L6 U3 问题与解决办法

Module 1 解释问题

1. 个人问题

coffee 咖啡
addicted 成瘾的
quit 停止
smoke 吸烟

个人问题
如果你无法放弃止做某事,你就是对它addicted,或你对它有了一种addiction,下面就是一些常见的沉溺。
He's addicted to cigarettes. 他有烟瘾。
She's addicted to coffee. 她喝咖啡上瘾。
They're addicted to gambling. 他们嗜赌成瘾。
He's addicted to alcohol. He's an alcoholic. 他嗜酒成瘾。他是个酒鬼。

以下是一些其他常见的个人问题。
She has financial problems. 她碰到了一些经济上的问题。
He has a weight problem. He's overweight. 他有体重问题。他非常胖。
I have a problem sleeping. I have insomnia. 我睡不着觉。我患有失眠症。
They have marital problems. 他们遇到了婚姻问题。

  • She can't stop. She's addicted to cigarettes. 她没法停下来。她有烟瘾。
  • They're always fighting. They have marital problems. 他们老是在争吵。他们的婚姻有问题。
  • He has a weight problem. He's very overweight. 他有体重问题。他非常胖。
  • She doesn't sleep at night. She has insomnia. 她晚上不睡觉。她患有失眠症。
  • He's addicted to coffee. He drinks 10 cups a day! 他喝咖啡上瘾。他每天喝十杯!
  • They're having some financial problems. 他们财务上出现了一些问题。
  • He's addicted to chocolate. He can't stop eating it. 他吃巧克力上瘾。他不停地吃。

2. 了解大意

阅读找出大意

找出段落或文本的大意是一种重要的阅读技巧。大意是指梗概,不是具体细节。了解大意后,更容易理解文本。
你通常可以通过确定主题句来找出大意。主题句一般位于段首,但也可以出现在其他位置。
如果你不确定主题句,你可以通过用自己的话概括来得出文本大意。寻找重复的单词或观点来帮助概括。
确定大意时不可太狭隘,也不能太宽泛。一个陈述即便真实,但可能过于具体或笼统,不可能是大意。

3. 谈论问题

谈论问题

在确定一个问题后,你可能想详细加以解释。以下是一些帮助你进行解释的表达。
I have insomnia. The problem is that I can't stop thinking about work. 我患有失眠症。问题在于我老想着工作。
She can't quit smoking. One big problem is that her husband smokes, too. 她戒不了烟。一个大问题是她的丈夫也抽烟。

that可省略而不会造成意义的改变。
He is very overweight. The trouble is he eats too much chocolate. 他非常胖。问题是他吃太多巧克力了。
She can't quit smoking. One big problem is her husband smokes, too. 她戒不了烟。一个大问题是她的丈夫也抽烟。

  • She has a lot of personal problems. 她有很多个人问题。
  • I'm sorry to hear that. 听到这个我很遗憾。
  • She's having financial problems. 她财务上有些问题。
  • The trouble is that she's addicted to shopping. 问题是她购物成瘾。
  • Oh, no. That's terrible. 哦,不。那太糟糕了。
  • Yeah. She can't stop buying clothes. 是的。她不停地买衣服。

Module 2 为你的朋友提建议

1. 坏习惯

started 开始
break the habit 改掉习惯
give up 放弃
stop 停止

2. 情态动词ought to 和 had better

情态动词 'ought to'和'had better'

你可以使用情态动词 ought to 和 had better 来给予个人建议。Had better 语气强于ought to,在提出强烈的建议时使用。
He's very overweight. He ought to lose some weight. 他很胖,应该减减肥。
Your health is very poor. You had better quit smoking. 你身体很不好,最好把烟戒了。

  • I really should give up drinking coffee. 我真的应该戒掉咖啡。
  • You had better not begin gambling. 你最好别开始赌博。
  • He had better give up smoking. 他最好戒烟。
  • I should quit eating so much chocolate. 我应该停止吃那么多巧克力。
  • You ought to start exercising more. 你应该开始多锻炼身体。
  • She ought to stop while she can. 当她能停止的时候,她应该停止。
  • You had better break the habit. 你最好戒掉这个习惯。

