经济学人 | 被遗忘的那群人:The forgotten millions

难民,对大多数人来说可能是一个遥远的存在。

他们,有一些被战争逼迫背井离乡,有一些被贫困折磨朝不保夕。

这样一群人,颠沛流离,无家可归,世界之大,何处安身?我们又能为他们做些什么呢?

The forgotten millions

[1] The European migration crisis of 2015 quickly turned into amoralityplay.Liberalslined railway platforms to welcomerefugees, while theirnativistfoeswarned ofchaosandterrorism. Lost in the row were the millions of refugees who stayed in the developing world, unwilling or unable to journey to richer countries. The boatsdisgorgingSyrians and Afghans onto Greek islands delivered one of the most serious emergencies the European Union has ever known. But according to a new book, they were asideshow.

morality:道德; 道德观; 道德准则; 品德高尚的行为

liberal:自由主义者; 自由党党员;自由的; 开明的; 慷慨的; 不拘泥的

refugee:避难者,难民;

[例句]They stay here a few hours before being sent to refugee camps, which are now almost full

他们在这儿呆了几个小时后被送往难民营,而那里现在几乎已经满员了。

nativist:先天论者,本土主义者;

[例句]This is the nativist wing of the Republican Party.

这是共和党的本土主义派系。

foe:敌人,仇敌; 危害物; 反对者;

[例句]With power and to spare we must pursue the tottering foe.

宜将剩勇追穷寇。

chaos:混乱,紊乱; (天地未出现的) 浑沌世界; 〈古〉无底深渊; 一团糟;

[例句]The world's first transatlantic balloon race ended in chaos last night

昨晚世界第一届跨大西洋热气球比赛在一片混乱中收场。

terrorism:恐怖主义,恐怖手段; 威吓,胁迫; 恐怖状态; 恐怖统治;

disgorging:被迫交出,吐出(脏物);呕吐; 退出; 吐出( disgorge的现在分词 ); 倒出(食物、液体等)

[例句]With factories disgorging workers almost daily, some temporary unemployment at least looks unavoidable.

由于工厂几乎每天都在解聘工人,一些人暂时失业似乎无论如何是不可避免的。

sideshow:(正戏中的) 穿插表演; 附带游乐项目; 附带事件或活动; 次要问题或事情;

2015年欧洲遗民危机迅速演变成道德问题。自由主义者排铁路平台欢迎难民,而他们的本土对手警告可能出现混乱和恐怖主义。这些难民数以百万计,多是留在发展中国家,不愿或无法到达发达国家。一艘逃离叙利亚和阿富汗开往希腊岛的船运来的难民,是欧盟经历过的最严重的紧急情况之一。但根据一本新书所说,这可能还只是中场表演。

[2]The starting point of "Refuge" by Alexander Betts and Paul Collier, a refugee expert and a development economist, is theplightof the 86% of refugees who live in poor countries. The outlook for most is grim. Although the number of people dis-placed by conflict orpersecution(including those forced to flee inside their own countries) is at a post-war high of 65m, moresalientis the length of theirexile: about half the world’s refugees have endured their status for more than five years.

plight:境况,困境; 誓约; 保证,约定

[例句]Last year Collins wrote a moving ballad which highlighted the plight of the homeless

去年,柯林斯写了一首动人的抒情歌曲,突出描绘了无家可归者的苦境。

persecution:迫害或受迫害,烦扰; 苛求,困扰

[例句]We had to leave the country because of the persecutions.

由于受到迫害,我们不得不离开这个国家。

salient:显著的,突出的; 重要的,主要的; 跳跃的; (指角) 凸出的; 凸角,[建]突出部; <军>进攻或防卫阵地的突出部分;

exile:放逐,流放; 使背井离乡; 流放,放逐,流亡; 长期离家[出国]; 被流放者,背井离乡者

亚历山大·贝茨和保罗·科利尔,一个难民专家和一个发展经济学家,他们的书《避难》的出发点是那些生活在贫穷国家的86%的难民的困境。其中大多数人的前景是严峻的。虽然大概6500万人在战后不被冲突或迫害(包括那些被迫逃离自己的国家内),但其流亡的长度也很关键:全世界大约有一半的难民已经超过五年处于流亡的状态。

[3]Take Syria's civil war, six years old with no end in sight. Most of the 4m Syrian refugeeslanguishingin neighboring Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon cannot return home. But they struggle to find decent work or educate their children in the towns and cities to which most haveflocked(the small numbers in camps have even fewer options). Any visitor to places like theBekaavalley in Lebanon will quickly see thehopelessnessthat sets in when refugees are denied astakein their own future.

languishing:日趋衰弱的,苦思的,渴望的;长期受苦( languish的现在分词 ); 受折磨; 变得(越来越)衰弱; 因渴望而变得憔悴或闷闷不乐

[例句]He is languishing for home.

