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Android蓝牙系列——客户端与服务端通信过程以及实现数据通信

96
justCode_
2017.07.01 11:04* 字数 2311

一.蓝牙数据传输

蓝牙数据传输其实跟我们的 Socket(套接字)有点类似,如果有不懂的,可以百度一下概念,我们只要知道是这么回事就可以了,在网络中使用Socket和ServerSocket控制客户端和服务端来数据读写。而蓝牙通讯也是由客户端和服务端来完成的,蓝牙客户端Socket是BluetoothSocket,蓝牙服务端Socket是BluetoothServerSocket,这两个类都在Android.bluetooth包下,而且无论是BluetoothSocket还是BluetoothServerSocket,我们都需要一个UUID(标识符),这个UUID在上篇也是有提到,而且他的格式也是固定的:

UUID:XXXXXXXX(8)-XXXX(4)-XXXX(4)-XXXX(4)-XXXXXXXXXXXX(12)

第一段是8位,中间三段式4位,最后一段是12位,UUID相当于Socket的端口,而蓝牙地址则相当于Socket的IP

1.activity_main.xml

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"

xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"

android:layout_width="match_parent"

android:layout_height="match_parent"

android:orientation="vertical" >

<Button

android:layout_width="match_parent"

android:layout_height="wrap_content"

android:onClick="btnSearch"

android:text="搜索蓝牙设备" />

<ListView

android:id="@+id/lvDevices"

android:layout_width="match_parent"

android:layout_height="0dp"

android:layout_weight="1" />

</LinearLayout>

2.实现步骤

1.声明

我们需要的东西

// 本地蓝牙适配器    

private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;    

// 列表   

 private ListView lvDevices;    

// 存储搜索到的蓝牙    

private ListbluetoothDevices = new ArrayList();   

 // listview的adapter   

 private ArrayAdapterarrayAdapter;

// UUID.randomUUID()随机获取UUID

private final UUID MY_UUID = UUID

.fromString("db764ac8-4b08-7f25-aafe-59d03c27bae3");

// 连接对象的名称

private final String NAME = "LGL";

// 这里本身即是服务端也是客户端,需要如下类

private BluetoothSocket clientSocket;

private BluetoothDevice device;

// 输出流_客户端需要往服务端输出

private OutputStream os;

2.初始化

// 获取本地蓝牙适配器                

mBluetoothAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();       

 // 判断手机是否支持蓝牙                

if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {            

Toast.makeText(this, "设备不支持蓝牙", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();            

finish();        

}        

// 判断是否打开蓝牙               

 if (!mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {           

 // 弹出对话框提示用户是后打开            

Intent intent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);           

 startActivityForResult(intent, 1);           

 // 不做提示,强行打开            

// mBluetoothAdapter.enable();       

 }       

 // 初始化listview       

 lvDevices = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.lvDevices);        

lvDevices.setOnItemClickListener(this);       

 // 获取已经配对的设备        

SetpairedDevices = mBluetoothAdapter.getBondedDevices();        

// 判断是否有配对过的设备       

 if (pairedDevices.size() > 0) {           

 for (BluetoothDevice device : pairedDevices) {               

 // 遍历到列表中               

 bluetoothDevices.add(device.getName() + ":"  + device.getAddress() + "\n");           

 }       

 }        

// adapter        

arrayAdapter = new ArrayAdapter(this,

android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, android.R.id.text1,

bluetoothDevices);

lvDevices.setAdapter(arrayAdapter);

/**

* 异步搜索蓝牙设备——广播接收

*/

// 找到设备的广播

IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);

// 注册广播

registerReceiver(receiver, filter);

// 搜索完成的广播

filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED);

// 注册广播

registerReceiver(receiver, filter);

}

3.点击搜索

public void btnSearch(View v) {

// 设置进度条

setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(true);

setTitle("正在搜索...");

// 判断是否在搜索,如果在搜索,就取消搜索

if (mBluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering()) {

mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();

}

// 开始搜索

mBluetoothAdapter.startDiscovery();

}

4.搜索设备

private final BroadcastReceiver receiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {

@Override

public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {

// 收到的广播类型

String action = intent.getAction();

// 发现设备的广播

if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND.equals(action)) {

// 从intent中获取设备

BluetoothDevice device = intent

.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);

// 判断是否配对过

if (device.getBondState() != BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDED) {

// 添加到列表

bluetoothDevices.add(device.getName() + ":"