3. 问答专栏

4. 提出强烈建议

提出强烈建议

提出强烈建议有许多方法。学习这些不同的表达。
Make sure to get enough sleep. 务必保持充足的睡眠。
Make sure not to drink coffee at night. 晚上千万别喝咖啡。
Be sure to exercise every week. 务必每周锻炼身体。
Be sure not to eat too much fast food. 务必不要吃太多快餐。
Don't start smoking. 不要开始吸烟。
You ought to give up gambling. 你应该戒赌。
You had better stop smoking. 你最好戒烟。
You had better not talk to him. You're angry! 你最好别和他说话。你很生气!

You had better not work so hard. 你最好工作不要那么卖力。
You ought to think about working less. 你应该考虑少工作。
Make sure to drink less coffee. 务必少喝点咖啡。
Be sure to exercise every day. 务必每天锻炼身体。

Module 3 解决员工问题

1. 工作问题

工作问题

与生活中其他方面一样,有时工作中也会碰到一些问题。一位员工可能需要与老板就以下方面谈话:
being late = tardiness 迟到
being disorganized 缺乏条理的
being lazy 懒惰
being sloppy 粗心
being argumentative 好辩
being offensive 无礼
not being flexible 处事不灵活
not following instructions 不遵守指示
not working well with the team 和团队合作不愉快
not meeting deadlines 没有如期完成

  • She spoke to me about my tardiness. 她跟我谈了谈我的迟到问题。
  • Sorry! I wasn't following instructions. 对不起!我没有遵照指示。
  • He's not working well with the team. 他和团队协作得并不好。
  • Being argumentative at work is not a good thing. * 工作中爱争论不是好事。
  • She was warned about not being flexible enough. * 她因为处事不够灵活被警告了。
  • He was fired for being offensive. 他因为无礼被解雇了。
  • I have to stop being so disorganized. 我必须不能再缺乏条理了。
  • Not meeting deadlines is unacceptable. 不能按时完成工作是不能接受的。

2. who引导的关系从句

'who' 引导的关系从句

用关系从句连接两个句子。关系从句使您的写作和讲话更流利,并帮助您避免重复。关系代词 who 用来指人。
We have a lot of engineers. The engineers work late.
We have a lot of engineers who work late.
在例子中,主句We have a lot of engineers 是一个完整的句子。关系从句who work late不是一个完整的句子,故不能独立成句。

I have a colleague. The colleague is very sloppy. 我有一个同事。这个同事做事非常马虎。
I have a colleague who is very sloppy. 我有一个做事非常马虎的同事。
I work with a guy. He never meets deadlines. 我和一个人共事。他从不按时完成工作。
I work with a guy who never meets deadlines. 我和一个从不按时完成工作的人共事。
I have a new boss. She isn't very flexible. 我有一个新老板。她处事不是非常灵活。
I have a new boss who isn't very flexible. 我有一个处事不是非常灵活的新老板。

3. 讨论问题与解决办法

So what's going on? 那么,发生什么事了?
What's the story? 怎么回事?
We have to figure out a solution. 我们必须想出解决的办法。
Another possibility would be ... 另一种可能是……
Would that work for you? 你觉得这可行吗?
Yeah, that would work. 对,这可行。
Let's see how it goes. 我们看看会怎么样。

  • What's going on? 怎么回事?
  • What's the story? 怎么回事?
  • This is something that we have to deal with. 这事我们必须得处理。
  • We have to figure out a solution for this. 我们必须想出一个解决办法来处理这件事。
  • One solution could be that I come early. 一种可能的解决办法就是我来早点。
  • No, I don't think so. 不,我不这样想。
  • Another possibility would be for me to work late. 另一种可能就是我晚点走。
  • That would work. 那可行。
  • Let's see how it goes. 让我们看看会怎么样。