他苦思家乡。

flock:兽群,鸟群; 群众; 棉束; 大堆,大量;群集,成群结队而行;用棉束填

Bekaa:[词典]贝卡(黎巴嫩中部一谷地)

hopelessness:绝望

stake:股份; 桩; 刑柱; (在公司、计划等中的) 重大利益; 用桩支撑; 以…下注[打赌]; 用桩区分,界分

[例句]The tension was naturally high for a game with so much at stake

对于一场成败攸关的比赛来说气氛自然非常紧张。

就拿叙利亚的战争来说,6年就仿佛没有尽头。400万叙利亚难民大部分都留在相邻的土耳其,约旦和黎巴嫩,日渐衰弱,不能回家。他们努力寻找体面的工作,或蜂拥至城镇给自己的孩子优秀的教育,在小地方的人比较少,而选择更少。任何来到像黎巴嫩的Bekaa河谷这样地方的游客,将很快看到难民被剥夺了他们未来赌注之后出现的绝望。

[4] The UN's refugee body (UNHCR) has a legalmandateto help, but it ischronicallyunderfunded and increasingly irrelevant. Under theprevailing"care and maintenance" model, the UNHCR and its partner agencies act assurrogatestates, keeping refugees in limbo for years. That suits rich countries, which pay to keep refugees away, andallaysthe economic and security fears of their hosts. But it creates lost generations—the third generation ofSomalirefugees in the vast Dadaabagglomerationin Kenya now numbers 10,000— and does nothing for the refugees who are not in camps. The big argument of "Refuge" is that refugees should be given jobs rather thancoddledas victims, and that governments shouldharnessthe forces of globalisation andcapitalismto help.

UNHCR:United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 联合国难民事务高级专员(办事处)

mandate:授权; 命令; 委任; 任期; 托管; 批准; 强制执行; 委托办理

[例句]The President and his supporters are almost certain to read this vote as a mandate for continued economic reform

总统及其支持者几乎肯定地认为这次投票是对继续进行经济改革的授权。

chronically:慢性地,习惯性地,长期地

[例句]It is required by law to shut down banks which it regards as chronically short of capital

法律规定资金长期短缺的银行必须关闭。

prevailing:盛行的; 普遍的; 占优势的; 主要的; 盛行; 获胜( prevail的现在分词 ); 说服; ( 思想、观点等) 被接受

surrogate:代理,代表; 代用品,代替,代孕者,[心]代用人物; 〈美〉遗嘱检验法庭[法官]; 代理的; 代理的; 代理,替代

allay:减轻,缓和; 使冷静,使平静; 止渴; 消痛

Somali:(东非国家) 索马里族(人)索马里语

agglomeration:成团,结块

[例句]The towns are on the way to becoming agglomerations of desperately poor people

这些城市正逐渐变为极度贫穷之人的聚居地。

coddle:悉心照料,娇惯;

[例句]She coddled her youngest son madly

她对小儿子过于溺爱。

harness:背带; 马具,挽具; 系带;利用; 给(马等)套轭具; 控制

capitalism:资本主义(制度); 资本(或财富)的拥有; 资本(私人占有和生产盈利)的支配地位

联合国难民机构(难民署)有法律授权的帮助,但其长期资金不足,也就越来越无关紧要。在普遍的“关心与维护”模式下,联合国难民署及其伙伴机构充当代理国,使难民们多年处于不稳定状态。发达国家常这么做,花钱请难民离开,保证本地居民的经济与安全。但这造成了迷惘的一代:在肯尼亚广阔的达达阿布集聚索马里难民的第三代现在增到10000人,但没有为不在难民营的难民做任何事。避难所应该给难民工作,而不是把他们当做受害者悉心照料。政府应利用全球化和资本主义的力量帮助他们。