+ device.getAddress() + "\n");

arrayAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();

}

// 搜索完成

} else if (BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED

.equals(action)) {

// 关闭进度条

setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(true);

setTitle("搜索完成!");

}

}

};

5.客户端实现已经发送数据流

// 客户端

@Override

public void onItemClick(AdapterView parent, View view, int position,

long id) {

// 先获得蓝牙的地址和设备名

String s = arrayAdapter.getItem(position);

// 单独解析地址

String address = s.substring(s.indexOf(":") + 1).trim();

// 主动连接蓝牙

try {

// 判断是否在搜索,如果在搜索,就取消搜索

if (mBluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering()) {

mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();

}

try {

// 判断是否可以获得

if (device == null) {

// 获得远程设备

device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);

}

// 开始连接

if (clientSocket == null) {

clientSocket = device

.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(MY_UUID);

// 连接

clientSocket.connect();

// 获得输出流

os = clientSocket.getOutputStream();

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

// 如果成功获得输出流

if (os != null) {

os.write("Hello Bluetooth!".getBytes("utf-8"));

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

}

6.Handler服务

// 服务端,需要监听客户端的线程类

private Handler handler = new Handler() {

public void handleMessage(android.os.Message msg) {

Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, String.valueOf(msg.obj),

Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();

super.handleMessage(msg);

}

};

7.服务端读取数据流

// 线程服务类

private class AcceptThread extends Thread {

private BluetoothServerSocket serverSocket;

private BluetoothSocket socket;

// 输入 输出流

private OutputStream os;

private InputStream is;

public AcceptThread() {

try {

serverSocket = mBluetoothAdapter

.listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(NAME, MY_UUID);

} catch (IOException e) {

// TODO Auto-generated catch block

e.printStackTrace();

}

}

@Override

public void run() {

// 截获客户端的蓝牙消息

try {

socket = serverSocket.accept(); // 如果阻塞了,就会一直停留在这里

is = socket.getInputStream();

os = socket.getOutputStream();

// 不断接收请求,如果客户端没有发送的话还是会阻塞

while (true) {

// 每次只发送128个字节

byte[] buffer = new byte[128];

// 读取

int count = is.read();

// 如果读取到了,我们就发送刚才的那个Toast

Message msg = new Message();

msg.obj = new String(buffer, 0, count, "utf-8");

handler.sendMessage(msg);

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

}

}

8.开启服务

首先要声明

//启动服务

ac =newAcceptThread();

ac.start();

MainActivity完整代码

package com.lgl.bluetoothget;

import java.io.IOException;

import java.io.InputStream;

import java.io.OutputStream;

import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;

import java.util.Set;

import java.util.UUID;

import android.app.Activity;

import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;

import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice

;import android.bluetooth.BluetoothServerSocket;

import android.bluetooth.BluetoothSocket;

import android.content.BroadcastReceiver;

import android.content.Context;

import android.content.Intent;

import android.content.IntentFilter;

import android.os.Bundle;

import android.os.Handler;

import android.os.Message;

import android.util.Log;

import android.view.View;

import android.view.View.OnClickListener;

import android.widget.AdapterView;

import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemClickListener;

import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;

import android.widget.Button;

import android.widget.ListView;

import android.widget.TextView;

import android.widget.Toast;

public class MainActivity extends Activity implements OnItemClickListener {    

// 本地蓝牙适配器    

private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;   

 // 列表   

 private ListView lvDevices;    

// 存储搜索到的蓝牙    

private ListbluetoothDevices = new ArrayList();   

 // listview的adapter   

 private ArrayAdapterarrayAdapter;   

 // UUID.randomUUID()随机获取UUID    

private final UUID MY_UUID = UUID.fromString("db764ac8-4b08-7f25-aafe-59d03c27bae3");   

 // 连接对象的名称    

private final String NAME = "LGL";   

 // 这里本身即是服务端也是客户端,需要如下类    

private BluetoothSocket clientSocket;    

private BluetoothDevice device;   

 // 输出流_客户端需要往服务端输出    

private OutputStream os;   

 //线程类的实例    

private AcceptThread ac;    

@Override  

  protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {        

super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);        

setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);        

initView();    

}    

private void initView() { 

       // 获取本地蓝牙适配器        

mBluetoothAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();        

// 判断手机是否支持蓝牙       

if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {            

Toast.makeText(this, "设备不支持蓝牙", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();            

finish();        

