12.spark sql之读写数据

简介

  Spark SQL支持多种结构化数据源,轻松从各种数据源中读取Row对象。这些数据源包括Parquet、JSON、Hive表及关系型数据库等。

  当只使用一部分字段时,Spark SQL可以智能地只扫描这些字段,而不会像hadoopFile方法一样简单粗暴地扫描全部数据。

Parquet

  Parquet是一种流行的列式存储格式,可以高效地存储具有嵌套字段的记录。Parquet自动保存原始数据的类型,当写入Parquet文件时,所有的列会自动转为可空约束。

  • scala
// Encoders for most common types are automatically provided by importing spark.implicits._
import spark.implicits._

val peopleDF = spark.read.json("examples/src/main/resources/people.json")

// DataFrames can be saved as Parquet files, maintaining the schema information
peopleDF.write.parquet("people.parquet")

// Read in the parquet file created above
// Parquet files are self-describing so the schema is preserved
// The result of loading a Parquet file is also a DataFrame
val parquetFileDF = spark.read.parquet("people.parquet")

// Parquet files can also be used to create a temporary view and then used in SQL statements
parquetFileDF.createOrReplaceTempView("parquetFile")
val namesDF = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM parquetFile WHERE age BETWEEN 13 AND 19")
namesDF.map(attributes => "Name: " + attributes(0)).show()
// +------------+
// |       value|
// +------------+
// |Name: Justin|
// +------------+
  • java
import org.apache.spark.api.java.function.MapFunction;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Encoders;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Dataset;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Row;

Dataset<Row> peopleDF = spark.read().json("examples/src/main/resources/people.json");

// DataFrames can be saved as Parquet files, maintaining the schema information
peopleDF.write().parquet("people.parquet");

// Read in the Parquet file created above.
// Parquet files are self-describing so the schema is preserved
// The result of loading a parquet file is also a DataFrame
Dataset<Row> parquetFileDF = spark.read().parquet("people.parquet");

// Parquet files can also be used to create a temporary view and then used in SQL statements
parquetFileDF.createOrReplaceTempView("parquetFile");
Dataset<Row> namesDF = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM parquetFile WHERE age BETWEEN 13 AND 19");
Dataset<String> namesDS = namesDF.map(
    (MapFunction<Row, String>) row -> "Name: " + row.getString(0),
    Encoders.STRING());
namesDS.show();
// +------------+
// |       value|
// +------------+
// |Name: Justin|
// +------------+
  • python
peopleDF = spark.read.json("examples/src/main/resources/people.json")

# DataFrames can be saved as Parquet files, maintaining the schema information.
peopleDF.write.parquet("people.parquet")

# Read in the Parquet file created above.
# Parquet files are self-describing so the schema is preserved.
# The result of loading a parquet file is also a DataFrame.
parquetFile = spark.read.parquet("people.parquet")

# Parquet files can also be used to create a temporary view and then used in SQL statements.
parquetFile.createOrReplaceTempView("parquetFile")
teenagers = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM parquetFile WHERE age >= 13 AND age <= 19")
teenagers.show()
# +------+
# |  name|
# +------+
# |Justin|
# +------+
  • sql
CREATE TEMPORARY VIEW parquetTable
USING org.apache.spark.sql.parquet
OPTIONS (
  path "examples/src/main/resources/people.parquet"
)

SELECT * FROM parquetTable

JSON

  Spark SQL可以自动推断JSON数据集的结构,并加载为以Row为集合项的Dataset。

  默认Spark SQL读取的json文件不是常规的json文件,每一行必须包含一个独立的、自包含的有效JSOn对象。对于常规的多行JSON文件,设置multiLine选项为true即可。

  • scala
// Primitive types (Int, String, etc) and Product types (case classes) encoders are
// supported by importing this when creating a Dataset.
import spark.implicits._

// A JSON dataset is pointed to by path.
// The path can be either a single text file or a directory storing text files
val path = "examples/src/main/resources/people.json"
val peopleDF = spark.read.json(path)

// The inferred schema can be visualized using the printSchema() method
peopleDF.printSchema()
// root
//  |-- age: long (nullable = true)
//  |-- name: string (nullable = true)

// Creates a temporary view using the DataFrame
peopleDF.createOrReplaceTempView("people")

// SQL statements can be run by using the sql methods provided by spark
val teenagerNamesDF = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM people WHERE age BETWEEN 13 AND 19")
teenagerNamesDF.show()
// +------+
// |  name|
// +------+
// |Justin|
// +------+

