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Golang:使用 httprouter 构建 API 服务器

96
Oopsguy
2017.10.24 18:16* 字数 1365

https://medium.com/@gauravsingharoy/build-your-first-api-server-with-httprouter-in-golang-732b7b01f6ab
作者:Gaurav Singha Roy
译者:oopsguy.com

我 10 个月前开始成为一名 Gopher,没有回头。像许多其他 gopher 一样,我很快发现简单的语言特性对于快速构建快速、可扩展的软件非常有用。当我刚开始学习 Go 时,我正在玩不同的多路复用器(multiplexer),它可以作为 API 服务器使用。如果您像我一样有 Rails 背景,你可能也会在构建 Web 框架提供的所有功能方面遇到困难。回到多路复用器,我发现了 3 个是非常有用的好东西,即 Gorilla muxhttprouterbone(按性能从低到高排列)。即使 bone 有最佳性能和更简单的 handler 签名,但对于我来说,它仍然不够成熟,无法用于生产环境。因此,我最终使用了 httprouter。在本教程中,我将使用 httprouter 构建一个简单的 REST API 服务器。

如果你想偷懒,只想获取源码,你可以在这里[4]直接检出我的 github 仓库。

让我们开始吧。首先创建一个基本端点:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
)

func Index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
    fmt.Fprint(w, "Welcome!\n")
}

func main() {
    router := httprouter.New()
    router.GET("/", Index)

    log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8080", router))
}

在上面的代码段中,Index 是一个 handler 函数,需要传入三个参数。 之后,该 handler 将在 main 函数中被注册到 GET / 路径。 现在编译并运行您的程序,转到 http:// localhost:8080,来查看您的 API 服务器。点击这里[1]获取当前代码。

现在我们可以让 API 变得复杂一点。我们现在有一个名为 Book 的实体,可以把 ISDN 字段作为唯一标识。让我们创建更多的动作,即分表代表着 Index 和 Show 动作的 GET /books 和 GET /books/:isdn。 我们的 main.go 文件此时如下:

package main

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "fmt"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
)

func Index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
    fmt.Fprint(w, "Welcome!\n")
}

type Book struct {
    // The main identifier for the Book. This will be unique.
    ISDN   string `json:"isdn"`
    Title  string `json:"title"`
    Author string `json:"author"`
    Pages  int    `json:"pages"`
}

type JsonResponse struct {
    // Reserved field to add some meta information to the API response
    Meta interface{} `json:"meta"`
    Data interface{} `json:"data"`
}

type JsonErrorResponse struct {
    Error *ApiError `json:"error"`
}

type ApiError struct {
    Status int16  `json:"status"`
    Title  string `json:"title"`
}

// A map to store the books with the ISDN as the key
// This acts as the storage in lieu of an actual database
var bookstore = make(map[string]*Book)

// Handler for the books index action
// GET /books
func BookIndex(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
    books := []*Book{}
    for _, book := range bookstore {
        books = append(books, book)
    }
    response := &JsonResponse{Data: &books}
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
    w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
    if err := json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(response); err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

// Handler for the books Show action
// GET /books/:isdn
func BookShow(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, params httprouter.Params) {
    isdn := params.ByName("isdn")
    book, ok := bookstore[isdn]
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
    if !ok {
        // No book with the isdn in the url has been found
        w.WriteHeader(http.StatusNotFound)
        response := JsonErrorResponse{Error: &ApiError{Status: 404, Title: "Record Not Found"}}
        if err := json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(response); err != nil {
            panic(err)
        }
    }
    response := JsonResponse{Data: book}
    if err := json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(response); err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

func main() {
    router := httprouter.New()
    router.GET("/", Index)
    router.GET("/books", BookIndex)
    router.GET("/books/:isdn", BookShow)

    // Create a couple of sample Book entries
    bookstore["123"] = &Book{
        ISDN:   "123",
        Title:  "Silence of the Lambs",
        Author: "Thomas Harris",
        Pages:  367,
    }

    bookstore["124"] = &Book{
        ISDN:   "124",
        Title:  "To Kill a Mocking Bird",
        Author: "Harper Lee",
        Pages:  320,
    }

    log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8080", router))
}

如果您现在尝试请求 GET https:// localhost:8080/books,您将得到以下响应:

{
    "meta": null,
    "data": [
        {
            "isdn": "123",
            "title": "Silence of the Lambs",
            "author": "Thomas Harris",
            "pages": 367
        },
        {
            "isdn": "124",
            "title": "To Kill a Mocking Bird",
            "author": "Harper Lee",
            "pages": 320
        }
    ]
}

我们在 main 函数中硬编码了这两个 book 实体。点击这里[2]获取当前阶段的代码。

让我们来重构一下代码。 到目前为止,我们所有的代码都放置在同一个文件中:main.go。我们可以把它们移到各个单独的文件中。此时我们有一个目录:

.
├── handlers.go
├── main.go
├── models.go
└── responses.go

我们把所有与 JSON 响应相关的结构体移动到 responses.go,将 handler 函数移动到 Handlers.go,且将 Book 结构体移动到 models.go。点击这里[3]查看当前阶段的代码。 现在,我们跳过来写一些测试。在 Go 中,*_test.go 文件是用于测试的。因此让我们创建一个 handlers_test.go

package main

import (
    "net/http"
    "net/http/httptest"
    "testing"

    "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
)

func TestBookIndex(t *testing.T) {
    // Create an entry of the book to the bookstore map
    testBook := &Book{
        ISDN:   "111",
        Title:  "test title",
        Author: "test author",
        Pages:  42,
    }
    bookstore["111"] = testBook
    // A request with an existing isdn
    req1, err := http.NewRequest("GET", "/books", nil)
    if err != nil {
        t.Fatal(err)
    }
    rr1 := newRequestRecorder(req1, "GET", "/books", BookIndex)
    if rr1.Code != 200 {
        t.Error("Expected response code to be 200")
    }
    // expected response
    er1 := "{\"meta\":null,\"data\":[{\"isdn\":\"111\",\"title\":\"test title\",\"author\":\"test author\",\"pages\":42}]}\n"
    if rr1.Body.String() != er1 {
        t.Error("Response body does not match")
    }
}

// Mocks a handler and returns a httptest.ResponseRecorder
func newRequestRecorder(req *http.Request, method string, strPath string, fnHandler func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, param httprouter.Params)) *httptest.ResponseRecorder {
    router := httprouter.New()
    router.Handle(method, strPath, fnHandler)
    // We create a ResponseRecorder (which satisfies http.ResponseWriter) to record the response.
    rr := httptest.NewRecorder()
    // Our handlers satisfy http.Handler, so we can call their ServeHTTP method
    // directly and pass in our Request and ResponseRecorder.
    router.ServeHTTP(rr, req)
    return rr
}

我们使用 httptest 包的 Recorder 来 mock handler。同样,您也可以为 handler BookShow 编写测试。
让我们稍微做些重构。我们仍然把所有路由都定义在了 main 函数中,handler 看起来有点臃肿,我们可以做点 DRY,我们仍然在终端中输出一些日志消息,并且可以添加一个 BookCreate handler 来创建一个新的 Book。
首先,让我们解决 handlers.go

package main

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "fmt"
    "io"
    "io/ioutil"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
)

func Index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
    fmt.Fprint(w, "Welcome!\n")
}

// Handler for the books Create action
// POST /books
func BookCreate(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, params httprouter.Params) {
    book := &Book{}
    if err := populateModelFromHandler(w, r, params, book); err != nil {
        writeErrorResponse(w, http.StatusUnprocessableEntity, "Unprocessible Entity")
        return
    }
    bookstore[book.ISDN] = book
    writeOKResponse(w, book)
}

// Handler for the books index action
// GET /books
func BookIndex(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
    books := []*Book{}
    for _, book := range bookstore {
        books = append(books, book)
    }
    writeOKResponse(w, books)
}

// Handler for the books Show action
// GET /books/:isdn
func BookShow(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, params httprouter.Params) {
    isdn := params.ByName("isdn")
    book, ok := bookstore[isdn]
    if !ok {
        // No book with the isdn in the url has been found
        writeErrorResponse(w, http.StatusNotFound, "Record Not Found")
        return
    }
    writeOKResponse(w, book)
}

// Writes the response as a standard JSON response with StatusOK
func writeOKResponse(w http.ResponseWriter, m interface{}) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
    w.WriteHeader(http.StatusOK)
    if err := json.NewEncoder(w).Encode(&JsonResponse{Data: m}); err != nil {
        writeErrorResponse(w, http.StatusInternalServerError, "Internal Server Error")
    }
}