}        

// 判断是否打开蓝牙        

if (!mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {            

// 弹出对话框提示用户是后打开           

 Intent intent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);            

startActivityForResult(intent, 1);           

 // 不做提示,强行打开           

 // mBluetoothAdapter.enable();      

  }       

 // 初始化listview       

 lvDevices = (ListView) findViewById(R.id.lvDevices);       

 lvDevices.setOnItemClickListener(this);       

 // 获取已经配对的设备        

SetpairedDevices = mBluetoothAdapter.getBondedDevices();       

 // 判断是否有配对过的设备       

 if (pairedDevices.size() > 0) {           

 for (BluetoothDevice device : pairedDevices) {               

 // 遍历到列表中                

bluetoothDevices.add(device.getName() + ":" + device.getAddress() + "\n");           

 }       

 }        

// adapter       

arrayAdapter = new ArrayAdapter(this,

android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, android.R.id.text1,

bluetoothDevices);

lvDevices.setAdapter(arrayAdapter);

//启动服务

ac = new AcceptThread();

ac.start();

/**

* 异步搜索蓝牙设备——广播接收

*/

// 找到设备的广播

IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);

// 注册广播

registerReceiver(receiver, filter);

// 搜索完成的广播

filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED);

// 注册广播

registerReceiver(receiver, filter);

}

public void btnSearch(View v) {

// 设置进度条

setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(true);

setTitle("正在搜索...");

// 判断是否在搜索,如果在搜索,就取消搜索

if (mBluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering()) {

mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();

}

// 开始搜索

mBluetoothAdapter.startDiscovery();

}

// 广播接收器

private final BroadcastReceiver receiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {

@Override

public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {

// 收到的广播类型

String action = intent.getAction();

// 发现设备的广播

if (BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND.equals(action)) {

// 从intent中获取设备

BluetoothDevice device = intent

.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);

// 判断是否配对过

if (device.getBondState() != BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDED) {

// 添加到列表

bluetoothDevices.add(device.getName() + ":"

+ device.getAddress() + "\n");

arrayAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();

}

// 搜索完成

} else if (BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED

.equals(action)) {

// 关闭进度条

setProgressBarIndeterminateVisibility(true);

setTitle("搜索完成!");

}

}

};

// 客户端

@Override

public void onItemClick(AdapterView parent, View view, int position,

long id) {

// 先获得蓝牙的地址和设备名

String s = arrayAdapter.getItem(position);

// 单独解析地址

String address = s.substring(s.indexOf(":") + 1).trim();

// 主动连接蓝牙

try {

// 判断是否在搜索,如果在搜索,就取消搜索

if (mBluetoothAdapter.isDiscovering()) {

mBluetoothAdapter.cancelDiscovery();

}

try {

// 判断是否可以获得

if (device == null) {

// 获得远程设备

device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);

}

// 开始连接

if (clientSocket == null) {

clientSocket = device

.createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(MY_UUID);

// 连接

clientSocket.connect();

// 获得输出流

os = clientSocket.getOutputStream();

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

// 如果成功获得输出流

if (os != null) {

os.write("Hello Bluetooth!".getBytes("utf-8"));

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

}

// 服务端,需要监听客户端的线程类

private Handler handler = new Handler() {

public void handleMessage(android.os.Message msg) {

Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, String.valueOf(msg.obj),

Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();

super.handleMessage(msg);

}

};

// 线程服务类

private class AcceptThread extends Thread {

private BluetoothServerSocket serverSocket;

private BluetoothSocket socket;

// 输入 输出流

private OutputStream os;

private InputStream is;

public AcceptThread() {

try {

serverSocket = mBluetoothAdapter

.listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord(NAME, MY_UUID);

} catch (IOException e) {

// TODO Auto-generated catch block

e.printStackTrace();

}

}

@Override

public void run() {

// 截获客户端的蓝牙消息

try {

socket = serverSocket.accept(); // 如果阻塞了,就会一直停留在这里

is = socket.getInputStream();

os = socket.getOutputStream();

// 不断接收请求,如果客户端没有发送的话还是会阻塞

while (true) {

// 每次只发送128个字节

byte[] buffer = new byte[128];

// 读取

int count = is.read();

// 如果读取到了,我们就发送刚才的那个Toast

Message msg = new Message();

msg.obj = new String(buffer, 0, count, "utf-8");

handler.sendMessage(msg);

}

} catch (Exception e) {

// TODO: handle exception

}

}

}

}

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