[5]The authors'Eurekamoment came in Jordan in 2015, when they were shown a low-tax "special economic zone" (of the sort popular in parts of Asia) near Zaatari, a refugee camp. The camp "reekedof lives on hold", while the zone needed workers. The answer seemed obvious: alongside nationals, refugees should be put to work. Done well, the authors argue hopefully, this approach canalignthe interests of refugees, donors and host countries. To test their ideas Messrs Betts and Collier have helped establish a pilot scheme in Jordan, with help from Western governments(the EU has offered trade concessions) and companies like Asda, a British super-market, which uses suppliers that hire refugees in the zone. Results so far are mixed, although it is early days. Different solutions can be found for other countries. In some parts of Africa, for example, refugees can be given arable land to farm; Uganda has found success with this approach. When peace returns at home, refugees can return. If it doesn’t, after a set period they should be allowed to naturalise.

eureka:(因找到某物,尤指问题的答案而高兴) 我发现了,我找到了

reek:恶臭; 水蒸汽; 雾; 烟; 冒烟; 发出浓烈的臭气; 散发臭气; 散发; 用烟熏; 发出…的气息

[例句]Your breath reeks of stale cigar smoke

你满嘴都是难闻的雪茄味。

align:使成一线,使结盟; 排整齐;排列; 成一条线

2015年在约旦,当他们看到Zaatari难民营附近的低税收的“经济特区”(这种类型流行在亚洲的部分地区),一个难民营,作者获得了灵感。这个营地散发着生活的气息,而地区需要工人。答案很明显了:和市民一样,难民应该投入工作。如果做得好,作者充满希望地想,这种方法就能使难民、捐助者和东道国的利益协调一致。为了验证他们的观点,贝茨和科利尔在约旦帮忙建立了一个飞行员项目,借助了西方政府(欧盟提供了交易特许经营权)和像Asda这样公司的帮助,Asda是一家英国超市,它使用雇佣难民的供应商。到目前为止结果喜忧参半,虽然只是初期阶段。其他国家可以寻求不同的解决方案。例如,在非洲的一些地方,难民可以耕种耕地;而这种方法,在乌干达获得了成功。当国内和平了,难民可以回国。如果没有,经过一段时间,应该允许他们入籍。

[6] Where does the West fit in? The authorsslamAngela Merkel, Germany'schancellor, for triggering huge movements of refugees and migrants to Europe by relaxing entry rules for Syrians in August 2015. The charge is unfair. Mrs Merkel's decision was as much consequence as cause: theexoduswas well under way by the summer. A striking claim that Germany's decisions "may have" intensified the violence in Syria is presented without evidence.

slam:砰地关上(门或窗); 猛烈抨击; 使劲一推; 猛劲一摔; 砰然关上; 猛力打击,碰撞; 撞到了一辆卡车上; 猛击; 猛然关闭的声音

Chancellor:大臣; (某些美国大学的) 校长; (德国或奥地利的) 总理; (英国大学的) 名誉校长

exodus:离去,退出; 古代以色列人出埃及

[例句]Lieutenant Malcolm said she saw no sign that the exodus from Haiti was abating

马尔科姆海军上尉说她没有发现人们大批逃离海地有减缓的迹象。

西部适合哪里?作者抨击德国总理默克尔在2015八月放宽了对叙利亚人的入境规则,引发大批难民和移民涌入欧洲。指控不公平。默克尔夫人的起因和结果一样重要:夏季的外出活动正在顺利进行。德国的决策可能加剧了叙利亚暴力事件的这个惊人说法是毫无根据的。

[7]The authors are on steadier ground when they note the high price of Europeangenerosity. Sweden, for example, has diverted half its foreign-aid budget to pay for refugees at home; thus the world’s poorest are in effect subsidizing their more fortunatebrethrenin Sweden’s expensiveasylumsystem. The drain has lost Syria its brightest, crimping its chances of post-conflict recovery. Rather than argue for rich countries to take in evermore refugees, the authors urge them to offer political and economic help to "havens" like Jordan and Kenya, including financial incentives for firms to invest.

generosity:慷慨,大方; 宽容或慷慨的行为; 丰富

brethren:<旧>兄弟们,同胞; 〈旧〉同党,会友;

asylum:庇护; 避难所; 政治避难; 精神病院;

[例句]He applied for asylum in 1987 after fleeing the police back home.