// Writes the error response as a Standard API JSON response with a response code
func writeErrorResponse(w http.ResponseWriter, errorCode int, errorMsg string) {
    w.Header().Set("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=UTF-8")
    w.WriteHeader(errorCode)
    json.
        NewEncoder(w).
        Encode(&JsonErrorResponse{Error: &ApiError{Status: errorCode, Title: errorMsg}})
}

//Populates a model from the params in the Handler
func populateModelFromHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, params httprouter.Params, model interface{}) error {
    body, err := ioutil.ReadAll(io.LimitReader(r.Body, 1048576))
    if err != nil {
        return err
    }
    if err := r.Body.Close(); err != nil {
        return err
    }
    if err := json.Unmarshal(body, model); err != nil {
        return err
    }
    return nil
}

我创建了两个函数,writeOKResponse 用于将 StatusOK 写入响应,其返回一个 model 或一个 model slice,writeErrorResponse 将在发生预期或意外错误时将 JSON 错误作为响应。像任何一个优秀的 gopher 一样,我们不应该 panic。我还添加了一个名为 populateModelFromHandler 的函数,它将内容从 body 中解析成所需的任何 model(struct)。在这种情况下,我们在 BookCreate handler 中使用它来填充一个 Book
现在,我们来看看日志。我们简单地创建一个 Logger 函数,它包装了 handler 函数,并在执行 handler 函数之前和之后打印日志消息。

package main

import (
    "log"
    "net/http"
    "time"

    "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
)

// A Logger function which simply wraps the handler function around some log messages
func Logger(fn func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, param httprouter.Params)) func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, param httprouter.Params) {
    return func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, param httprouter.Params) {
        start := time.Now()
        log.Printf("%s %s", r.Method, r.URL.Path)
        fn(w, r, param)
        log.Printf("Done in %v (%s %s)", time.Since(start), r.Method, r.URL.Path)
    }
}

我们来看看路由。首先,在一个地方集中定义所有路由,比如 routes.go

package main

import "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"

/*
Define all the routes here.
A new Route entry passed to the routes slice will be automatically
translated to a handler with the NewRouter() function
*/
type Route struct {
    Name        string
    Method      string
    Path        string
    HandlerFunc httprouter.Handle
}

type Routes []Route

func AllRoutes() Routes {
    routes := Routes{
        Route{"Index", "GET", "/", Index},
        Route{"BookIndex", "GET", "/books", BookIndex},
        Route{"Bookshow", "GET", "/books/:isdn", BookShow},
        Route{"Bookshow", "POST", "/books", BookCreate},
    }
    return routes
}

让我们创建一个 NewRouter 函数,它可以在 main 函数中调用,它读取上面定义的所有路由,并返回一个可用的 httprouter.Router。因此创建一个文件 router.go。我们还将使用新创建的 Logger 函数来包装 handler。

package main

import "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"

//Reads from the routes slice to translate the values to httprouter.Handle
func NewRouter(routes Routes) *httprouter.Router {

    router := httprouter.New()
    for _, route := range routes {
        var handle httprouter.Handle

        handle = route.HandlerFunc
        handle = Logger(handle)

        router.Handle(route.Method, route.Path, handle)
    }

    return router
}

您的目录此时应该像这样:

.
├── handlers.go
├── handlers_test.go
├── logger.go
├── main.go
├── models.go
├── responses.go
├── router.go
└── routes.go

这里[4]查看完整代码。

这应该可以让你开始编写你自己的 API 服务器了。 你当然需要把你的功能放在不同的包中,所以一个好办法就是:

.
├── LICENSE
├── README.md
├── handlers
│   ├── books_test.go
│   └── books.go
├── models
│   ├── book.go
│   └── *
├── store
│   ├── *
└── lib
|   ├── *
├── main.go
├── router.go
├── rotes.go

如果您有一个大的单体服务器,您还可以将 handlersmodels 和所有路由功能都放在另一个名为 app 的包中。只要记住,go 不像 Java 或 Scala 那样可以有循环的包调用。因此你必须格外小心您的包结构。

这就是全部内容,希望本教程能对您有用。干杯!

译文
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