// Alternatively, a DataFrame can be created for a JSON dataset represented by
// a Dataset[String] storing one JSON object per string
val otherPeopleDataset = spark.createDataset(
  """{"name":"Yin","address":{"city":"Columbus","state":"Ohio"}}""" :: Nil)
val otherPeople = spark.read.json(otherPeopleDataset)
otherPeople.show()
// +---------------+----+
// |        address|name|
// +---------------+----+
// |[Columbus,Ohio]| Yin|
// +---------------+----+
  • java
import org.apache.spark.sql.Dataset;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Row;

// A JSON dataset is pointed to by path.
// The path can be either a single text file or a directory storing text files
Dataset<Row> people = spark.read().json("examples/src/main/resources/people.json");

// The inferred schema can be visualized using the printSchema() method
people.printSchema();
// root
//  |-- age: long (nullable = true)
//  |-- name: string (nullable = true)

// Creates a temporary view using the DataFrame
people.createOrReplaceTempView("people");

// SQL statements can be run by using the sql methods provided by spark
Dataset<Row> namesDF = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM people WHERE age BETWEEN 13 AND 19");
namesDF.show();
// +------+
// |  name|
// +------+
// |Justin|
// +------+

// Alternatively, a DataFrame can be created for a JSON dataset represented by
// a Dataset<String> storing one JSON object per string.
List<String> jsonData = Arrays.asList(
        "{\"name\":\"Yin\",\"address\":{\"city\":\"Columbus\",\"state\":\"Ohio\"}}");
Dataset<String> anotherPeopleDataset = spark.createDataset(jsonData, Encoders.STRING());
Dataset<Row> anotherPeople = spark.read().json(anotherPeopleDataset);
anotherPeople.show();
// +---------------+----+
// |        address|name|
// +---------------+----+
// |[Columbus,Ohio]| Yin|
// +---------------+----+
  • python
# spark is from the previous example.
sc = spark.sparkContext

# A JSON dataset is pointed to by path.
# The path can be either a single text file or a directory storing text files
path = "examples/src/main/resources/people.json"
peopleDF = spark.read.json(path)

# The inferred schema can be visualized using the printSchema() method
peopleDF.printSchema()
# root
#  |-- age: long (nullable = true)
#  |-- name: string (nullable = true)

# Creates a temporary view using the DataFrame
peopleDF.createOrReplaceTempView("people")

# SQL statements can be run by using the sql methods provided by spark
teenagerNamesDF = spark.sql("SELECT name FROM people WHERE age BETWEEN 13 AND 19")
teenagerNamesDF.show()
# +------+
# |  name|
# +------+
# |Justin|
# +------+

# Alternatively, a DataFrame can be created for a JSON dataset represented by
# an RDD[String] storing one JSON object per string
jsonStrings = ['{"name":"Yin","address":{"city":"Columbus","state":"Ohio"}}']
otherPeopleRDD = sc.parallelize(jsonStrings)
otherPeople = spark.read.json(otherPeopleRDD)
otherPeople.show()
# +---------------+----+
# |        address|name|
# +---------------+----+
# |[Columbus,Ohio]| Yin|
# +---------------+----+
  • sql
CREATE TEMPORARY VIEW jsonTable
USING org.apache.spark.sql.json
OPTIONS (
  path "examples/src/main/resources/people.json"
)

SELECT * FROM jsonTable

Hive

  Spark SQL支持任何Hive支持的存储格式(SerDe),包括文本文件、RCFiles、ORC、Parquet、Avro及Protocol Buffer等。

  如果已配置好hive环境,将hive-site.xml,core-site.xml(用于安全配置),hdfs-site.xml(HDFS配置)放到conf目录下;如果没有hive环境,Spark SQL会自动在spark-warehouse(spark.sql.warehouse.dir配置项)目录下创建metastore_db。另外,需要赋予执行spark应用的用户写权限。

  • scala
import java.io.File

import org.apache.spark.sql.Row
import org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession

case class Record(key: Int, value: String)

// warehouseLocation points to the default location for managed databases and tables
val warehouseLocation = new File("spark-warehouse").getAbsolutePath

val spark = SparkSession
  .builder()
  .appName("Spark Hive Example")
  .config("spark.sql.warehouse.dir", warehouseLocation)
  .enableHiveSupport()
  .getOrCreate()

import spark.implicits._
import spark.sql

sql("CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS src (key INT, value STRING) USING hive")
sql("LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'examples/src/main/resources/kv1.txt' INTO TABLE src")

// Queries are expressed in HiveQL
sql("SELECT * FROM src").show()
// +---+-------+
// |key|  value|
// +---+-------+
// |238|val_238|
// | 86| val_86|
// |311|val_311|
// ...

