uses vue-style-loader 2.0) will automatically populate this property with styles used in rendered components.应该注入页面头部的任何内联CSS。 请注意, vue-loader 10.2.0+(使用vue-style-loader 2.0)将使用渲染组件中使用的样式自动填充此属性

  • context.state: (Object) initial Vuex store state that should be inlined in the page as window.__INITIAL_STATE__. The inlined JSON is automatically sanitized with serialize-javascript.初始Vuex存储状态,应在页面中内联为window.INITIAL_STATE, 内联JSON将使用serialize-javascript自动进行清理


const renderer = createRenderer({
    '<!DOCTYPE html>' +
    '<html lang="en">' +
      '<head>' +
        '<meta charset="utf-8">' +
        // context.head will be injected here
        // context.styles will be injected here
      '</head>' +
      '<body>' +
        '<!--vue-ssr-outlet-->' + // <- app content rendered here
        // context.state will be injected here
      '</body>' +


New in 2.2.0

Explicitly declare the base directory for the server bundle to resolve node_modules from. This is only needed if your generated bundle file is placed in a different location from where the externalized NPM dependencies are installed.

Note that the basedir is automatically inferred if you use vue-ssr-webpack-plugin or provide an absolute path to createBundleRenderer as the first argument, so in most cases you don't need to provide this option. However, this option does allow you to explicitly overwrite the inferred value.


Allows you to provide server-side implementations for your custom directives:

const renderer = createRenderer({
  directives: {
    example (vnode, directiveMeta) {
      // transform vnode based on directive binding metadata

As an example, check out v-show's server-side implementation.

Why Use bundleRenderer?

When we bundle our front-end code with a module bundler such as webpack, it can introduce some complexity when we want to reuse the same code on the server. For example, if we use vue-loader, TypeScript or JSX, the code cannot run natively in Node. Our code may also rely on some webpack-specific features such as file handling with file-loader or style injection with style-loader, both of which can be problematic when running inside a native Node module environment.

The most straightforward solution to this is to leverage webpack's target: 'node' feature and simply use webpack to bundle our code on both the client AND the server.

Having a compiled server bundle also provides another advantage in terms of code organization. In a typical Node.js app, the server is a long-running process. If we run our application modules directly, the instantiated modules will be shared across every request. This imposes some inconvenient restrictions to the application structure: we will have to avoid any use of global stateful singletons (e.g. the store), otherwise state mutations caused by one request will affect the result of the next.

Instead, it's more straightforward to run our app "fresh", in a sandboxed context for each request, so that we don't have to think about avoiding state contamination across requests.

Creating the Server Bundle

screen shot 2016-08-11 at 6 06 57 pm
screen shot 2016-08-11 at 6 06 57 pm

The application bundle can be either a string of bundled code (not recommended due to lack of source map support), or a special object of the following type:

type RenderBundle = {
  entry: string; // name of the entry file
  files: { [filename: string]: string; }; // all files in the bundle
  maps: { [filename: string]: string; }; // source maps

Although theoretically you can use any build tool to generate the bundle, it is recommended to use webpack + vue-loader + vue-ssr-webpack-plugin for this purpose. The plugin will automatically turn the build output into a single JSON file that you can then pass to createBundleRenderer. This setup works seamlessly even if you use webpack's on-demand code splitting features such as dynamic import().

The typical workflow is setting up a base webpack configuration file for the client-side, then modify it to generate the server-side bundle with the following changes:

  1. Set target: 'node' and output: { libraryTarget: 'commonjs2' } in your webpack config.

  2. Add vue-ssr-webpack-plugin to your webpack plugins. This plugin automatically generates the bundle as a single JSON file which contains all the files and source maps of the entire bundle. This is particularly important if you use Webpack's code-splitting features that result in a multi-file bundle.

  3. In your server-side entry point, export a function. The function will receive the render context object (passed to bundleRenderer.renderToString or bundleRenderer.renderToStream), and should return a Promise, which should eventually resolve to the app's root Vue instance:

// server-entry.js
import Vue from 'vue'
import App from './App.vue'

const app = new Vue(App)

// the default export should be a function
// which will receive the context of the render call
export default context => {
  // data pre-fetching
  return app.fetchServerData(context.url).then(() => {
    return app
  1. It's also a good idea to externalize your dependencies (see below).


When using the bundleRenderer, we will by default bundle every dependency of our app into the server bundle as well. This means on each request these depdencies will need to be parsed and evaluated again, which is unnecessary in most cases.

We can optimize this by externalizing dependencies from your bundle. During the render, any raw require() calls found in the bundle will return the actual Node module from your rendering process. With Webpack, we can simply list the modules we want to externalize using the externals config option:

// webpack.config.js
module.exports = {
  // this will externalize all modules listed under "dependencies"
  // in your package.json
  externals: Object.keys(require('./package.json').dependencies)

Externals Caveats

Since externalized modules will be shared across every request, you need to make sure that the dependency is idempotent. That is, using it across different requests should always yield the same result - it cannot have global state that may be changed by your application. Interactions between externalized modules are fine (e.g. using a Vue plugin).

Component Caching

You can easily cache components during SSR by implementing the serverCacheKey function:

export default {
  name: 'item', // required
  props: ['item'],
  serverCacheKey: props =>,
  render (h) {
    return h('div',

Note that cachable component must also define a unique "name" option. This is necessary for Vue to determine the identity of the component when using the
bundle renderer.

With a unique name, the cache key is thus per-component: you don't need to worry about two components returning the same key. A cache key should contain sufficient information to represent the shape of the render result. The above is a good implementation if the render result is solely determined by However, if the item with the same id may change over time, or if render result also relies on another prop, then you need to modify your getCacheKey implementation to take those other variables into account.

Returning a constant will cause the component to always be cached, which is good for purely static components.

When to use component caching

If the renderer hits a cache for a component during render, it will directly reuse the cached result for the entire sub tree. So do not cache a component containing child components that rely on global state.

In most cases, you shouldn't and don't need to cache single-instance components. The most common type of components that need caching are ones in big lists. Since these components are usually driven by objects in database collections, they can make use of a simple caching strategy: generate their cache keys using their unique id plus the last updated timestamp:

serverCacheKey: props => + '::' + props.item.last_updated

Client Side Hydration

In server-rendered output, the root element will have the server-rendered="true" attribute. On the client, when you mount a Vue instance to an element with this attribute, it will attempt to "hydrate" the existing DOM instead of creating new DOM nodes.

In development mode, Vue will assert the client-side generated virtual DOM tree matches the DOM structure rendered from the server. If there is a mismatch, it will bail hydration, discard existing DOM and render from scratch. In production mode, this assertion is disabled for maximum performance.

Hydration Caveats

One thing to be aware of when using SSR + client hydration is some special HTML structures that may be altered by the browser. For example, when you write this in a Vue template:


The browser will automatically inject <tbody> inside <table>, however, the virtual DOM generated by Vue does not contain <tbody>, so it will cause a mismatch. To ensure correct matching, make sure to write valid HTML in your templates.