Module 4 提出解决工作问题的办法

1. 公司问题

公司问题

我们在生活和工作中都会碰到问题。学习其中一些常见的公司问题。
Business is bad, and employee morale is low. 生意很差,而且员工士气低落。
Communication between management and staff is poor. 管理层和员工之间的沟通不畅。
There is a continuing problem of employee theft in the company. 公司里有员工盗窃的问题。
The company's costs are going up and up. 公司的开支一直在上涨。
Competition is fierce in our industry. 我们行业的竞争很激烈。
Because of terrible mismanagement, the company is in trouble. 因为管理不善,公司现在陷入困境。
The company's biggest problem is a lack of innovation. 公司最大的问题是缺乏创新。
We don't have the money to buy the latest technology. 我们没有购买最新技术的资金。

  • The company's biggest problem is a lack of innovation. 公司最大的问题是缺乏创新。
  • Because of mismanagement, the company is in trouble. 因为管理不善,公司现在陷入困境。
  • There is a problem of employee theft in the company. 公司里有员工盗窃的问题。
  • The company's costs are going up and up. 公司的开支一直在上涨。
  • We don't have the money to buy the latest technology. 我们没有钱购买最新的技术。
  • Business is bad, and employee morale is very low. 生意很差,而且员工士气低落。
  • Communication between management and staff is poor. 管理层和员工之间的沟通不畅。
  • Competition is fierce in our industry. 我们行业的竞争很激烈。

2. that引导的关系从句

'that' 引导的关系从句

用关系代词连接两个句子。用关系代词that 代替事物。
I work for a company. The company has lots of problems.
I work for a company that has lots of problems.
在该例子中,主句I work for a company 是一个完整句,关系从句that has lots of problems 不是完整句,故不能单独成句。
记住,使用关系从句可以让你的作文和讲话更流畅,避免重复。

  • Innovation is the solution. It can save us. 创新是解决办法。它能拯救我们。
  • Innovation is the solution that can save us. 创新是拯救我们的解决办法。
  • Mismanagement is a problem. It's hurting us. 管理不善是一个问题。它给我们造成损失。
  • Mismanagement is a problem that's hurting us. 管理不善是一个会给我们造成损失的问题。
  • We have technology. It's really old and slow. 我们拥有技术。这种技术很老很慢。
  • We have technology that's really old and slow. 我们拥有很老很慢的技术。

3. 提出解决办法

I really think the only solution is to ... 我真的认为唯一的解决办法就是……
It's the only way to solve the problem. 这是解决问题的唯一办法。

提出解决办法

使用类似表达来提出解决办法:
One solution could be that we hire a new manager. 一种解决办法是我们雇一位新经理。
Another possibility would be to have a team meeting. 另一种可能是开一场团队会议。

为了竭力提出解决方法,使用类似下列表达。
I really think that the only solution is to replace the entire management team. 我真的认为唯一的解决办法是替换整个管理团队。
The only way to solve this problem is to buy the company. 解决问题的唯一办法是买下这家公司。
I strongly suggest that we deal with this problem immediately. 我强烈建议我们即刻处理这一问题。

为了竭力提出解决方法,使用类似下列表达。
I really think that the only solution is to replace the entire management team. 我真的认为唯一的解决办法是替换整个管理团队。
The only way to solve this problem is to buy the company. 解决问题的唯一办法是买下这家公司。
I strongly suggest that we deal with this problem immediately. 我强烈建议我们即刻处理这一问题。

  • The only way to solve the problem is to buy them out. 解决问题的唯一办法就是买下他们所有的股份。
  • I strongly suggest that we deal with this problem now. 我强烈建议我们现在处理问题。
  • One solution could be that we hire a new manager. 一种解决办法是我们雇一位新经理。
  • I really think that's the only solution. 我真的认为那是唯一的解决办法。
  • Another possibility would be to have a team meeting. 另一种可能是开一场团队会议。

4. 公司问题