// Aggregation queries are also supported.
sql("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM src").show()
// +--------+
// |count(1)|
// +--------+
// |    500 |
// +--------+

// The results of SQL queries are themselves DataFrames and support all normal functions.
val sqlDF = sql("SELECT key, value FROM src WHERE key < 10 ORDER BY key")

// The items in DataFrames are of type Row, which allows you to access each column by ordinal.
val stringsDS = sqlDF.map {
  case Row(key: Int, value: String) => s"Key: $key, Value: $value"
}
stringsDS.show()
// +--------------------+
// |               value|
// +--------------------+
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// ...

// You can also use DataFrames to create temporary views within a SparkSession.
val recordsDF = spark.createDataFrame((1 to 100).map(i => Record(i, s"val_$i")))
recordsDF.createOrReplaceTempView("records")

// Queries can then join DataFrame data with data stored in Hive.
sql("SELECT * FROM records r JOIN src s ON r.key = s.key").show()
// +---+------+---+------+
// |key| value|key| value|
// +---+------+---+------+
// |  2| val_2|  2| val_2|
// |  4| val_4|  4| val_4|
// |  5| val_5|  5| val_5|
// ...
  • java
import java.io.File;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import org.apache.spark.api.java.function.MapFunction;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Dataset;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Encoders;
import org.apache.spark.sql.Row;
import org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession;

public static class Record implements Serializable {
  private int key;
  private String value;

  public int getKey() {
    return key;
  }

  public void setKey(int key) {
    this.key = key;
  }

  public String getValue() {
    return value;
  }

  public void setValue(String value) {
    this.value = value;
  }
}

// warehouseLocation points to the default location for managed databases and tables
String warehouseLocation = new File("spark-warehouse").getAbsolutePath();
SparkSession spark = SparkSession
  .builder()
  .appName("Java Spark Hive Example")
  .config("spark.sql.warehouse.dir", warehouseLocation)
  .enableHiveSupport()
  .getOrCreate();

spark.sql("CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS src (key INT, value STRING) USING hive");
spark.sql("LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'examples/src/main/resources/kv1.txt' INTO TABLE src");

// Queries are expressed in HiveQL
spark.sql("SELECT * FROM src").show();
// +---+-------+
// |key|  value|
// +---+-------+
// |238|val_238|
// | 86| val_86|
// |311|val_311|
// ...

// Aggregation queries are also supported.
spark.sql("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM src").show();
// +--------+
// |count(1)|
// +--------+
// |    500 |
// +--------+

// The results of SQL queries are themselves DataFrames and support all normal functions.
Dataset<Row> sqlDF = spark.sql("SELECT key, value FROM src WHERE key < 10 ORDER BY key");

// The items in DataFrames are of type Row, which lets you to access each column by ordinal.
Dataset<String> stringsDS = sqlDF.map(
    (MapFunction<Row, String>) row -> "Key: " + row.get(0) + ", Value: " + row.get(1),
    Encoders.STRING());
stringsDS.show();
// +--------------------+
// |               value|
// +--------------------+
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// |Key: 0, Value: val_0|
// ...

// You can also use DataFrames to create temporary views within a SparkSession.
List<Record> records = new ArrayList<>();
for (int key = 1; key < 100; key++) {
  Record record = new Record();
  record.setKey(key);
  record.setValue("val_" + key);
  records.add(record);
}
Dataset<Row> recordsDF = spark.createDataFrame(records, Record.class);
recordsDF.createOrReplaceTempView("records");

// Queries can then join DataFrames data with data stored in Hive.
spark.sql("SELECT * FROM records r JOIN src s ON r.key = s.key").show();
// +---+------+---+------+
// |key| value|key| value|
// +---+------+---+------+
// |  2| val_2|  2| val_2|
// |  2| val_2|  2| val_2|
// |  4| val_4|  4| val_4|
// ...
  • python
from os.path import expanduser, join, abspath

from pyspark.sql import SparkSession
from pyspark.sql import Row

# warehouse_location points to the default location for managed databases and tables
warehouse_location = abspath('spark-warehouse')

spark = SparkSession \
    .builder \
    .appName("Python Spark SQL Hive integration example") \
    .config("spark.sql.warehouse.dir", warehouse_location) \
    .enableHiveSupport() \
    .getOrCreate()

# spark is an existing SparkSession
spark.sql("CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS src (key INT, value STRING) USING hive")
spark.sql("LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'examples/src/main/resources/kv1.txt' INTO TABLE src")

# Queries are expressed in HiveQL
spark.sql("SELECT * FROM src").show()
# +---+-------+
# |key|  value|
# +---+-------+
# |238|val_238|
# | 86| val_86|
# |311|val_311|
# ...