1987年他在本国逃脱警察追捕后,就申请了政治庇护。

作者们注意到欧洲慷慨的代价时,还比较稳定。例如,瑞典已经将一半的对外援助预算转移到国内为难民支付;因此,世界上最贫穷的人实际上在为他们在瑞典昂贵的庇护系统中的幸运同胞提供补贴。人才流失使叙利亚失去了最有利的一面,削弱了其冲突后恢复的可能。作者呼吁富国向约旦和肯尼亚等“避风港”提供政治和经济援助,包括为企业投资提供经济支持,而不是让富裕国家接纳难民。

[8]This will unsettle those whodespairat  Europe’s inability to handle a refugeeinfluxof 1m when its poorer neighbours cope with far higher numbers. Perhaps a bigger problem is that ”Refuge” provides no guide on how to handle today’s mixed flows of economic migrants and refugees. Unlike many advocacy groups, the authors are careful (and right) to distinguish the two. But the peoplesmugglersin Libya who haul Eritreans onto boats together withNigeriansandBangladeshisdo not, creating headaches for European governments.

despair:绝望; 使人绝望的人(或事物)

[例句]I looked at my wife in despair

我绝望地看着妻子。

influx:流入,注入; 汇集〔指人或物〕,充斥; 注入口,河口

[例句]The country simply cannot absorb this influx of refugees.

这个国家实在不能接纳这么多涌入的难民。

smuggler:走私者; 走私船

[例句]The bombings were masterminded by a known drugs smuggler.

爆炸是由一个臭名昭著的毒品走私分子操纵的。

Eritreans:厄立特里亚的

Bangladeshi:孟加拉国人,孟加拉国居民;(有关) 孟加拉国的,(有关)孟加拉人的

[例句]Many Bangladeshis were employed in the construction or fishing industries.

许多孟加拉国人都从事建筑业或渔业。

这将使对欧洲无法处理100万难民涌入感到绝望的人动摇,当欧洲邻近更贫穷的国家接受了更多的难民。也许更大的问题是,“避难所”对如何处理当今经济移民和难民的混合流没有指导意义。与许多倡导团体不同的是,作者谨慎(并正确)地区分了两者。那些把厄立特里亚人和尼日利亚人,孟加拉人都拉上船的利比亚人口贩子并不能区分经济移民和难民,这让欧洲政府非常头疼。

[9]"Refuge" suffers from poor editing; it iswearyinglyrepetitiveand dotted with errors (Mrs Merkel has not, for example, imposed a cap on refugees). A few eyebrows will also be raised at the claim that Europe’s refugee flows were responsible for Britain’s vote to leave the EU. But this should not detract from the humanity of a book that places the long-term needs of the world’s refugees at its heart. "Refuge" is the first comprehensive attempt in years to re-think from first principles a systemhideboundby old thinking and handwringing. Its ideas demand a hearing.

weary:疲倦的; 困乏的; 令人厌倦[生厌,发腻]的; 感到厌倦的;(使) 疲乏,(使)厌烦; 疲倦,疲乏; 厌倦,厌烦; 渴望,切望

repetitive:重复的,啰嗦的; 复唱的

hidebound:对新的思想、方法等格格不入的,守旧的,思想偏狭的

wringing:淋湿的,湿透的; 绞( wring的现在分词 ); 握紧(尤指别人的手); 把(湿衣服)拧干; 绞掉(水)

[例句]He was wringing wet after working in the field in the hot sun.

烈日下在田里干活使他汗流满面。

难民遭受贫困的折磨:重复的疲倦,不断的错误(默克尔夫人并未,例如,给难民戴帽子)。对于欧洲难民流是英国脱欧的原因这个说法,很多人是表示不同意的。但对于一本将世界难民的需求放在心上的书,这一点不会减损其人道主义。多年以来,“避难所”是第一个全面考虑过去经验教训的想法。其理念值得领取借鉴。

战争的受害者总是普通人,面对杀戮和饥饿,这些人自身的力量很微弱,如果没有人施以援手,他们就很难生存下去,更谈不上获得教育工作的机会,那么也不会有人能拯救他们的家园,恶性循环,悲惨不会终止,而最后谁能独善其身呢?

有一位叙利亚难民这样描述他们的逃亡:只想寻找一个安静的地方,那里没有人伤害你、没有人侮辱你、没有人杀害你……

希望我们可以为他们构造这样一个地方。

英文原文:

http://www.economist.com/news

讲解:霞姐 / Tiassa / Angel

编排 / 校对:Angel

版权归魔力学院所有,鼓励转发,转载也可

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