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django+nginx+uWSGI+ubuntu环境配置

96
Maql
2016.10.28 00:07* 字数 843

折腾了两天的django+nginx+uWSGI+ubuntu环境搭建,终于把它解决了,由于网上这方面的资料很少,出了问题在google和stackoverflow也没找到答案,所以希望我的搭建过程对你有所帮助!少遇坑!

介绍

  1. Nginx是一个网页服务器,它能反向代理HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3, IMAP的协议链接,以及一个负载均衡器和一个HTTP缓存
  2. uWSGI是一个web服务器,它同时实现了uwsgi协议和WSGI协议
    以下图片很好的说明它们的关系:
摘抄至http://brianmcdonnell.github.io/pycon_ie_2013/#/4

准备

  1. http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/tutorials/Django_and_nginx.html (官方文档 PS:不要觉得自己英文烂就不去看,其实官方的文档才是最好的)
  2. 相关环境的版本:django-1.9.8, nginx 1.4.6, ubuntu14.04.1 LTS

配置(尽量按照官网的顺序)

  1. 安装环境

Django安装

pip install Django
django-admin.py startproject mysite
cd mysite

uwsgi安装

pip install uwsgi

创建测试文件test.py

# test.py
def application(env, start_response):
    start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
    #return [b"Hello World"] # python3
    return ["Hello World"] # python2

运行uwsgi

uwsgi --http :8000 --wsgi-file test.py

**访问你的网站或者在浏览器输入127.0.0.1:8000,如果看到Hello World则说明下面这三者是通的 **

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Python

运行你的Django程序

python manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

访问你的网站或者在浏览器输入127.0.0.1:8000,如果看到It works,说明你的Django也是通的

在项目目录下输入以下命令,并且运行(其中mysite.wsgi是mysite/mysite/wsgi.py文件):

uwsgi --http :8000 --module mysite.wsgi

说明你的uwsgi到django也是通的:

the web client <-> uWSGI <-> Django

安装nginx

sudo apt-get install nginx
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start

访问127.0.0.1或者你的网站,如果出现nginx则说明你的nginx可用(默认是是80端口)

the web client <-> the web server

下面步骤用来告诉nginx你的网站在哪里

首先从copy下面文件到你的项目

cp /etc/nginx/uwsgi_params ~/mysite

创建文件mysite_nginx.conf并写入以下内容:

# mysite_nginx.conf

# the upstream component nginx needs to connect to
upstream django {
    # server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket
    server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)
}

# configuration of the server
server {
    # the port your site will be served on
    listen      8000;
    # the domain name it will serve for
    server_name .example.com; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
    charset     utf-8;

    # max upload size
    client_max_body_size 75M;   # adjust to taste

    # Django media
    location /media  {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/media;  # your Django project's media files - amend as required
    }

    location /static {
        alias /path/to/your/mysite/static; # your Django project's static files - amend as required
    }

    # Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
    location / {
        uwsgi_pass  django;
        include     /path/to/your/mysite/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed
    }
}

创建一个软链接到nginx,意思是告诉nginx你的网站配置信息

sudo ln -s ~/path/to/your/mysite/mysite_nginx.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

配置你的Django的setting.py

STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static/")

同步静态文件

python manage.py collectstatic

重启nginx

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart

在mysite/media目录下放入一张图片,media.png,并访问 http://ip:8000/media/media.png或者http://127.0.0.1:8000/media/media.png则可以看到你的图片

接下来打通nginx、uWSGI和test.py

uwsgi --socket :8001 --wsgi-file test.py

访问http://ip:8000或者127.0.0.1:8000,如果正常,则说明以下是通的

the web client <-> the web server <-> the socket <-> uWSGI <-> Python

使用Unix sockets代替你的端口

在mysite_nginx.conf文件中修改:

server unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock; # for a file socket# server 127.0.0.1:8001; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)

运行测试,在浏览器输入 http://ip:8000/或http://127.0.0.1:8000/是否成功

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py

如果出现502错误或者在/var/log/nginx/error.log发现

connect() to unix:///path/to/your/mysite/mysite.sock failed (13: Permissiondenied)

则使用以下方法解决权限问题,本人使用第一种成功了~

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=666 # (very permissive)

or:

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --wsgi-file test.py --chmod-socket=664 # (more sensible)```

##调通你的django、nginx和uwsgi

uwsgi --socket mysite.sock --module mysite.wsgi --chmod-socket=664

>在浏览器输入 http://ip:8000/或http://127.0.0.1:8000/在网页出现It works这说明成功

##创建一个uWSGI的初始化文件mysite_uwsgi.ini

mysite_uwsgi.ini file

[uwsgi]

Django-related settings

the base directory (full path)

chdir = /path/to/your/project

Django's wsgi file

module = project.wsgi

the virtualenv (full path)

home = /path/to/virtualenv

process-related settings

master

master = true

maximum number of worker processes

processes = 10

the socket (use the full path to be safe

socket = /path/to/your/project/mysite.sock

... with appropriate permissions - may be needed

chmod-socket = 664

clear environment on exit

vacuum = true


##运行

uwsgi --ini mysite_uwsgi.ini


##将uwsgi配置为Emperor模式(可不做)

create a directory for the vassals

sudo mkdir /etc/uwsgi
sudo mkdir /etc/uwsgi/vassals

symlink from the default config directory to your config file

sudo ln -s /path/to/your/mysite/mysite_uwsgi.ini /etc/uwsgi/vassals/

run the emperor

uwsgi --emperor /etc/uwsgi/vassals --uid www-data --gid www-data

###(PS:在实际过程中,最后一句 我使用的是uwsgi --emperor /etc/uwsgi/vassals)

##将uwsgi配置为开机启动,编辑/etc/rc.local

/usr/local/bin/uwsgi --emperor /etc/uwsgi/vassals --uid www-data --gid www-data --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi-emperor.log

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