# Aggregation queries are also supported.
spark.sql("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM src").show()
# +--------+
# |count(1)|
# +--------+
# |    500 |
# +--------+

# The results of SQL queries are themselves DataFrames and support all normal functions.
sqlDF = spark.sql("SELECT key, value FROM src WHERE key < 10 ORDER BY key")

# The items in DataFrames are of type Row, which allows you to access each column by ordinal.
stringsDS = sqlDF.rdd.map(lambda row: "Key: %d, Value: %s" % (row.key, row.value))
for record in stringsDS.collect():
    print(record)
# Key: 0, Value: val_0
# Key: 0, Value: val_0
# Key: 0, Value: val_0
# ...

# You can also use DataFrames to create temporary views within a SparkSession.
Record = Row("key", "value")
recordsDF = spark.createDataFrame([Record(i, "val_" + str(i)) for i in range(1, 101)])
recordsDF.createOrReplaceTempView("records")

# Queries can then join DataFrame data with data stored in Hive.
spark.sql("SELECT * FROM records r JOIN src s ON r.key = s.key").show()
# +---+------+---+------+
# |key| value|key| value|
# +---+------+---+------+
# |  2| val_2|  2| val_2|
# |  4| val_4|  4| val_4|
# |  5| val_5|  5| val_5|
# ...

JDBC连接

  Spark SQL可以使用JDBC连接读写关系型数据库中的数据。这种方式比使用spark core中的JdbcRDD要好,因为生成的DataFrame可以很容易被处理。

  • scala
// Note: JDBC loading and saving can be achieved via either the load/save or jdbc methods
// Loading data from a JDBC source
val jdbcDF = spark.read
  .format("jdbc")
  .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver")
  .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename")
  .option("user", "username")
  .option("password", "password")
  .load()

val connectionProperties = new Properties()
connectionProperties.put("user", "username")
connectionProperties.put("password", "password")
val jdbcDF2 = spark.read
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties)

// Saving data to a JDBC source
jdbcDF.write
  .format("jdbc")
  .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver")
  .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename")
  .option("user", "username")
  .option("password", "password")
  .save()

jdbcDF2.write
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties)

// Specifying create table column data types on write
jdbcDF.write
  .option("createTableColumnTypes", "name CHAR(64), comments VARCHAR(1024)")
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties)
  • java
// Note: JDBC loading and saving can be achieved via either the load/save or jdbc methods
// Loading data from a JDBC source
Dataset<Row> jdbcDF = spark.read()
  .format("jdbc")
  .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver")
  .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename")
  .option("user", "username")
  .option("password", "password")
  .load();

Properties connectionProperties = new Properties();
connectionProperties.put("user", "username");
connectionProperties.put("password", "password");
Dataset<Row> jdbcDF2 = spark.read()
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties);

// Saving data to a JDBC source
jdbcDF.write()
  .format("jdbc")
  .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver")
  .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename")
  .option("user", "username")
  .option("password", "password")
  .save();

jdbcDF2.write()
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties);

// Specifying create table column data types on write
jdbcDF.write()
  .option("createTableColumnTypes", "name CHAR(64), comments VARCHAR(1024)")
  .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename", connectionProperties);
  • python
# Note: JDBC loading and saving can be achieved via either the load/save or jdbc methods
# Loading data from a JDBC source
jdbcDF = spark.read \
    .format("jdbc") \
    .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver") \
    .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename") \
    .option("user", "username") \
    .option("password", "password") \
    .load()

jdbcDF2 = spark.read \
    .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename",
          properties={"user": "username", "password": "password"})

# Saving data to a JDBC source
jdbcDF.write \
    .format("jdbc") \
    .option("url", "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver") \
    .option("dbtable", "schema.tablename") \
    .option("user", "username") \
    .option("password", "password") \
    .save()

jdbcDF2.write \
    .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename",
          properties={"user": "username", "password": "password"})

# Specifying create table column data types on write
jdbcDF.write \
    .option("createTableColumnTypes", "name CHAR(64), comments VARCHAR(1024)") \
    .jdbc("jdbc:postgresql:dbserver", "schema.tablename",
          properties={"user": "username", "password": "password"})
  • sql
CREATE TEMPORARY VIEW jdbcTable
USING org.apache.spark.sql.jdbc
OPTIONS (
  url "jdbc:postgresql:dbserver",
  dbtable "schema.tablename",
  user 'username',
  password 'password'
)

INSERT INTO TABLE jdbcTable
SELECT * FROM resultTable

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