《语法俱乐部》| 第二十二章:倒装句

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倒装句是一种把动词(助动词)移动到主语前,起到强调、增强清楚与简洁性功能的句子。

一、比较级倒装


Girls like cats more than boys, who as a rule are a cruel lot, do.

这一句中修辞不佳,句尾的do无法省略,否则句子有歧义,但是这个助动词离它的主语boys又太远了。我们使用倒装:

Girls like cats more than do boys, who as a rule are a cruel lot. 

总结:比较级使用倒装

1> 从属从句中的助动词或be动词不宜省略;

2> 主语后面有较长的修饰语。

二、关系从句的倒装


关系词必须先向前移动照成顺序反常的时候才使用倒装

句1:The President is a man.

句2:A heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not, falls on him.

两句联合:

The President is a man on whom a heavy responsibility whether he likes it or not, falls.

on whom是一个介词短语修饰falls,但是 移动到句首以后同falls的距离相隔太远了,同时falls的主语a heavy responsibility同falls的距离也太远,就需要使用倒装句:

The President is a man on whom falls a heavy responsibility whether he likes it or not.

注意:如果关系词原本就在句首的位置,没有移动,就不能使用倒装。

三、假设语气的倒装


假设语气往往是使用if引导的,如果有be动词和助动词就可以将其移动到主语前面,省略连接词。形成倒装:

If I had been there, I could have done something to help.

为了加强简洁形成倒装:

Had I been there, I could have done something to help.

四、引用句的倒装


直接引用:

The police said, "None was killed in the accident."

将引用的话放于前面,起到强调的作用:

"None was killed in the accident." said the police.

间接引用:

The WHO warns that cholera is coming back.

将最重要的放在前面,形成倒装:

Cholera, warns the WHO, is coming back.

五、地方副词倒装


这种倒装是把地方副词放于句首,起强调作用。

There goes the train!

Here is your ticket for the opera!

这里是把there和here地方副词放于句首的倒装。其他的地方副词也可以:

In Loch Ness dwells a mysterious monster.

六、否定副词开头的倒装


表示否定的副词(not、never、hardly、barely)放于句首强调语气,就得使用倒装

We don't have such luck every day.

如果把not every day放于句首强调不是每一天,就得使用倒装:

Not every day do we have such luck.

另外有一些副词hardly、barely移动到句首也要使用倒装:

I had hardly sat down to work when the phone rang.

将hardly移动到句首起加强语气的作用:

Hardly had I sat down to work when the phone rang.

注意:如果hardly在句首是正常的修饰词,而不是起强调作用的,就不能使用倒装句。

not only……but also配合形成倒装就比较复杂,我们相信说明一下:

He not only passed the exam but also scored at the top.

not only……but also形成句子要求对仗工整,我们先来尝试一下:

Not only did he passed the exam but also scored at the top.

前半句not only引导的从句我们改成了倒装,但是与后面but also的句子不对称,我们修改成:

Not only did he passed the exam but also he scored at the top.(不佳)

我们经常将not only和but also连在一起背诵,但是不知道only和also都是焦点副词,有一种强调的功能。这时候就应该拆开but also,使得also强调后面的scored at the top:

Not only did he passed the exam but he also scored at the top. 

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