英语-时态(小学概念)

时态
分为四个时间:
现在、过去、将来、过去将来*
分为四种动作程度:一般动作、进行动作、完成动作、完成进行动作
总共16个时态


现在 过去 将来 过去将来
一般时
进行时
完成时
完成进行时

一般现在时(do、does)

  • 表示客观事实或者真理,在过去和将来都存在并且不变的
  • 表示习惯性、经常性动作(经常和表示频率的时间副词连用)
    • 肯定的频率副词:always,frequently,usually,sometimes,generally,occasionally,often
    • 否定的频率副词:never,seldom,rarely
    • 以上副词在be动词之后,在实义动词之前
The world is round.
He doesn't work hard.
I like rice for dinner.
He is always late.
He always goes to school by bike.
The train is never late. It always leave on time.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
  • 使用There或者Here开头的句子,一般现在时表示正在发生的动作
Here comes your wife. Your wife is coming.
There goes our bus. Our bus is going.
Look, here comes the famous player.
  • 【考试重点】 一般现在时条件状语从句(if,unless)和时间状语从句(when,as soon as,before,after)里的语句表示将来发生的动作
Please let me know when he comes back.
I will give the book to him as soon as I see him.
If it rains tomorrow, I won't go to cinema.
She is going to be nurse when she grows up.
When I see Jean in the street, she always smiles at me.
Next month when there is a full moon, the ocean tides will be higher.

上述 see、come均发生在未来,但是要用一般现在时表示将来

一般过去时(did)

  • 过去某一特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态
    • 时间状语:yesterday,yesterday evening,last night,the night before last,last year,last spring,three years/months/days ago
    • 这些时间状语不需要加介词at last night,in last night,in three years ago,did后面不加过去时
I saw him in the library yesterday morning.
I began to learn english ten years ago.
Did you go out last night?
  • 过去某一时间内重复发生 并结束的动作,此时可以与表示频率的时间副词连用
I slept for eight hours last night.
He used to do morning exercises.
I lived in the country for ten years.
He took a walk after supper when he was alive.

一般将来时(will do、shall do、be going to do)

将来时往往是与各种意识形态联系在一起:

  • 预测
according to the weather report,it will be windy tomorrow.
  • 事先计划
I have bought a computer and I'm going to learn the computer science.
  • 意愿,未经过计划或考虑的行动,正在进行时
The telephone is ringing.
I will answer it.

be going to

预期发生的事情马上或相当近的将来就要发生
根据目前迹象来推断某些事将要发生
**有计划的或打算**

will

表明说话人相信认为某件事要发生
表明发生的时间可近可远
并没有计划,**说话时立即做出决定**表明将要做某事

be + doing , be是助动词,没有含义

现在进行时

表示说话此刻正在进行,until直到...,有持续的意思

Please don't make so much noise. I'm studying.
Why are you staring at me like that? Is there anything wrong with me?
Normally I finish work at 5:00, but this week  I am working until 7:00.

Do you listen to the radio every day? No, just occasionally. 语义不是现在进行时,而是疑问句
表示现阶段正在持续的动作,一般性的活动,说话的时候并不在进行,但是持续的在进行

These days i'm translating a book.
Are you listening to radio? No. you can turn it off. 语义是现在进行时

含有计划、安排做的意思。最近将来已定的安排

What are you doing on Saturday night? I'm doing some shopping with Jane.
He is on holiday in Qingdao. He is having a good time and doesn't want to come back until the end of this month.

现在进行时常与always,forever,continually,constantly连用,往往表示抱怨、厌烦、不合情理或使人不愉快的事情

He's continually asking me for money.
You are always watching TV. You should do something more active.

过去进行时

描述过去一个特定时刻正在发生的事情

I was discussing my thesis with my director at this time last night.
How fast were you driving when the accident happened?

过去进行时常常和一般过去时配合使用。过去进行时表示历时较长的动作或状态,一般过去时表示短暂的动作或状态。过去进行时先发生,一般过去时后发生

She was wearing dirty old clothes. she looked dirty and tired.
I cut my finger when i was cooking the dinner last night.
I was watching TV when the phone rang.
I was telephoning Harry when she arrived.
I was walking alone the street when suddenly i heard footsteps behind me. 
  Some was following me. I was frightened and I started to run.
I fell a sleep while I was reading the novel.
I saw you in the park yesterday afternoon. You were sitting on the grass and talking with some people.
I was riding home yesterday when suddenly an old lady walked out into the road in front of me. 
  I was going quiet fast and luckily I was able to stop in time and didn't hit her.

将来进行时

表示将来某一时刻正在进行的活动

I'll be lying on the beach in Sanya this time tomorrow.
Don't phone me between 7 and 8. We will be having dinner then. 
  You can phone me after 8 o'clock. We will finish dinner by then.

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