①V-T To extract a substance means to obtain it from something else, for example, by using industrial or chemical processes. 提炼; 提取

...the traditional method of pick and shovel to extract coal.


Citric acid can be extracted from the juice of oranges, lemons, limes or grapefruit.


②V-T If you extract something from a place, you take it out or pull it out. 取出

He extracted a small notebook from his hip pocket.


③V-T When a dentist extracts a tooth, they remove it from the patient's mouth. 拔 (牙)

A dentist may decide to extract the tooth to prevent recurrent trouble.


④V-T If you say that someone extracts something, you disapprove of them because they take it for themselves to gain an advantage. 谋取表不满

He sought to extract the maximum political advantage from the cut in interest rates.


④V-T If you extract information or a response from someone, you get it from them with difficulty, because they are unwilling to say or do what you want. 探取 (消息、反映)

He made the mistake of trying to extract further information from our director.


⑤V-T If you extract a particular piece of information, you obtain it from a larger amount or source of information. 摘取 (信息)

I've simply extracted a few figures.


Britain's trade figures can no longer be extracted from export-and-import documentation at ports.


⑥V-T PASSIVE If part of a book or text is extracted from a particular book, it is printed or published. (从书中) 摘录

This material has been extracted from "Collins Good Wood Handbook."


⑦N-COUNT An extract from a book or piece of writing is a small part of it that is printed or published separately. 摘录; 选段

Read this extract from an information booklet about the work of an airline cabin crew.

阅读这个航空公司机务员工作信息手册的选段。⑧N-MASS Extract is a very concentrated liquid that is used for flavouring food or for its smell. 高浓缩汁液

Blend in the vanilla extract, lemon peel, and walnuts.



①N-VAR Fraud is the crime of gaining money or financial benefits by a trick or by lying. 诈骗罪

He was jailed for two years for fraud and deception.


②N-COUNT A fraud is something or someone that deceives people in a way that is illegal or dishonest. 骗人的东西; 骗子

He's a fraud and a cheat.



①V-T If someone or something hampers you, they make it difficult for you to do what you are trying to do. 妨碍

The bad weather hampered rescue operations.


②N-COUNT A hamper is a basket containing food of various kinds that is given to people as a present. 礼品大篮子

...a luxury food hamper.


③N-COUNT A hamper is a storage container for soiled laundry. 洗衣篮

He tossed his damp towel into the laundry hamper.



①V-T If you impart information to people, you tell it to them. 传授; 告知

The ability to impart knowledge and command respect is the essential qualification for teachers.


②V-T To impart a particular quality to something means to give it that quality. 给予 (特定品质)

She managed to impart great elegance to the unpretentious dress she was wearing.



N-VAR If something is an incentive to do something, it encourages you to do it. 鼓励

There is little or no incentive to adopt such measures.



①ADV You use incidentally to introduce a point that is not directly relevant to what you are saying, often a question or extra information that you have just thought of. 顺便说及地

"I didn't ask you to come. Incidentally, why have you come?"


②ADV If something occurs only incidentally, it is less important than another thing or is not a major part of it. 附带地

The letter mentioned my great aunt and uncle only incidentally.



①ADJ If you are indignant, you are shocked and angry, because you think that something is unjust or unfair. 愤怒不平的

He is indignant at suggestions that they were secret agents.


He was indignant that his rival was offered the job.


②ADV 愤怒地

"That is not true," Erica said indignantly.



ADJ Something that is ingenious is very clever and involves new ideas, methods, or equipment. 灵巧的; 新颖的

...a truly ingenious invention.



①ADJ Something that is instantaneous happens immediately and very quickly. 即刻的

Death was not instantaneous because none of the bullets hit the heart.


②ADV 即刻地

Airbags inflate instantaneously on impact to form a cushion between the driver and the steering column.



ADJ Something that is intelligible can be understood. 容易理解的

The language of Darwin was intelligible to experts and non-experts alike.